Mikhail Shultz

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Mikhail Mikhailovich Shultz
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Mikhail Shultz
Born(1919-07-01)1 July 1919
Died9 October 2006(2006-10-09) (aged 87)
CitizenshipRSFSR, USSR, Russia
Alma mater Leningrad State University
Known forTheory of glasses,
theory of the glass electrode
Scientific career
Fields physical chemistry
Institutions Leningrad State University,
Institute of Silicate Chemistry
Doctoral advisor Boris Nikolsky, Alexey Storonkin
Doctoral studentsN. Smirnova, [1] V. Stolyarova [2]
Other notable studentsA. Baliustin, O. Stefanova,
A. Pisarevskii, V. Bobrov,
V. Dolidze, A. Parfenov
S. Simanova, V. Konakov

Mikhail Mikhaylovich Shultz (Russian : Михаи́л Миха́йлович Шульц, also spelled Schultz, Shul'ts, Shults, Shul’c etc.) (1 July 1919 – 9 October 2006), was a Soviet/Russian physical chemist, artist. Proceedings of the thermodynamic theory, the thermodynamics of heterogeneous systems, the theory of glasses, chemistry and electrochemistry of glass, membrane electrochemistry, the theory of ion exchange and phase equilibria of multicomponent systems, the theory of glass electrode. The name of the scientist linked the formation of pH-meters and ionometry, production organisation, instrumentation and materials commonly used in medicine, chemical and nuclear industry, aviation rocket and space technology, agriculture and many other areas.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada.

Contents

Biography

Mikhail Shultz was a son of Mikhail Alexandrovich Shultz (1896–1954; the Naval officer, belonging to the latest issue of the Imperial Naval Cadet Corps — 1916) and a great-grandson of the Russian physicist Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov (1842—1902).

Dmitry Lachinov Russian scientist

Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov was a Russian physicist, electrical engineer, inventor, meteorologist and climatologist.

M. Shultz was a descendant of the German sculptor, the Danish royal medallist Anton Schultz (Anton Schultz — Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony, Hamburg, Denmark, XVII–XVIII cc.) who carried out orders the Russian Court as early as Copenhagen, and arrived at the service in Russia with Peter the Great. [3] [4] [5] [6]

Schleswig-Holstein State in Germany

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.

Lower Saxony State in Germany

Lower Saxony is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2 (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining.

Hamburg City in Germany

Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million.

He was born on 1 July 1919 in Petrograd, in 1937—graduated with honours from high school (Staraya Russa; where he deported with his mother Helen (née Barsukova) in 1929, his father M. A. Shultz was arrested in 1925 as a suspect in the «counter-revolutionary monarchist conspiracy»; he spent 10 years in Solovki prison camp, and 3 years on the construction of the Moscow Canal. released in 1937, rehabilitated in 1991).

Staraya Russa Town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Staraya Russa is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Polist River, 99 kilometers (62 mi) south of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Its population has steadily decreased over the past years, going from 41,538 recorded in the 1989 Census to 35,511 in the 2002 Census to 31,809 in the 2010 Census.

Counter-revolutionary someone who opposes a revolution

A counter-revolutionary or anti-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. The adjective, "counter-revolutionary," pertains to movements that would restore the state of affairs, or the principles, that prevailed during a prerevolutionary era.

Solovki prison camp

The Solovki special camp, was set up in 1923 on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea as a remote and inaccessible place of detention, primarily intended for socialist opponents of Soviet Russia's new Bolshevik regime. At first, the Anarchists, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries enjoyed a special status there and were not made to work. Gradually, prisoners from the old regime joined them and the guards and the ordinary criminals worked together to keep the "politicals" in order.

1937–1941—a student of the chemical faculty of the Leningrad State University (M. Schulz, was a talented artist—when he arrived in Leningrad in 1937, he was faced a choice: to enter the Academy of Fine Arts, or go to university, ... and although he considered himself an dilettante, his works show the realisation of talent for this part), in 1938—joined the All-Union Chemical Society named by D. I. Mendeleev, in 1941–1945—a volunteer on The Great Patriotic War, first lieutenant, chief of the chemical service of battalion. [7] [8]

First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.

Scientific career

A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. The most common application of ion-selective glass electrodes is for the measurement of pH. The pH electrode is an example of a glass electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions. Glass electrodes play an important part in the instrumentation for chemical analysis and physico-chemical studies. The voltage of the glass electrode, relative to some reference value, is sensitive to changes in the activity of certain type of ions.

Russian Academy of Sciences academy of sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

Scientific accomplishments

Mikhail Shultz is the author of fundamental works on physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and electrochemistry of glass, membrane electrochemistry, the theory of ion-exchange and phase balances of multi-component systems, for a total of more than 500 scientific papers, including several monographs, and approximately 20 inventions [11]

His name had to do with the beginning of developing pH-metry and ionometry, the creation and organisation of measuring equipment production, widely used in medicine, chemical and nuclear industry, aerospace technology, agriculture and many other fields.

In 1951 M. Shultz strictly thermodynamically proved the sodium function of different glasses in various areas of pH, which anticipated many directions of further studies, and his work «Studies of sodium functions of glass electrodes» is regarded to be ones of the most considerable in relation to all those written on the glass electrode (it was very important step for realisation ion-exchange theory of the glass electrode, and it has become an important part in the thermodynamic ion-exchange theory of GE Nikolsky-Shultz-Eisenman). [8] [9] [12] [13] [14]

His achievements in solving the fundamental problems of chemical thermodynamics are noteworthy. Special mention should be made of the generalisation of the stability conditions for the Gibbs equilibrium to heterogeneous (multicomponent, multiphase) systems (1954). M. Shultz developed a method for calculating changes in the thermodynamic properties of a heterogeneous system from data on the composition of the coexisting phases and on the change in the chemical potential of only one component («method of the third component», so called else «Shultz-Storonkin’s method»). In the frame of the thermodynamic theory existing is the «Filippov-Shultz rule». [8]

The first results of the study an Mössbauer effect in iron-containing glasses are mentioned in the thesis of Mikhail Shultz. [10] Data from M. Schulz and staff of his laboratory are exceptional interest for interpretation of Mössbauer's spectra, where the range assessment all of possible states of iron atoms is extremely wide and difficult. M. Shultz demonstrated the possibility to get a glass electrode with redox function (1964), which allowed to create a fundamentally new measuring technique, without the use of measuring precious metals, and that gave a huge economic impact. The industrial production of pH-meters was originated and connected with his name. [8] [15] [16] [17] [18]

In the 1950—1960 on the basis of representative series of glasses M. Shultz with collaborators estimated the impact of the third component on electrode properties of alkaline-silicate glasses (practically any element of the periodical system of D. I. Mendeleev, capable to be present at glass, was involved as that component). [10]

According to the concept of glass developed by M. Shultz, in analogy with pH for aqueous solutions he proposed an innovative idea to establish for glasses and melts—the degree of acidity pO (negative logarithm of the activity of oxygen ions O2−) and standards for methods of measurement: pO is inversely proportional to the degree of basicity and concentration of the oxide. [8]

Under the guidance of M. Shultz developed are heat resistant inorganic coatings for the protection of structural materials of space technique (including military rockets, and for the spacecraft Buran) and lamellar coatings on semiconductor silicon for industrial electronics, organo-silicate corrosion-resistant, anti-icing, dielectric, thermal insulation, radiation proof covers for construction, electrical engineering and shipbuilding. Large enough the contribution of the scientist is in the sphere of developing new construction materials. [8]

M. Shultz is a founder one of Russian scientific schools. Under his leadership 45 people maintained candidate theses, 8 people of his school became Doctors of Sciences, members of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [8]

In July 1989 M. Shultz was the president of the 15th International Congress on Glass held in Leningrad. It is his merit that in 1979 Russia was admitted to the most authoritative organisation of that profile—International Commission on Glass, founded in 1933. He was a President of the Russian Ceramic Society (1995—2002).

Awards and academic recognition

Member of numerous scientific state and international commissions and committees, scientific societies.

Member of editor’s boards of several Russian and foreign scientific journals.

See also

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References

  1. "Smirnova Nataliya Aleksandrovna—Corresponding member RAS". Ras.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  2. "Stolyarova Valentina Leonidovna—Corresponding member RAS". Ras.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  3. Anton Schultz—Georg Galster: Danske og norske Medailler og Jetons ca. 1533-ca. 1788, København 1936 side 200-203 Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. vladimir@eposgroup.ru, bel.art@eposgroup.ru. "Anton Schultz—Coins and medals Departments of the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts". Coins-and-medals.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  5. "American Numismatic Society Collection Database". Numismatics.org. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  6. "Anton Schultz. Medallion (Die) with a Portrait of Peter I—State Hermitage Museum". Hermitagemuseum.org. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  7. Шульц А. М. История одного рода. // Немцы в России. Люди и судьбы. Сборник статей. — СПб.: «Дмитрий Буланин», 1998. — С. 273 ISBN   5-86007-119-1
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Михаил Михайлович Шульц. Материалы к библиографии учёных СССР. АН СССР. Серия химических наук, вып. 83. — М.: «Наука», 1989. — ISBN   5-02-001953-4Academic bibliography
  9. 1 2 Шульц М. М. Исследование натриевой функции стеклянных электродов. Учёные записки ЛГУ № 169. Серия химических наук № 13. 1953. стр. 80-156 — Publication of dissertation (1951)
  10. 1 2 3 Шульц М. М. Электродные свойства стёкол. Автореферат диссертации на соискание учёной степени доктора химических наук. Изд. ЛГУ. Ленинград. 1964 — Abstract of doctoral dissertation.
  11. From 1959 to 1985—more 20 invention, — for them is 21 Soviet certificates, and 14 patents of: United States (3 patents—FreePatentsOnline.com), Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain, Denmark, Japan, etc.
  12. Advances in Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation. V. 4. Edited by Charles N. Reilley. Interscience Publishers a division of John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York—London — Sydney. 1965. P. 220
  13. A. A. Belyustin. Silver ion Response as a Test for the Multilayer Model of Glass Electrodes. — Electroanalysis. Volume 11, Issue 10-11, P. 799—803. 1999
  14. Glass Electrodes for Hydrogen and other Cations. Principles and practice. Edited by George Eisenman. — NY.: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1967
  15. Шульц М. М., Белюстин А. А. Писаревский А. М., Никольский Б. П. Стеклянный электрод, чувствительный к изменению окислительного потенциала. // ДАН СССР. 1964. Т. 154. № 2. С. 404—406 — The glass electrode is sensitive to changes in oxidative capacity
  16. "M. M. Shults and oth. Electron-conductive glass. United States Patent 3773642, 20 Nov. 1973—An electron-conductive glass... is used for making the sensitive element of a glass electrode intended for oxidation potential measurements in liquid media". Freepatentsonline.com. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  17. M. M. Shultz. Glass electrodes—a new generation // Sens. Actuators. B. 1992. Vol. 10. P.. 61—66—In coll. with oth.
  18. F. G. K. Baucke. The modern understanding of the glass electrode response. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 1994. 349: 582—596
  19. "Премии им. И. В. Гребенщикова РАН". Ras.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  20. Премия имени Д.И. Менделеева в области химических наук — Санкт-Петербургский научный центр РАН (СПбНЦ РАН) (in Russian). Spbrc.nw.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  21. Archives of the History Museum of St. Petersburg State University. Card file prizes (1955)
  22. "Chronicle of the University. 1940—1945: September, 1957 (Archives of the History Museum of St. Petersburg State University. Card file prizes)". Spbu.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-10.

Bibliography

International Organising Committee: Chairman Acad. Yu. A. Buslaev — Academician–Secretary of the Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Inorganic Materials of the RAS (Moscow); Prof. P. J. Bray — Broun University, Providence, RI (USA); Prof. J. Matousek — President of the Czech Glass Society (Czech Republic); Prof. O. V. Mazurin — Institute of Silicate Chemistry (St. Petersburg); Prof. E. A. Poray–Koshits — Institute of Silicate Chemistry (St. Petersburg); Prof. L. D. Pye — President of the International Commission on Glass (USA); Prof. H. A. Schaeffer — Managing Director of the German Society of Glass Technology, and the Research Association of the German Glass Industry (Germany); Prof. A. C. Wright — University of Reading, Reading (UK) and other.

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