Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver
| Grand Prince of Vladimir |
Prince of Tver
Mikhail Yaroslavich before the Mongol khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin
|Died||22 November 1318 (aged 46–47)|
|Noble family||Rurik Dynasty|
|Spouse(s)||Anna of Kashin|
|Mother||Xenia of Tarusa|
Mikhail Yaroslavich (Russian : Михаил Ярославич) (1271 – 22 November 1318), also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from 1285) who ruled as Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1304 until 1314 and again from 1315–1318. He was canonized and counted among the saints of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Mikhail Yaroslavich was the second son of Yaroslav III (Yaroslav Yaroslavich), the younger brother of Aleksandr Nevsky; he succeeded his elder brother Yaroslav as Prince of Tver in 1285. His mother Xenia was the second spouse to Yaroslav III and is known as the saint Xenia of Tarusa. Upon the death of Andrei Aleksandrovich (Aleksandr Nevsky's son and Yaroslav's nephew), Mikhail became the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1304, as was consistent with the rota system of collateral succession that had been practised in Rus since the time of Yaroslav the Wise. He was confirmed in office by Tokhta, Khan of the Golden Horde.
While he seemed secure in the throne, being the legitimate heir and having been confirmed by the Khan in Sarai, Grand Prince Mikhail suffered a series of setbacks as grand prince which led to him losing the grand princely office for both himself and, in some ways, ultimately for his descendants. He was, like most Grand Princes of Vladimir, accepted as Prince of Novgorod the Great in 1309,but fought with Novgorod, going so far as to withdraw his lieutenants (namestniki) and cut off grain shipments into the city in 1312.
While he was on decent terms with Tokhta Khan, and initially with his successor, Uzbeg Khan (Mikhail paid homage on Uzbeg's accession to the throne in 1313 and remained in Sarai until 1315), he eventually lost influence to Yury of Moscow, who gained influence in Novgorod while the grand prince was away in Sarai. Mikhail did manage to finally take control of the city in 1316 with Mongol aid, but the following year Uzbeg Khan gave the yarlik or patent of office of the Grand Prince of Vladimir to Yury, who also married Uzbeg's sister.
After granting Yury the iarlyk or patent of office, the Khan sent his army under the Mongol general Kavgadii to help Yuri in his struggle with Mikhail Yaroslavich. On 22 December 1317 Mikhail defeated Yuri at a village called Bortenevo (40 km from Tver). Mikhail captured Yuri's wife, who was the Khan's sister. When she died in Mikhail's custody, he was blamed for her death, although it seems unlikely that he would have killed her knowing how much it would hurt him politically for such little gain. He released Kavgadii, who returned to Sarai and accused Mikhail of murdering the Khan's sister, withholding tribute, and warring against his Mongol overlord. As a result, Mikhail was summoned to the Horde by the Khan and executed on 22 November 1318.
Mikhail also alienated the Church, particularly Metropolitan Petr (ruled 1308–1326). When Metropolitan Maksim died in 1305, Mikhail nominated another candidate, but Petr was consecrated by the Patriarch of Constantinople. Petr sided with Moscow and opposed Mikhail on several occasions. In 1309, he appointed David as Archbishop of Novgorod and David was instrumental in the argument that led Mikhail to withdraw his lieutenants and cut the grain supplies to the city. In 1314, Novgorod called on Yury to be named grand prince and for Mikhail to be deposed. Thus the support of the Church aided Yury to Mikhail's detriment.Despite his having been unfavored by the Russian Orthodox Church during his lifetime, the Church later declared Mikhail a saint because of his piousness during his summons by the Khan which he knew was to certain death and because his relics, when transported to his hometown, were discovered to be incorrupt.
In 1294 Mikhail married Princess Anna of Rostov, daughter of Dimitry of Rostov. They had five children:
Mikhail's sons and successors Dmitry the Terrible Eyes and Alexander were both also loved in the Horde, as was Alexander's elder son, Mikhail. Both Aleksandr Mikhailovich, and Mikhail Aleksandrovich briefly held the Grand Princely office (in 1326-1327 and 1371-1372 respectively)but Mikhail's failure to defeat Yury of Moscow, followed by Aleksandr's role (real or perceived) in the Tver Uprising of 1327, led the Tver branch to lose the favor of the Khans, and the Danilovich - the Muscovite princes, held the title for all but two years after 1317.
Mikhail's wife took the veil in Kashin's nunnery and died there on 2 October 1368. She is commemorated as Anna of Kashin by the Russian Orthodox Church and was canonized in 1677.
The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, romanized: Altan Ord; Kazakh: Алтын Орда, Altın Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) or Ulug Ulus - lit. “Great State” in Turkic was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khaganate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
Yuriy Danilovich, also known as Georgiy Danilovich was Prince of Moscow (1303–1325) and Grand Prince of Vladimir.
Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita was Grand Duke of Moscow from 1325 and Vladimir from 1332.
Simeon Ivanovich Gordiy was Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir. Simeon continued his father's policies aimed to increase the power and prestige of his state. Simeon's rule was marked by regular military and political standoffs against the Novgorod Republic and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His relationships with neighboring Russian principalities remained peaceful if not passive: Simeon stayed aside from conflicts between subordinate princes. He had recourse to war only when war was unavoidable. A relatively quiet period for Moscow was ended by the Black Death that claimed the lives of Simeon and his sons in 1353.
Vladimir-Suzdal, also Vladimir-Suzdalian Rus', formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma. With time the principality grew into a grand duchy divided into several smaller principalities. After being conquered by the Mongol Empire, the principality became a self-governed state headed by its own nobility. A governorship of principality, however, was prescribed by a Khan declaration (jarlig) issued from the Golden Horde to a noble family of any of smaller principalities.
Yaroslav III Yaroslavich (1230–1271) was the first Prince of Tver and the tenth Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1264 to 1271. Yaroslav and his son Mikhail Yaroslavich presided over Tver's transformation from a sleepy village into one of the greatest centres of power in medieval Russia. All the later dukes of Tver descended from Yaroslav Yaroslavich.
Prince Andrey II Yaroslavich was the third son of Yaroslav II who succeeded his uncle Svyatoslav III as the Grand Duke of Vladimir in 1249. Three years later, he challenged the Mongols and was ousted by them from Russia.
Sultan Mohammed Öz Beg, better known as Uzbeg or Ozbeg, was the longest-reigning khan of the Golden Horde, under whose rule the state reached its zenith. He was succeeded by his son Jani Beg.
Yaroslav II, Christian name Theodor (Феодо́р) was the Grand Prince of Vladimir (1238–1246) who helped to restore his country and capital after the Mongol invasion of Russia.
Saint Michael of Chernigov or Mikhail Vsevolodovich was a Rus' prince. He was grand prince of Kiev ; and he was also prince of Pereyaslavl (1206), of Novgorod-Seversk (1219–1226), of Chernigov, of Novgorod, and of Halych (1235–1236).
Maximus or Maximos was a metropolitan bishop of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and was consecrated in Constantinople as Metropolitan of Kiev and Vladimir (1283–1305).
The title of Prince of Tver was borne by the head of the branch of the Rurikid dynasty that ruled the Principality of Tver. In 1247 Tver was allocated to Grand Prince Alexander Nevsky, and became an independent principality. In 1252, the principality passed to his brother Yaroslav, who became the ancestor of the Tver dynasty of princes.
Saint Anna of Kashin was a Russian princess from the Rurik Dynasty, who was canonized in 1650.
Grand Prince Alexander or Aleksandr Mikhailovich was a Prince of Tver as Alexander I and Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal as Alexander II. His rule was marked by the Tver Uprising in 1327. Aleksandr Mikhailovich was executed in the Golden Horde together with his son Fyodor.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich of Tver, nicknamed The Fearsome Eyes, was a Grand Prince of Tver and Grand Prince of Vladimir. He was a son of Mikhail of Tver and Anna of Kashin.
Mikhail Alexandrovich was Grand Prince of Tver and briefly held the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. He was one of only two Tver princes after 1317 to hold the grand princely title, which was almost the exclusive purview of the Muscovite princes.
Xenia of Tarusa, also known as Kseniya Yurievna, was a Princess consort of Tver and Grand Princess consort of Vladimir from 1267 to 1271. She is counted among the saints of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Kirill III of Kiev was a church figure, and the metropolitan of Kiev, close to the Horde king Mengu-Timur.
Principality of Tver was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries. It was one of the states established after the decay of the Kievan Rus', and in the 13th century Tver rivaled the Principality of Moscow and aimed to become the center of the united Russian state. Eventually it lost, decayed, and in 1485 was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The principality was located approximately in the area currently occupied by Tver Oblast and the eastern part of Smolensk Oblast of Russia. The capital of the principality was Tver.
The Tver Uprising of 1327 was the first major uprising against the Golden Horde by the people of Vladimir. It was brutally suppressed by the joint efforts of the Golden Horde, Muscovy and Suzdal. At the time, Muscovy and Vladimir were involved in a rivalry for dominance, and Vladimir's total defeat effectively ended the quarter-century struggle for power. The Golden Horde later became an enemy of Muscovy, and Russia did not become free of Mongol influence until the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480, more than a century later.
| Grand Prince of Vladimir |
Yury of Moscow
| Prince of Tver |