|Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State|
Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Blazon of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State
Badge of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State
|Motto||To serve and protect|
Servir e proteger
|Formed||May 13, 1809|
|Operations jurisdiction||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Map of police jurisdiction.|
|Size||43.696054 km2 (16.871141 sq mi)|
|Headquarters||City of Rio de Janeiro|
The Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State (Portuguese : Polícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) (PMERJ) like other military polices in Brazil is a reserve and ancillary force of the Brazilian Army, and part of the System of Public Security and Brazilian Social Protection. Its members are called "State Military" personnel.
The primary mission of PMERJ is ostensively preventive policing for the maintenance of public order in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
Under the United Nations, in cooperation with the Brazilian Army, the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State has served in Angola, Mozambique, East-Timor, Sudan, and Haiti.
The first militarized police in Portugal (when Brazil was still a colony) was the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon (Portuguese : Guarda Real de Polícia de Lisboa), established in 1801, which followed the model of the National Gendarmerie (French : Gendarmerie Nationale) of France, created in 1791.
When the Portuguese Royal Family was transferred to Brazil, the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon remained in Portugal, and another equivalent guard was created in Rio de Janeiro under the name of Military Division of the Royal Police Guard of Rio de Janeiro, in 1809.
With the abdication of Emperor Pedro I in 1831, the Regency restructured the Brazilian Armed Forces. After its soldiers rioted, the Royal Police Guard of Rio de Janeiro was dissolved,and was replaced by the Permanent Municipal Guard Corps, a branch of the Army. Another security force similar to the French National Guard was also created. The same law allowed each Province to establish its own Guard of Volunteers.
In 1834, Pedro I died in Portugal and this reduced the fear in Brazil of a reunification of the kingdoms. In the province of Rio de Janeiro (surrounding the Corte, or city of the same name) the Provincial Police Corps was established, with professional troops.The Police Corps were created with the same structure as Brazilian Army, and to serve as reserve troops when necessary, under the provincial presidents' control. In 1835, the president of Rio de Janeiro province created the "Rio de Janeiro Province Police Guard" (Guarda Policial da Província do Rio de Janeiro).
With the Proclamation of the Republic, Brazil adopted a constitution based on the United States, where the states have a large autonomy. The Corps of Police were renamed Public Forces (Força Pública) and began to be administered by the states governors and became smaller regional armies, with infantry, cavalry, artillery, and later, even with air forces. This dangerous situation to the national security remained until the rise of Getúlio Vargas dictatorial government in the 1930s, when he abolished states' autonomy, after Constitutionalist Revolution and Estado Novo coup, and the Brazilian army began its control over states' military police and military firefighters corps - including the then Federal District Military Police, which served the city during its days as the national capital city until 1960, alongside the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State, which was separated from the city, until both organizations were merged in 1975.
The constitutional attributions of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State (PMERJ) are provided for in § 5 of Article 144 of the Constitution, "the military police responsible for the ostensive policing and the maintenance of public order".
The PMERJ is operationally organized into Intermediary Commands or Policing Area Command (Portuguese : Comandos Intermediários/Comandos de Policiamento de Área), Military Police battalions, companies, and platoons; and administratively, in departments. Independent companies police sizable towns. The battalions are based in major urban centers, and their companies and platoons are distributed according to population density in cities.
The Military Police of Rio de Janeiro is present in all cities of the State.
The idea of a group of police officers who were specifically trained to work in extreme risk situations arose after the tragic outcome of the hostage incident in the Criminal Evaristo de Moraes Institute in 1974. At the time the director of the prison, the police Major Darcy Bittencourt, who was held hostage by criminals who tried to escape, he was killed along with some arrested after the intervention of the police force. It was established on January 19, 1978, the Bulletin of the Military Police No. 014 on the same date as Center of Special Operations Company, through an elaborate project and presented by Captain PM Paulo César de Amendola de Souza, who witnessed the crisis, then the general commander of PMERJ, Col. Mário José Sotero de Menezes. Running in CFAP facilities of volunteers and operationally subordinate to the Chief of Staff of PMERJ. The NuCOE worked at a camp on the premises of Squares Training Centre (GFC) in Sulacap in northern Rio. There were 12 tents for about 30 policemen. On March 1, 1991, there was the creation of the Special Police Operations Battalion (BOPE).
In 2001, the BOPE adopted armored vehicles baptized as caveirões to protect PMs in raids in slums. Thus, the battalion was heavily criticized by human rights groups for having printed the insignia of skull pierced by a dagger.
The BOPE is considered today one of the leading police forces to combat urban guerrilla in the world, that due to its wide experience gained in over 30 years of repression of drug traffickers and armed gangs in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro.
Pacifying Police Unit is a State Department project in Rio de Janeiro Security that seeks to establish community police in slums, mostly in the state capital, in order to dismantle gangs that previously controlled these territories as true parallel states. Before the project, opened in 2008, only the Tavares Bastos favela, among the more than 500 existing in the city, had no organized crime and drug trafficking.
Because the favelas with Pacifying Police Units had formerly been controlled by armed drug traffickers for more than twenty-five years, the fear of retribution, which was a mainstay of the "law of the traffickers" is slow to die. For instance, in April 2012 when a drug trafficker who had formerly controlled the favela of Mangueira was shot and killed during a police operation in Jacarezinho (before the area had received its own Pacifying Police Unit), others from the same criminal faction ordered businesses to close their doors early in Mangueira — which they did. This despite the fact that Mangueira has a permanent pacification police force as part of its own Pacifying Police Unit. A similar occurrence of businesses closing their doors early in Mangueira because the traffickers ordered it occurred in February 2013.
In May 2012, Beltrame acknowledged that armed criminals had migrated from parts of Rio that have a large police presence due to pacification, to areas with less police and no Pacifying Police Units, such as Niterói, which is nearby, across the bay. Beltrame has stated however that he believes based on analysis of crime data that only gang leaders higher in the hierarchy could reestablish in other favela communities (without Pacifying Police Units); and that lower level traffickers have a much harder time integrating into other geographic areas.
While the favela areas under pacification have seen improvements, there has been an increase in the concentration of criminals in other parts of Rio de Janeiro that don't have the direct benefits of permanent pacification police forces actively patrolling these neighborhoods. Among these areas are those of the Baixada Fluminense, Niterói, and certain neighborhoods in the North Zone.
It was obvious early on that criminals were fleeing particular favelas before BOPE entered to establish a groundwork for a permanent police presence. Previously, when police had attempted to encircle a favela by surprise in order to arrest and kill traffickers, large-scale shootouts would ensue, and innocent favela residents were caught in the crossfire.
While more high-profile gang leaders (also referred to in Rio's media as "traffickers") have been forced to leave favelas now administered by UPP police forces, their familial connections remain. Also, gang members from other favelas who are of the same faction as residents under Pacifying Police Units, still coordinate and visit each other. Exemplifying this point, one of Rio's newspapers reported on July 9, 2012 that groups of criminals fired upon police in different locations within the Complexo do Alemão on the same day that military forces completed their final withdrawal from the area.
There is a well known history of police abuse and corruption in Rio de Janeiro, and for years this only added fuel to the war between drug traffickers controlling Rio's favelas and the police.
In recent years there have been concerted efforts under Secretary Beltrame to root out corrupt police; and this is the very reason that the community policing of the favelas under the Pacifying Police Unit program are staffed by new recruits coming straight from the Pacifying Police Unit police academy — such as the 750 officers who will be policing the large Rocinha favela beginning in August 2012.
Beltrame has stated that the main purpose of the Pacifying Police Units is more toward stopping armed men from ruling the streets than to put an end to drug trafficking. A 2010 report by the World Organization Against Torture did note the drop in the homicide rate within Rio de Janeiro's favelas.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most dangerous places in the world to be a police officer.
According to a study of the analysis of victimization of military police by the State of Rio de Janeiro Military Police (PMERJ), presented by Colonel PM Fábio Cajueiro, Chief of Staff of the Police Command Specialized in the Forum of Police Officers Dead and Wounded, in Sulacap, in 23 years, from 1994 to 2016, the PMERJ had 17,686 casualties, of which 14,452 were injured and 3,234 were dead from unnatural causes.
These figures represent 19.65% of casualties (16.06% of wounded and 3.59% of deaths) of the available personnel in the period, of 90 thousand and five military police.
By way of comparison, to get a sense of how high this victimization rate is, during US participation in World War II, the American casualties rate was 6.69%. Also for comparison, the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB) casualty index, in the aforementioned war, was 9.99%. Colonel PM Cajueiro pointed out that the probability of being injured as a military police officer in the State of Rio de Janeiro is 765 times greater than in wars.
Military police victimization in 2016 registered 363 PM injured by firearms, with 104 of these police officers killed. These numbers represent a break with the trend in the number of deaths of military police officers, which according to the Public Security Institute (ISP) Police Victimization Report (1998 to November 2015) had been declining since 2007, of the PMERJ.
According to the ISP report, the chance of a casualty officer being killed by assailants (robbery crime) is 5877% higher than a person from another profession.
These are the Policing Area Commands and their respective battalions. Cities and neighborhoods indicate the location of their headquarters.
|Heckler & Koch PSG1||Sniper Rifle||special operations|
|IMBEL MD2||Rifle||special operations|
|Remington Model 1100||Shotgun||riot control|
|Mossberg 500||shotgun||riot control|
|TAURUS FAMAE in .40||submachine||Standard|
|Taurus PT 24/7||Pistol||Standard|
|Taurus Model 605||Revolver||Standard|
|Taser Pistol||Non-lethal weapon||Standard|
|Smoke grenade||Non-lethal weapon||riot control and special operations|
|Riot gun||Non-lethal weapon||riot control and special operations|
|Gol G5||Volkswagen||Patrol car||Being retired. Rural patrol|
|Logan||Renault||Patrol car||Being retired. Rural patrol|
|Voyage G III||Volkswagen||Patrol car||Standard vehicle|
|Ford Ka||Ford||Patrol car||Standard vehicle|
|Blazer||Chevrolet||Response car||Standard vehicle|
|Duster||Renault||Response car||Standard vehicle|
|Hilux SW4||Toyota Motor||Response car / Dog unit Car (K9)||Special police|
|Frontier D40||Nissan||Multi-purpose car||Special police/ Highway patrol|
|S-10 Third generation||Chevrolet||Response car||Standard vehicle|
|Amarok||Volkswagen||Multi-purpose car||Riot police car|
|Master||Renault||Police van||Riot police car|
|Daily||Iveco||Police van||Special police|
|Ducato||Fiat||Police van||Standard vehicle|
|XT660||Yamaha Motor Company||Police motorcycle||Standard vehlcle|
|CB600||Honda||Police motorcycle||Riot police|
|EE-11 Urutu||Engesa||Armoured personnel carrier||APC|
|Ford Cargo 815||Ford Motor Company||Armoured personnel carrier||Vehicle war on drugs|
|VW Cargo 1722||Volkswagen||Armoured personnel carrier||Vehicle war on drugs|
|Maverick||Paramount Group||Infantry mobility vehicle||Special operations|
|Volkswagen Constellation||Volkswagen||Police truck||Special operations/Water cannon|
|Volkswagen Constellation||Volkswagen||Police truck||Special operations/High Observation Platform|
|Beit Alfa Model MAN RCU 6000 II||Beit Alfa technologies||Armoured Heavy equipment/Police truck||Water cannon|
|Backhoe loader||Armoured Heavy equipment||Vehicle auxiliary|
|Schweizer 300||Training||Schweizer 300 CBi||01||Designated phoenix 6.|
|Eurocopter AS350||Patrol helicopter||AS-350B3||06 (04 active)||Designated phoenix 1,2,3,4,7,8.|
Phoenix 3 was shot down by narcotraffickers during gunbattle at the Morro dos Macacos in October 2009 while Phoenix 4 suffered a total loss in November 2016. The cause of the fall was a loss of tail rotor function.
|Bell Huey II||Special operations|
|Huey II||01||Designated phoenix 5.|
|Eurocopter EC145||Patrol helicopter|
|EC145||02||Designated phoenix 9 and phoenix 10|
Since 1975, the PMERJ use dark grey blue in their uniforms or blue with black trousers. Special units have different uniforms for each service.
The PMERJ has the same hierarchical classificationof the Brazilian Army, with another type of insignias.
| Cadet |
or Student Officer
(a star for each year)
|Private "A Class"|
| Private "B Class"|
or Student Private
All rank insignia are worn on the epaulettes of the shirt, except for sergeants, corporal and soldiers, which are worn on each sleeve, below the institutional patch (left) and state flag (right).
The PMERJ appear in Fast Five, the fifth movie of the Fast and the Furious series, where many of them are corrupt and in the payroll of drug lord Hernan Reyes, being sent to try and retrieve his vault full of his drug money after it was stolen from their station alongside the Federal Highway Police (PRF) and Rio civil police. However, thanks to Dominic Toretto and his team, all of their pursuing cruisers are destroyed, their corrupt officers slaughtered, and Reyes himself executed by DSS Agent Luke Hobbs in revenge for murdering his team back in the favelas. Only one officer is shown to be loyal and honorable to her duty as a police officer, Agent Hobbs ally in Rio, Elena Neves, whose husband served in law enforcement before he was killed in the line of duty, inspiring her to join the force, but avoid being corrupted by Reyes as so many of the other officers were. The primary vehicles of this police force featured in the film are mostly Chevy Blazers, Mazda 626, Volkswagen Passat station wagons, and Yamaha WR motorcycles.
Elite Squad is a 2007 Brazilian crime film directed by José Padilha. The film is a semi-fictional account of the Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE), the Special Police Operations Battalion of the Rio de Janeiro Military Police, analogous to the American SWAT teams.
A favela is a type of low-income slum neighborhood in Brazil that has experienced historical governmental neglect as well. The first favela, now known as Providência in the center of Rio de Janeiro, appeared in the late 19th century, built by soldiers who had nowhere to live following the Canudos War. Some of the first settlements were called bairros africanos. Over the years, many former enslaved Africans moved in. Even before the first favela came into being, poor citizens were pushed away from the city and forced to live in the far suburbs. However, most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Unable to find places to live, many people found themselves in favelas. Census data released in December 2011 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) showed that in 2010, about 6 percent of the Brazilian population lived in favelas and other slums. Favelas are located in 323 from the 5.565 brazilians cities
The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side in World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military dictatorship in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it also had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s.
Rocinha is the largest favela in Brazil, located in Rio de Janeiro's South Zone between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. Rocinha is built on a steep hillside overlooking Rio de Janeiro, and is located about one kilometre from a nearby beach. Most of the favela is on a very steep hill, with many trees surrounding it. Almost 100,000 people live in Rocinha, making it the most populous favela in Brazil.
Military Police are the preventive state police of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil. The Military Police units, which have their own formations, rules and uniforms depending on the state and the Federal District, are responsible for ostensive policing and the maintenance of public order. Detective work and forensics are undertaken by a state's Civil Police.
In Brazil, the Federal Constitution establishes six law enforcement institutions - five titulars and one auxiliar. The titular institutions are: the Federal Police, the Federal Highway Police, the Federal Railway Police, the State Military Police and Fire Brigade, and the State Civil Police. Of these, the first three are affiliated to federal authorities and the latter two are subordinated to state governments. These public safety institutions are part of the Executive branch of either federal or state government. Apart from these five institutions, there are others which affiliate to municipal authorities: the Municipal Guards. According to Minister Alexandre de Moraes of the Supreme Federal Court, "...the Municipal Guards are inserted in public safety as the auxiliary and related body of public security force..." Federal law 13,022 gave them de facto and de jure police attributions.
Comando Vermelho is a Brazilian criminal organization engaged primarily in arms and drug trafficking. The group, originally known as Falange Vermelha, was formed in 1979 as an alliance between ordinary convicts and leftist militants who were incarcerated together during the military dictatorship of 1964–1985. In the early 1980s, the group changed its name to Comando Vermelho and is believed to have abandoned most of its far-left political ideology.
Sérgio de Oliveira Cabral Santos Filho is a Brazilian politician and a journalist
Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE) or BOPE is the police tactical unit of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State (PMERJ) in Brazil. Due to the nature of crime in favelas, BOPE units have extensive experience in urban warfare as well as progression in confined and restricted environments. It also utilizes equipment deemed more powerful than traditional civilian law enforcement.
Elite Squad is a 2007 Brazilian crime film directed by José Padilha. The film is a semi-fictional account of the Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE), the Special Police Operations Battalion of the Rio de Janeiro Military Police, analogous to the American SWAT teams. It is the second feature film and first fiction film of Padilha, who had previously directed the documentary Bus 174. The script was written by Bráulio Mantovani and Padilha, based on the book Elite da Tropa by sociologist Luiz Eduardo Soares and two former BOPE captains, André Batista and Rodrigo Pimentel.
Tim Lopes was a Brazilian investigative journalist and producer for the Brazilian television network Rede Globo. In 2002, the media reported him missing while working undercover on a story in one of Rio's favelas. It was later learned that Lopes had been accosted by drug traffickers who controlled the area, was kidnapped, driven to the top of a neighboring favela in the trunk of a car, tied to a tree and subjected to a mock trial, tortured by having his hands, arms, and legs severed with a sword while still alive, and then had his body placed within tires, covered in gasoline and set on fire—a practice that traffickers have dubbed micro-ondas.
Complexo do Alemão is a group of favelas in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The Civil Police of Rio de Janeiro State is the police force responsible for criminal investigations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Formed in 1808, it is subordinated to the state government and directed by a Chief of Police, chosen by the state's Governor.
The Morro da Babilônia is a hill in the Leme neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, separating Copacabana beach from Botafogo. It is home to a favela known by the same name, as well as the favela Chapéu Mangueira. Morro da Babilônia is an environmentally protected area.
Elite Squad: The Enemy Within is a 2010 Brazilian crime thriller film directed and co-produced by José Padilha, who co-wrote it with Bráulio Mantovani and Rodrigo Pimentel. The sequel to 2007's Elite Squad, it furthers the plot of a semi-fictional account of BOPE, the special operations force of the Rio de Janeiro Military Police, with a focus on the relationship between law enforcement and politics. The film was released in Brazil on October 8, 2010.
The Pacifying Police Unit, abbreviated UPP, is a law enforcement and social services program pioneered in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which aims to reclaim territories, most commonly favelas, controlled by gangs of drug dealers. The program was created and implemented by State Public Security Secretary José Mariano Beltrame, with the backing of Rio Governor Sérgio Cabral. The stated goal of Rio's government is to install 40 UPPs by 2014. By May 2013, 231 favelas had come under the UPP umbrella.
In November 2010, there was a major security crisis in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro and some of its neighboring cities. The city's criminal drug trafficking factions initiated a series of attacks in response to the government placing permanent police forces into Rio's slums.
The Battalion of Special Operations is a unit of the Military Police of Paraná, Brazil. It is a police tactical unit in the State of Parana, trained to perform high-risk operations that fall outside of the abilities of regular officers.
Maré is a neighborhood and favela in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is a grouping of several favelas, suburbs with houses, and housing complexes. With approximately 130,000 residents, it is one of the largest slum complexes in Rio de Janeiro, a consequence of the low indicators of social development that characterize the region.
Major Pricilla de Oliveira Azevedo is a Brazilian police officer who has won international awards for her bravery and integrity.
On July 14, 2013, Amarildo de Souza, a 43-year-old bricklayer from the Rocinha favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was called in for questioning by Unidade de Polícia Pacificadora (UPP) officers on his way home from the market. Believed to be connected to drug trafficking activity in the favela despite having no prior involvement in illegal activity, de Souza was brought in for questioning during Operation Armed Peace, during which roughly 300 officers from Rocinha's UPP force flooded the favela in order to arrest drug traffickers. It was during this two-day long raid that de Souza was brought to the police station and never seen again.
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