Mikhail Mikhailovich Shultz
|Died||9 October 2006 87) (aged|
|Citizenship||RSFSR, USSR, Russia|
|Alma mater||Leningrad State University|
|Known for||Theory of glasses, |
theory of the glass electrode
|Institutions|| Leningrad State University, |
Institute of Silicate Chemistry
|Doctoral advisor||Boris Nikolsky, Alexey Storonkin|
|Doctoral students||N. Smirnova, V. Stolyarova|
|Other notable students||A. Baliustin, O. Stefanova, |
A. Pisarevskii, V. Bobrov,
V. Dolidze, A. Parfenov
S. Simanova, V. Konakov
Mikhail Mikhaylovich Shultz (Russian : Михаи́л Миха́йлович Шульц, also spelled Schultz, Shul'ts, Shults, Shul’c etc.) (1 July 1919 – 9 October 2006), was a Soviet/Russian physical chemist, artist. Proceedings of the thermodynamic theory, the thermodynamics of heterogeneous systems, the theory of glasses, chemistry and electrochemistry of glass, membrane electrochemistry, the theory of ion exchange and phase equilibria of multicomponent systems, the theory of glass electrode. The name of the scientist linked the formation of pH-meters and ionometry, production organisation, instrumentation and materials commonly used in medicine, chemical and nuclear industry, aviation rocket and space technology, agriculture and many other areas.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.
Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to European Russia in Eastern Europe. Outside Russia, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada.
Mikhail Shultz was a son of Mikhail Alexandrovich Shultz (1896–1954; the Naval officer, belonging to the latest issue of the Imperial Naval Cadet Corps — 1916) and a great-grandson of the Russian physicist Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov (1842—1902).
Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov was a Russian physicist, electrical engineer, inventor, meteorologist and climatologist.
M. Shultz was a descendant of the German sculptor, the Danish royal medallist Anton Schultz (Anton Schultz — Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony, Hamburg, Denmark, XVII–XVIII cc.) who carried out orders the Russian Court as early as Copenhagen, and arrived at the service in Russia with Peter the Great.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.
Lower Saxony is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2 (18,388 sq mi), and fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining.
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million.
He was born on 1 July 1919 in Petrograd, in 1937—graduated with honours from high school (Staraya Russa; where he deported with his mother Helen (née Barsukova) in 1929, his father M. A. Shultz was arrested in 1925 as a suspect in the «counter-revolutionary monarchist conspiracy»; he spent 10 years in Solovki prison camp, and 3 years on the construction of the Moscow Canal. released in 1937, rehabilitated in 1991).
Staraya Russa is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Polist River, 99 kilometers (62 mi) south of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Its population has steadily decreased over the past years, going from 41,538 recorded in the 1989 Census to 35,511 in the 2002 Census to 31,809 in the 2010 Census.
A counter-revolutionary or anti-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. The adjective, "counter-revolutionary," pertains to movements that would restore the state of affairs, or the principles, that prevailed during a prerevolutionary era.
The Solovki special camp, was set up in 1923 on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea as a remote and inaccessible place of detention, primarily intended for socialist opponents of Soviet Russia's new Bolshevik regime. At first, the Anarchists, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries enjoyed a special status there and were not made to work. Gradually, prisoners from the old regime joined them and the guards and the ordinary criminals worked together to keep the "politicals" in order.
1937–1941—a student of the chemical faculty of the Leningrad State University (M. Schulz, was a talented artist—when he arrived in Leningrad in 1937, he was faced a choice: to enter the Academy of Fine Arts, or go to university, ... and although he considered himself an dilettante, his works show the realisation of talent for this part), in 1938—joined the All-Union Chemical Society named by D. I. Mendeleev, in 1941–1945—a volunteer on The Great Patriotic War, first lieutenant, chief of the chemical service of battalion.
First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces and, in some forces, an appointment.
A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. The most common application of ion-selective glass electrodes is for the measurement of pH. The pH electrode is an example of a glass electrode that is sensitive to hydrogen ions. Glass electrodes play an important part in the instrumentation for chemical analysis and physico-chemical studies. The voltage of the glass electrode, relative to some reference value, is sensitive to changes in the activity of certain type of ions.
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
Mikhail Shultz is the author of fundamental works on physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and electrochemistry of glass, membrane electrochemistry, the theory of ion-exchange and phase balances of multi-component systems, for a total of more than 500 scientific papers, including several monographs, and approximately 20 inventions
His name had to do with the beginning of developing pH-metry and ionometry, the creation and organisation of measuring equipment production, widely used in medicine, chemical and nuclear industry, aerospace technology, agriculture and many other fields.
In 1951 M. Shultz strictly thermodynamically proved the sodium function of different glasses in various areas of pH, which anticipated many directions of further studies, and his work «Studies of sodium functions of glass electrodes» is regarded to be ones of the most considerable in relation to all those written on the glass electrode (it was very important step for realisation ion-exchange theory of the glass electrode, and it has become an important part in the thermodynamic ion-exchange theory of GE Nikolsky-Shultz-Eisenman).
His achievements in solving the fundamental problems of chemical thermodynamics are noteworthy. Special mention should be made of the generalisation of the stability conditions for the Gibbs equilibrium to heterogeneous (multicomponent, multiphase) systems (1954). M. Shultz developed a method for calculating changes in the thermodynamic properties of a heterogeneous system from data on the composition of the coexisting phases and on the change in the chemical potential of only one component («method of the third component», so called else «Shultz-Storonkin’s method»). In the frame of the thermodynamic theory existing is the «Filippov-Shultz rule».
The first results of the study an Mössbauer effect in iron-containing glasses are mentioned in the thesis of Mikhail Shultz.Data from M. Schulz and staff of his laboratory are exceptional interest for interpretation of Mössbauer's spectra, where the range assessment all of possible states of iron atoms is extremely wide and difficult. M. Shultz demonstrated the possibility to get a glass electrode with redox function (1964), which allowed to create a fundamentally new measuring technique, without the use of measuring precious metals, and that gave a huge economic impact. The industrial production of pH-meters was originated and connected with his name.
In the 1950—1960 on the basis of representative series of glasses M. Shultz with collaborators estimated the impact of the third component on electrode properties of alkaline-silicate glasses (practically any element of the periodical system of D. I. Mendeleev, capable to be present at glass, was involved as that component).
According to the concept of glass developed by M. Shultz, in analogy with pH for aqueous solutions he proposed an innovative idea to establish for glasses and melts—the degree of acidity pO (negative logarithm of the activity of oxygen ions O2−) and standards for methods of measurement: pO is inversely proportional to the degree of basicity and concentration of the oxide.
Under the guidance of M. Shultz developed are heat resistant inorganic coatings for the protection of structural materials of space technique (including military rockets, and for the spacecraft Buran) and lamellar coatings on semiconductor silicon for industrial electronics, organo-silicate corrosion-resistant, anti-icing, dielectric, thermal insulation, radiation proof covers for construction, electrical engineering and shipbuilding. Large enough the contribution of the scientist is in the sphere of developing new construction materials.
M. Shultz is a founder one of Russian scientific schools. Under his leadership 45 people maintained candidate theses, 8 people of his school became Doctors of Sciences, members of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
In July 1989 M. Shultz was the president of the 15th International Congress on Glass held in Leningrad. It is his merit that in 1979 Russia was admitted to the most authoritative organisation of that profile—International Commission on Glass, founded in 1933. He was a President of the Russian Ceramic Society (1995—2002).
Member of numerous scientific state and international commissions and committees, scientific societies.
Member of editor’s boards of several Russian and foreign scientific journals.
Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language.
Revaz Dogonadze was a notable Georgian scientist, Corresponding Member of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences (GNAS) (1982), Doctor of Physical & Mathematical Sciences (1966), Professor (1972), one of the founders of Quantum electrochemistry,
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Boris Petrovich Nikolsky was a Russian (Soviet) physical chemist and radiochemist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and professor of Saint Petersburg State University. Boris Nikolsky was a 1925 graduate of Leningrad State University. In the 1930s he studied the ion exchange processes between aqueous solutions and solids. During that time Nikolsky developed the theory of ion exchange in glass electrodes. He derived equations that describe properties of glass electrodes as well as other types of ion-selective electrodes depending on chemical structure and multi-component composition of glass, concurrent interference of ions and so on. Boris Nikolsky also actively participated in the Soviet nuclear program. In 1952-1974 he was the senior scientist and the chairman of scientific committee at the Soviet nuclear fuel reprocessing plant Mayak, where he worked on the technology of processing and refining of plutonium. In 1961-1963 he was the chairman of the chemistry department at Leningrad State University.
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Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology was founded in 1828. It is one of the oldest institutions of higher education in Russia, and it currently trains around 5,000 students.
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages. His last name is occasionally spelled Diakonov. His brothers were also distinguished historians.
In the history of thermodynamics, On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances is a 300-page paper written by American engineer Willard Gibbs. It is one of the founding papers in thermodynamics, along with German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz's 1882 paper "Thermodynamik chemischer Vorgänge." Together they form the foundation of chemical thermodynamics as well as a large part of physical chemistry.
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