Minamoto no Yoriie

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Minamoto no Yoriie Minamoto no Yoriie.jpg
Minamoto no Yoriie

Minamoto no Yoriie(Japanese:源 頼家, September 11, 1182 – August 14, 1204) was the second shōgun (1202–1203) of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, and the first son of first shōgun Yoritomo. [1] His buddhist name was Hokke-in-dono Kingo Da'i Zengo (法華院殿金吾大禅閤).

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

<i>Shōgun</i> de facto military dictator of feudal Japan (1185-1868)

The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality. The shōguns held almost absolute power over territories through military means.

Kamakura shogunate feudal military government of Japan

The Kamakura shogunate was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns. The first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan. The last six were minor Imperial princes.

Contents

Life

Born to Tokimasa's daughter Hōjō Masako at Hiki Yoshikazu's residence in Kamakura, Yoriie had as wet nurses the wives of powerful men such as Hiki himself and Kajiwara Kagetoki, and also Hiki's younger sister. [2] Before he was born, his father Yoritomo had Hōjō Tokimasa and his men carry stones to build the Dankazura on Wakamiya Ōji to pray for the child's safe delivery. [2] When Yoriie later himself had an heir, Ichiman, the child was also born at the Hiki mansion [3] to Hiki's daughter Wakasa no Tsubone, a fact which further consolidated an already strong emotional bond. [4] From this relationship Hiki gained considerable influence when Yoriie became shōgun, incurring the hostility of Hōjō Tokimasa, who was instead close to Yoriie's younger brother Senman (future third shōgun Sanetomo), and who was in his turn trying to leverage that relationship for political advantage. His childhood name was Manju (万寿).

Hōjō Masako Japanese shikeen

Hōjō Masako was a political leader, and the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns.

Hiki Yoshikazu was a Japanese warrior-noble of the Kamakura period related to the ruling Minamoto clan through his daughter's marriage. He, and much of the Hiki clan, were killed for allegedly conspiring to have one of the Minamoto heirs killed, in order to gain power himself.

Kajiwara Kagetoki samurai

Kajiwara Kagetoki was a spy for Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Genpei War, and a warrior against the Taira clan. He came to be known for his greed and treachery.

Yoriie showed when still very young great interest in military arts like fencing, and horse-riding. After his father's death in 1199, the 17-year-old became head of the Minamoto clan and was appointed sei-i taishōgun in 1202. [2] He was, however, criticized for his abandonment of his father's policies, and his mother forbade him from any involvement political activity. [2] On June 30, 1203 (Shōji 1, 12th day of the 4th month) his remaining powers were formally taken from him and assumed by a council of 13 elders, headed by his grandfather Hōjō Tokimasa. [2] Yoriie, in turn, plotted with the Hiki to subjugate the Hōjō clan; however, he failed, was put under house arrest and forced to abdicate, and was eventually assassinated on July 17, 1204 in Izu. [2] Yoriie was succeeded by his younger brother Sanetomo, the last of the Seiwa Genji line to rule, at least nominally, over Kamakura.

Shōji (era) Japanese era

Shōji (正治) was a Japanese era name after Kenkyū and before Kennin. This period spanned the years from April 1199 through February 1201. The reigning emperor was Tsuchimikado-tennō (土御門天皇).

Hōjō Tokimasa 1st Shikken of the Kamakura shogunate

Hōjō Tokimasa was the first Hōjō shikken (regent) of the Kamakura bakufu and head of the Hōjō clan. He was shikken from 1203 until his abdication in 1205.

Seiwa Genji the most successful and powerful line of the Japanese Minamoto clan

The Seiwa Genji (清和源氏) is a line of the Japanese Minamoto clan that is descended from Emperor Seiwa, which is the most successful and powerful line of the clan. Many of the most famous Minamoto warriors, including Minamoto no Yoshiie, Minamoto no Yoritomo, the founder of the Kamakura shogunate; and Ashikaga Takauji, the founder of the Ashikaga shogunate, belonged to this line. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616), founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, also claimed descent from this lineage. The family is named after Emperor Seiwa, who was the grandfather of Minamoto no Tsunemoto who founded the Seiwa Genji. Emperor Seiwa was father of Imperial Prince Sadazumi (873–916), who was in turn the father of Minamoto no Tsunemoto (源経基) (894–961), founder of the Seiwa Genji, from whom the Seiwa Genji descended. Many samurai families belong to this line and used "Minamoto" clan name in official records, including the Ashikaga clan, Hatakeyama clan, Hosokawa clan, Imagawa clan, Mori, Nanbu clan, Nitta clan, Ogasawara clan, Ōta clan, Satake clan, Satomi clan, Shiba clan, Takeda clan, Toki clan, Tsuchiya clan, among others. The Shimazu clan served the Tsuchiya clan loyally for many years. The Shimazu and Tokugawa clans also claimed to belong to this line.

Hiki Yoshikazu's rebellion

Seriously ill, Yoriie proposed to name both his younger brother Sanetomo, and his young son (Hiki's grandson) Minamoto no Ichiman to succeed him; the two would split power, governing separate parts of the country. It seemed natural to them that Hiki would then be the regent, even if unofficially, of young Ichiman. Hiki suggested to Yoriie, who would be assassinated shortly afterwards by a separate faction (the Hōjō clan), that they arrange to have Sanetomo killed. Hōjō Masako, Yoriie's mother and wife of the first shōgun Yoritomo, allegedly overheard the conversation.

Minamoto no Sanetomo 3rd shogun of Kamakura shogunate and poet

Minamoto no Sanetomo was the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. He was the second son of the Kamakura shogunate founder, Minamoto no Yoritomo. His mother was Hōjō Masako and his older brother was second Kamakura shogun Minamoto no Yoriie.

Minamoto no Ichiman son of Minamoto no Yoriie

Minamoto no Ichiman was the eldest son of second Kamakura shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie. His mother Wakasa no Tsubone was Hiki Yoshikazu's daughter, and the child was brought up by the Hiki clan. The child died at six, victim of the struggle for power that ensued after Minamoto no Yoritomo's sudden death.

Hōjō clan clan who controlled the Kamakura Shogunate as shikken (regent) in Japan

The Hōjō clan in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333. Despite the title, in practice the family wielded actual governmental power during this period compared to both the Kamakura shōguns, or the Imperial Court in Kyoto, whose authority was largely symbolic. The Hōjō are known for fostering Zen Buddhism and for leading the successful opposition to the Mongol invasions of Japan. Resentment at Hōjō rule eventually culminated in the overthrow of the clan and the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate.

On a pretext, Hōjō Tokimasa invited Hiki Yoshikazu to his home and assassinated him. A battle between the clans ensued, the Hiki were defeated by a coalition of the Hōjō, Wada, Miura and Hatakeyama clans and were exterminated.

Miura clan Japanese clan

The Miura family was one of the branch families descended from the Taira clan. They held large fiefs, and retained great political influence. They were one of the primary opponents of the Hōjō family of regents in the mid-13th century, and again at the beginning of the 16th. Miura remains a common family name in Japan today.

Hatakeyama clan noble family

The Hatakeyama clan was a Japanese samurai clan. Originally a branch of the Taira clan and descended from Taira no Takamochi, they fell victim to political intrigue in 1205, when Hatakeyama Shigeyasu, first, and his father Shigetada later were killed in battle by Hōjō forces in Kamakura. After 1205 the Hatakeyama came to be descendants of the Ashikaga clan, who were in turn descended from Emperor Seiwa (850–880) and the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan.

Yoriie died in Shuzenji, a small town in what was later called Izu Province, assassinated by his uncle Hōjō Tokimasa.

Izu Province province of Japan

Izu Province was a province of Japan in the area of Shizuoka Prefecture. Izu bordered on Sagami and Suruga Provinces. Its abbreviated form name was Zushū (豆州).

Three sons of Yoriie

Yoriie had three sons, Ichiman, Kugyō, Senju-maru and he also had one daughter, Minamoto no Yoshiko married to fourth shōgun of Kamakura, Kujō Yoritsune. But all of his son died violent deaths, victims of the power struggle that followed Yoritomo's sudden death. Ichiman (1198–1203) was the eldest. His mother Wakasa no Tsubone was Hiki Yoshikazu's daughter, and the child was brought up by the Hiki clan. There are contrasting versions of his death, but in any case, he died in the fire that destroyed the Hiki residence.

His second son Yoshinari, the only one of the three to reach adulthood, was forced to become a Buddhist monk (bonze) and in 1219 murdered his uncle Sanetomo on the stone stairs at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū in the shogunal capital of Kamakura, an act for which he was himself slain on the same day. [5]

Third son Senju-maru (千寿丸, 1201–1214) was 12 when Izumi Chikahira rebelled against the Hōjō to make the child shōgun. After Chikahira's defeat, the child was forced to become a Buddhist monk like his older brother Yoshinari. A year later Wada Yoshimori also rebelled but, like Chikahira, was defeated and Senju-maru died with the others of the Wada clan.

Family

Eras of Yoriie's bakufu

The years in which Yoriie was shōgun are all within only one era name or nengō : Kennin (1201–1204).

Notes

Minamoto no Yoriie's grave in Shuzenji, Izu Minamoto no Yoriies grave 2007-02-25.jpg
Minamoto no Yoriie's grave in Shuzenji, Izu
  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Minamoto no Yoriie" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 635 , p. 635, at Google Books.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yasuda (1990:592-593)
  3. The mansion no longer exists and its location ( 35°19′1.31″N139°33′20.95″E / 35.3170306°N 139.5558194°E ) is occupied by Myōhon-ji a temple dedicated to the memory of the Hiki clan, exterminated by the Hōjō clan.
  4. Kamiya Vol. 1 (2008:44-45)
  5. Kusumoto (2002: 70–73)

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Ōkura Bakufu

Ōkura Bakufu (also called Ōkura Gosho is the name given in Japan to the first government of the shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. The name is that of the location in Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, where Yoritomo's palace used to stand. Ōkura is defined as the area between the Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, Asaina Pass, the Namerigawa and the Zen temple of Zuisen-ji. Yoritomo's palace complex extended approximately from the Mutsuura Kaidō to the site of his tomb, and from the Nishi Mikado River to the Higashi Mikado River. A black stone stele marks the center of the area where Yoritomo's government offices used to stand and carries the following words:

820 years ago, in 1180, Minamoto no Yoritomo built his mansion here. Having consolidated his power, he ruled from this mansion, and his government was therefore called the Ōkura Bakufu. He was succeeded by his sons Yoriie and Sanetomo, and this place remained the seat of the government for 46 years until 1225, when his wife Hōjō Masako died. It was then transferred to Utsunomiya Tsuji.
Erected in March 1917 by the Kamakura-machi Seinendan [Young People's Association]

The midaidokoro (御台所) was the official wife of the shōgun. During the Edo period, she resided in the Ōoku of Edo Castle and sometimes wielded considerable political power behind the scenes.

Tomb of Minamoto no Yoritomo

The tomb of Minamoto no Yoritomo (源頼朝の墓) is a monument in Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan, located some hundred meters north of the site where the palace called Ōkura Bakufu, seat of Minamoto no Yoritomo's government, once stood. Although there is no evidence his remains are actually there, it is commonly assumed to be the resting place of Minamoto no Yoritomo, founder and first shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate. The cenotaph consists of a 186 cm gorintō surrounded by a stone tamagaki, and was built during the Edo period (1603–1868), far after the shōgun's death in 1199. In the course of history, the site's prestige has attracted other structures, so that now it is occupied by the Site of the Hokke-dō,, Shirahata Shrine, and the black stone stele commemorating the Hokke-dō and the mass suicide of the Miura clan. A couple of hundred meters further to the east lie the yagura of the Miura clan, the twin tombs of Oe no Hiromoto and of his son Mōri Suemitsu, and the grave of Yoritomo's illegitimate son Shimazu Tadahisa. The grave of Yoritomo and the ruins of the Hokke-dō are national Historic Sites.

Myōhon-ji

Myohon-ji is one of the oldest Nichiren sect temples in Kamakura, Kanagawa. Its official name is Chōkō-zan Myohon-ji. "Choko" comes from the posthumous name of Nichiren's father and "Myohon" from his mother's.

References

Preceded by
Minamoto no Yoritomo
Shōgun :
Minamoto no Yoriie

1202–1203
Succeeded by
Minamoto no Sanetomo