Millî Görüş

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Millî Görüş (Turkish:  [milˈliː ɟœˈɾyʃ] , "National Outlook" or "National Vision") is a religio-political movement and a series of Islamist parties inspired by Necmettin Erbakan. It has been called one of "the leading Turkish diaspora organizations in Europe" [1] and also described as the largest Islamic organization operating in the West. [2] Founded in 1969, the movement claimed to have "87,000 members across Europe, including 50,000 in Germany," as of 2005. [3] The term also refers to the "religious vision" of the organization [1] that emphasizes the moral and spiritual strength of Islamic faith (Iman) and explains the Muslim world's decline as a result of its imitation of Western values (such as secularism) and inappropriate use of Western technology. [4] The Movement is active in nearly all European countries and also countries like Australia, [5] Canada and the United States.

Necmettin Erbakan Turkish politician

Necmettin Erbakan was a Turkish politician, engineer, and academic who was the Prime Minister of Turkey from 1996 to 1997. He was pressured by the military to step down as prime minister and was later banned from politics by the Constitutional Court of Turkey for violating the separation of religion and state as mandated by the constitution.

Iman in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam. Its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.

Muslim world Muslim-majority countries, states, districts, or towns

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.

Contents

Head office of the Islamic Community Milli Gorus in Koln, Germany. IGMG Head Office.jpg
Head office of the Islamic Community Milli Görüş in Köln, Germany.

Background

In 1969 the Turkish politician Necmettin Erbakan published a manifesto that he gave the title Millî Görüş. [6] It spoke only in the most general terms of Islamic moral and religious education but devoted much attention to industrialization, development and economic independence.[ citation needed ]

Turkish people or the Turks, also known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe.

Manifesto published declaration of principles and intentions of an individual or group

A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.

Regional development is the provision of aid and other assistance to regions which are less economically developed. Regional development may be domestic or international in nature. The implications and scope of regional development may therefore vary in accordance with the definition of a region, and how the region and its boundaries are perceived internally and externally.

It warned against further rapprochement towards Europe, considering the Common Market to be a Zionist and Catholic project for the assimilation and de-Islamization of Turkey and called instead for Pan-Islamism. According to author Banu Eligur, Erbakan and the party "used the code words national and culture to refer to Islam, and National Vision to refer to the project of Political Islam" as "it is illegal" in Turkey "to use religious symbols for political purposes." [7]

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Islamization term

Islamization, Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria. In contemporary usage, it may refer to the perceived imposition of an Islamist social and political system on a society with an indigenously different social and political background.

Pan-Islamism political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles

Pan-Islamism is a political ideology advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic country or state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles. As a form of internationalism and anti-nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from pan-nationalistic ideologies, for example Pan-Arabism, by seeing the ummah as the focus of allegiance and mobilization, excluding ethnicity and race as primary unifying factors. It portrays Islam as being anti-racist and against anything that divides the human race based on ethnicity.

The name of Millî Görüş would remain associated with a religio-political movement and a series of Islamist parties inspired by Erbakan, one succeeding the other as they were banned for violating Turkey’s secularist legislation.

Secularism in Turkey

Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey. Secularism was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, which removed the provision declaring that the "Religion of the State is Islam", and with the later reforms of Turkey's first president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which set the administrative and political requirements to create a modern, democratic, secular state, aligned with Kemalism.

Islamist rift

Following the ban of the Virtue Party (FP), a rift that had been developing in the movement resulted in two parties taking its place, the Felicity Party (SP) representing Erbakan’s old guard, and the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) led by younger and more pragmatic politicians around Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, which claims to have renounced a specifically Islamist agenda. The AK Party convincingly won the 2002 elections and formed a government with a strong popular mandate, that brought Turkey closer to acceptance for membership in the European Union than any previous government had done.

Virtue Party Islamist political party in Turkey

Virtue Party was an Islamist political party established in 17 December 1997 in Turkey. It was found unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court and then banned on 22 June 2001 for violating the secularist articles of the Constitution. After the party's ban, the party MPs founded two sections of parties: reformist Justice and Development Party (AKP) and traditionalist Felicity Party (SP).

Felicity Party Islamist political party in Turkey

The Felicity Party is an Islamist Turkish political party founded in 2001. It is mainly supported by conservative Muslims in Turkey.

Justice and Development Party (Turkey) conservative political party in Turkey

The Justice and Development Party, abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey. Developed from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, the party is the largest in Turkey. Founded in 2001 by members of a number of existing conservative parties, the party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, and 2018. The party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but then lose it again in 2018. Its electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively. The current party leader is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the incumbent President of Turkey.

European Turkish diaspora

Among the Turkish immigrants in Western Europe, Milli Görüş became one of the major, if not the major, religious movements, controlling numerous mosques. Like the movement in Turkey, it went through some remarkable changes, not least because the first generation, which was strongly oriented towards what happened in Turkey, is gradually surrendering leadership to a younger generation that grew up in Europe and is concerned with entirely different matters. Milli Görüş’ public profile shows considerable differences from one country to the next, suggesting that nature of the interaction with the ‘host’ societies may have as much of an impact on its character as a religious movement as the relationship with the ‘mother’ movement in Turkey.

The Turkish diaspora is the estimated population of the Turks all around the world who have migrated out from Turkey and former Turkish (Ottoman) territory. This includes citizens of Turkey living abroad, as well asethnic Turks who have emigrated from other post-Ottoman states, particularly Turkish communities from the Balkans, the island of Cyprus, the region of Meskhetia in Georgia, and the Arab world.

According to several sources in Germany the attitude of the German branch towards Turkey has completely changed. After the taking over of Erdogan and the AKP the organisation is mainly serving the interest of the turkish government which now subsidizes the organisation. Diyanet, AKP and the turkish government practically control the organisations public statements and appearances. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]

Because of fraud and criminal offences of the board of directors several trials are running against the organisation. [13] [14] [15]

Timeline

People's Voice PartyTurkey PartyJustice and Development Party (Turkey)Felicity PartyVirtue PartyWelfare PartyNational Salvation PartyNational Order PartyMilli Gorus

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 Religion and politics in Turkey By Ali Çarkŏğlu, Barry Rubin, Barry M. Rubin, p.63
  2. An interview with the President of the IGMG: visit "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. Where next? by Zachary Shore, July 15, 2005
  4. Religion and politics in Turkey By Ali Çarkŏğlu, Barry Rubin, Barry M. Rubin, p.64
  5. Australia Milli Gorus: visit http://www.icmg.org.au
  6. Atacan 2005, 187-188.
  7. The Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey By Banu Eligur, p.66-7
  8. Joachim Frank, "Türkische Islam-Verbände: Ditib und Milli Görüs im Schulterschluss", Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (in German), retrieved 2018-06-17
  9. "Große Erwartungen, falsche Voraussetzungen – murat-kayman.de" (in German). Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  10. Bundesregierung Antwort Kleine Anfrage (2018-04-25). "DITIB als verlängerter Arm des Türkischen Präsidenten Erdoğan" (PDF). Deutscher Bundestag Drucksache 19/1869. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  11. "Osmanische Krieger am Rheinufer – murat-kayman.de" (in German). Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  12. Yasemin Ergin, Berlin, "Türken in Deutschland: Schwindender Rückhalt für Erdogan", FAZ.NET (in German), ISSN   0174-4909 , retrieved 2018-08-22
  13. Daniel Bax (2017-09-12), "Klagen gegen Milli-Görüş-Funktionäre: Die verschlungenen Wege des Geldes", Die Tageszeitung: taz (in German), ISSN   0931-9085 , retrieved 2018-06-17
  14. Ansgar Siemens (2017-09-18), "Prozess gegen Ex-Islamfunktionäre: Das Millionenopfer", Spiegel Online (in German), retrieved 2018-06-17
  15. Yuriko Wahl-Immel (2017-09-19), "Islamverband Milli Görüs soll jahrelang Gläubige und Fiskus betrogen haben", DIE WELT (in German), retrieved 2018-06-17

Literature

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