Mindanao mainland in red;
its associated islands in maroon
|Adjacent bodies of water|
|Area||97,530 km2 (37,660 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,954 m (9,692 ft)|
|Highest point||Mount Apo|
|Largest settlement||Davao City (pop. 1,632,991)|
|Population||25,537,691 (2018) (Mindanao island group) (2010)|
|Pop. density||243 /km2 (629 /sq mi)|
Mindanao ( // (
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City (pop. 861,799), Cagayan de Oro City (pop. 675,950), General Santos City (pop. 594,446), Iligan City (pop. 342,618), Butuan City (pop. 337,063) and Cotabato City (pop. 299,438).About 70% of residents identify as Christian, and 20% identify as Muslim. Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, Soccsksargen, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Davao City, officially the City of Davao, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. The city has a total land area of 2,443.61 km2 (943.48 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philippines after Quezon City and Manila, the most populous city in the country outside Metro Manila, and the most populous in Mindanao. As of the 2015 census, the city had a population of 1,632,991.
Zamboanga City, officially the City of Zamboanga, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula of the Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 861,799 people. It is the 6th most populous and 3rd largest city by land area in the Philippines. It is the commercial and industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region.
Cotabato City, officially the City of Cotabato is an independent component city in the Philippine autonomous region of Bangsamoro. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 299,438.
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula;the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Joining them are the equally indigenous Visayan groups in coastal areas like the Butuanons, Surigaonons, and Kagay-anons of Northern Mindanao and the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of modern settlers from the Visayas and Luzon (chiefly from the former), among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons.
The Lumad are a group of Austronesian indigenous people in the southern Philippines. It is a Cebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous". The term is short for Katawhang Lumad, the autonym officially adopted by the delegates of the Lumad Mindanao Peoples Federation (LMPF) founding assembly on 26 June 1986 at the Guadalupe Formation Center, Balindog, Kidapawan, Cotabato, Philippines. It is the self-ascription and collective identity of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao.
Subanon is a tribe indigenous to the Zamboanga peninsula area, particularly living in the mountainous areas of Zamboanga del Sur and Misamis Occidental, Mindanao Island, Philippines. The Subanon people speak the Subanon language. The name means "a person or people of the river." These people originally lived in the lowlying areas. However, due to disturbances and competitions from other settlers like the Muslims, and migrations of Cebuano speakers to the coastal areas attracted by the inviting Land Tenure Laws, further pushed the Subanen into the interior.
The Tboli people are one of the indigenous peoples of South Cotabato in Southern Mindanao. The body of ethnographic and linguistic literature on Mindanao, they are variously known as Tboli, T'boli, Tböli, Tagabili, Tagabilil, Tagabulul and Tau Bilil. They term themselves Tboli. Their whereabouts and identity are somewhat imprecise in the literature; some publications present the Tboli and the Tagabili as distinct peoples; some locate the Tbolis to the vicinity of the Lake Buluan in the Cotabato Basin or in Agusan del Norte. The Tbolis, then, reside on the mountain slopes on either side of the upper Alah Valley and the coastal area of Maitum, Maasim and Kiamba. In former times, the Tbolis also inhabited the upper Alah Valley floor. After World War II, i.e., since the arrival of settlers originating from other parts of the Philippines, they have been gradually pushed onto the mountain slopes. As of now, they are almost expelled from the fertile valley floor.
Mindanao is considered the major breadbasket of the Philippines,with eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines coming from the island group itself.
The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of the richness of the soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain. Rice bowl is a similar term used to refer to Southeast Asia, and California's Salinas Valley is sometimes referred to as the world's salad bowl. Such regions may be the subject of fierce political disputes which may even escalate into full military conflicts.
Mindanao is known for its moniker being The Philippines' Land of Promise.
The name "Mindanao" is derived from the Spanish corruption of the name of the Maguindanao people, the dominant ruling ethnic group in the Sultanate of Maguindanao in southwestern Mindanao during the Spanish colonial period. The name itself means "people of the lake (Lanao)", though it is usually translated to "people of the flood plains" in modern sources.
The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World, the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies" and territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century, and became known as "the empire on which the sun never sets".
The Maguindanao people are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group. Their name means “people of the flood plains”.
The Sultanate of Maguindanao was a Sultanate state that ruled parts of the island of Mindanao, in southern Philippines, especially in modern-day Maguindanao province and Davao City. Its known historical influence stretches from the peninsula of Zamboanga to the bay of Sarangani. At its peak, the sultanate covered the entire island of Mindanao, and ruled over the smaller neighboring islands near and around Mindanao. During the era of European colonization, the Sultanate maintained friendly relations with British and Dutch traders.
Archaeological findings on the island point to evidence of human activity dating back to about ten thousand years ago. At around 1500 BC Austronesian people spread throughout the Philippines.
The Subanon are believed to have established themselves on Mindanao Island during the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, the period in the development of human technology beginning around 10,000 BC according to the ASPRO chronology (between 4,500 and 2,000 BC).[ clarification needed ] The evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence. Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have been found in caves, together with shell bracelets, beads, and gold ornaments. Many of the ceramic objects are from the Yuan and Ming periods. Evidently, there was a long history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter's contact with Islam.
In the classic epoch of Philippine history (900 AD onwards), the people of Mindanao were heavily exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Indianized abugida scripts such as Kawi and Baybayin was introduced via Sulawesi and Java, and the cultural icons of the sarong (known as malong or patadyong), the pudong turban, silk, and batik and ikat weaving and dyeing methods were introduced. Artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, and the Ganesh pendant. These cultural traits passed from Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, but were subsequently lost or heavily modified after the Spanish arrival in the 16th century.
The Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest in the coastal areas of the island, but were incorporated into local animist beliefs and customs tribes that resided more inland. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a fully Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan.The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most complete local version of the Ramayana. The Maguindanao at this time also had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana (Rajah Ravana) epic saga that survives to the modern day, albeit highly Islamized from the 17th century on wards.
The spread of Islam in the Philippines began in the 14th century, mostly by Muslim merchants from the western part of the Malay Archipelago. The first Mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul, Tawi-Tawi.Around the 16th century, the Muslim sultanates of Sulu, Lanao and Maguindanao were established from formerly Hindu-Buddhist Rajahnates.
As Islam gained a foothold over Mindanao, the natives residing within the Sultanates were either converted into Islam or obligated to pay tribute to their new Muslim rulers. The largest of the Muslim polities in mainland Mindanao was the Sultanate of Maguindanao which controlled the southern floodplains of the Rio Grande de Mindanao and most of the coastal area of the Illana Bay and the Moro Gulf. The name Mindanao was derived from this Sultanate. However, most of Mindanao remained animist, especially the Lumad people living in the interior regions. Most of the northern, eastern, and southern coastal regions inhabited by Visayans (Surigaonon and Butuanon) and other groups were also converted to Christianity by the Spanish later on.
In 1521 Antonio Pigafetta wrote an account of reaching 'Maingdano.' He was with Magellan on the first circumnavigation of the globe and they were sailing for the king of Spain.
On 2 February 1543, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos was the first Spaniard to reach Mindanao,he called the island "Caesarea Caroli" after Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (and I of Spain). Shortly after Spain's colonization of Cebu, they moved on to colonize Butuan and the surrounding Caraga region in northeast Mindanao and discovered significant Muslim presence on the island. Over time a number of tribes in Mindanao converted to Roman Catholicism and built settlements and forts throughout the coastal regions of the island. These settlements endured despite incurring attacks from neighboring Muslim Sultanates. The most heavily fortified of these settlements, apart from a short period in 1662 when Spain sent soldiers from the city to Manila after receiving a threat of invasion from the Chinese general Koxinga, was Zamboanga City.
By the late 18th century Spain had geographic dominance over the island, having established settlements and forts in most of Mindanao; including Zamboanga City (Which was then settled by Peruvian soldiers)and Misamis Occidental to the northwest, Iligan City, Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon, and Camiguin Island to the north, Butuan and the Caraga region to the east, and Davao in the island's gulf coast. Spain continued to engage in battles with Muslim Sultanates until the end of the 19th century.
In the Treaty of Paris in 1898 Spain sold the entire Philippine archipelago to the United States for $20 million. The 1900 Treaty of Washington and the 1930 Convention Between the United States and Great Britain clarified the borders between Mindanao and Borneo.
In 1939 the Philippine government encouraged citizens from Luzon and Visayas to migrate to Mindanao. Consisting mostly of Ilocanos, Cebuanos, and Illongos. Filipino settlers streaming into Soccsksargen led to the displacement of the Blaan and Tboli tribes.
In April 1942 Mindanao, along with the rest of the Philippines, officially entered World War II after Japanese soldiers invaded key cities in the islands. [ citation needed ]Many towns and cities were burned to the ground in Mindanao, most notably Davao City, Zamboanga City, Lanao, Cagayan de Oro, Iligan City, and Butuan. In the months of April and May 1942, Japanese forces defeated US troops commanded by Gen. William F. Sharp and Gen. Guy O. Fort, in a battle that started at Malabang (a town close to Gandamatu Macadar, Lanao) and ended close to the town of Ganassi, Lanao. Davao City was among the earliest to be occupied by the invading Japanese Forces. They immediately fortified the city as a bastion of the Japanese defense system.
Davao City was subjected by the returning forces of Gen. Macarthur to constant bombing, before the American Liberation Forces landed in Leyte in October 1944.[ citation needed ] Filipino soldiers and local guerrilla fighters were actively fighting Japanese forces until liberation at the conclusion of the Battle of Mindanao.
This section needs to be updated.October 2019)(
Violent conflicts in the southwestern regions of Mindanao, that began in the 1960s, led to the 1971 Manili Massacre, Pata Island Massacre, the founding of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), and the formation of the Ilaga.
Under President Ferdinand Marcos's administration, the government was said to have encouraged Christian settlers in Mindanao, causing many locals to be displaced. The forced land seizures by Luzon and Visayan settlers have resulted in ongoing conflict as the original owners seek ancestral land reclamation.
In March 2000 President Estrada declared an "All Out War" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), after the militant group committed a series of terrorist attacks on government buildings, civilians, and foreigners. A number of livelihood intervention projects, from organisations such as USAID and the Emergency Livelihood Assistance Program (ELAP), aided in the reconstruction of areas affected by constant battles on the island.
In December 2009, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo officially placed Maguindanao under a state of martial law following the Maguindanao Massacre.
Tropical storm Sendong (international name, Washi) made landfall on 15 December 2011 in Mindanao. The recorded 24-hour rainfall in Lumbia station of PAGASA reached 180.9 mm causing the overflow of the Cagayan de Oro River. The deadly storm killed 1,268 people with 49 others listed as missing. Most of the casualties were from the cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan. Those who survived were rendered homeless, seeking shelter in evacuation centers.
In May 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte declared martial law on the entire island group of Mindanao following the Marawi siege by the Maute terrorist group. Thousands of civilians were killed by the terrorist group during the siege, and more than 180,000 people were forced to evacuate Marawi City.
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Mindanao's economy accounts for 14% of the country's gross domestic product. The region grew 4.9% in 2016 against Luzon's 5.5% and Visayas' 9.1%.
Agriculture, forestry and fishing make up more than 40% of Mindanao's market, being the country's largest supplier of major crops such as pineapples and bananas.
There are 2 defined growth corridors in the island namely Metro Davao and Metro CDO. Other regional centers are: Zamboanga City, General Santos City, Butuan City, Cotabato City, Dipolog City, Jolo, Surigao City, Pagadian City, Koronadal City, and Tagum City.
Being the top-performing economy in Mindanao, Davao Region has the 5th-biggest economy in the country and the second-fastest-growing economy next to Cordillera Autonomous Region.While the region's economy is predominantly agri-based, it is now developing into a center for agro-industrial business, trade and tourism. Its competitive advantage is in agri-industry as its products, papayas, mangoes, bananas, pineapples, fresh asparagus, flowers, and fish products are exported internationally. The region can be a vital link to markets in other parts of Mindanao, Brunei Darussalam and parts of Malaysia and Indonesia .
There is also a growing call center sector in the region, mostly centered in Davao City.
Some 2,130 government-led infrastructure projects worth P547.9 billion have also been lined up for Mindanao until 2022.
NEDA official said that 68% of that budget will be allotted for the transportation sector, while 16% will go to water resources, and 6% to social infrastructure.
Of this amount, 18 infrastructure projects have been identified as "flagship projects," five of them have already been approved by President Rodrigo R. Duterte.
The projects include the ₱35.26 billion Tagum-Davao-Digos Segment of the Mindanao Railway, the ₱40.57 billion Davao airport, the ₱14.62 billion Laguindingan airport, the ₱4.86 billion Panguil Bay Bridge Project, and the ₱5.44 billion Malitubog-Maridagao Irrigation Project, Phase II.
Projects in the pipeline are the second and third phases of the Mindanao Railway; the Agus-Pulangi plant rehabilitation; the Davao expressway; the Zamboanga Fish Port Complex rehabilitation; the Balo-i Plains Flood Control Project; Asbang Small Reservoir Irrigation Project; the Ambal Simuay Sub-Basin of the Mindanao River Basin Flood Control and River Protection Project; as well as the Road Network Development Project in Conflict-Affected Areas in Mindanao project.
The island consists of 6 administrative regions,22 provinces, and 30 cities (27 provinces and 33 cities if associated islands are included).
(6,585.64 sq mi)
(7,913.56 sq mi)
|Cagayan de Oro City|
| Davao Region |
(7,860.04 sq mi)
| Soccsksargen |
(8,692.43 sq mi)
| Caraga Region |
(8,292.84 sq mi)
| Bangsamoro Autonomous Region|
(4,840.10 sq mi)
|Region||2010 census||Area||Density||Regional center||Component LGUs|
The list of largest cities and municipalities in Mindanao in terms of population is shown in the table below.
|1||Davao City||Davao Region||1,632,991||11||Valencia City||Northern Mindanao||192,993|
Cagayan de Oro City
General Santos City
|2||Zamboanga City||Zamboanga Peninsula||861,799||12||Panabo City||Davao Region||184,599|
|3||Cagayan de Oro City||Northern Mindanao||675,950||13||Koronadal City||Soccsksargen||174,942|
|4||General Santos City||Soccsksargen||594,446||14||Malaybalay City||Northern Mindanao||174,625|
|5||Iligan City||Northern Mindanao||342,618||15||Digos City||Davao Region||169,393|
|6||Butuan City||Caraga||337,063||16||Pikit, Cotabato||Soccsksargen||154,441|
|7||Cotabato City||Bangsamoro Autonomous Region||299,438||17||Surigao City||Caraga||154,137|
|8||Tagum City||Davao Region||259,444||18||Polomolok, South Cotabato||Soccsksargen||152,589|
|9||Islamic City of Marawi||Bangsamoro Autonomous Region||201,785||19||Midsayap, Cotabato||Soccsksargen||151,684|
|10||Pagadian City||Zamboanga Peninsula||199,060||20||Ozamiz City||Northern Mindanao||141,828|
Mindanao is the second-largest island in the Philippines at 97,530 square kilometers,and is the eighth-most populous island in the world. The island of Mindanao is larger than 125 countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, South Korea, Austria, Portugal, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Ireland. The island is mountainous, and is home to Mount Apo, the highest mountain in the country. Mindanao is surrounded by four seas: the Sulu Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south, and the Mindanao Sea to the north. Of all the islands of the Philippines, Mindanao shows the greatest variety of physiographic development. High, rugged, faulted mountains; almost isolated volcanic peaks; high rolling plateaus; and broad, level, swampy plains are found there.
The Mindanao island group is an arbitrary grouping of islands in southern Philippines which comprises the Mindanao mainland, the Sulu Archipelago (consisting of the islands of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-tawi), and the outlying islands of Camiguin, Dinagat, Siargao, and Samal. Platycerium grande is endemic to the island[ citation needed ]
The mountains of Mindanao can be grouped into ten ranges, including both complex structural mountains and volcanoes. The structural mountains on the extreme eastern and western portions of the island show broad exposures of Mesozoic rock, and Ultrabasic rocks at the surface in many places along the east coast. Other parts of the island consist mainly of Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic or sedimentary rocks.
In the eastern portion of the island, from Bilas Point in Surigao del Norte to Cape San Agustin in Davao Oriental, is a range of complex mountains known in their northern portion as the Diwata Mountains. This range is low and rolling in its central portion. A proposed road connecting Bislig on the east coast with the Agusan River would pass through 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) of broad saddle across the mountains at a maximum elevation of less than 250 meters (820 ft); while the existing east–west road from Lianga, 48 km (30 mi) north of Bislig, reaches a maximum elevation of only 450 m (1,480 ft). The Diwata Mountains, north of these low points, are considerably higher and more rugged, reaching an elevation of 2,012 m (6,601 ft) in Mount Hilong-Hilong, 17 miles (27 km) along the eastern portion of Cabadbaran City. The southern portion of this range is broader and even more rugged than the northern section. In Davao Oriental, several peaks rise above 2,600 m (8,500 ft) and one mountain rises to 2,910 m (9,550 ft).
The east-facing coastal regions of Davao and Surigao del Sur are marked by a series of small coastal lowlands separated from each other by rugged forelands which extend to the water's edge. Offshore are numerous coral reefs and tiny islets. This remote and forbidding coast is made doubly difficult to access during the months from October to March by the heavy surf driven before the northeast trade winds. A few miles offshore is found the Philippine Deep. This ocean trench, reaching measured depths of 34,696 feet (10,575 m), is the third-deepest trench, (after the Mariana Trench and Tonga Trench) on the earth's surface.
A second north–south mountain range extends from Talisayan in the north, to Tinaca Point in the southernmost point of Mindanao. This mountain range runs along the western borders of the Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, and Davao provinces. This range is mainly structural in origin, but it also contains at least three active volcano peaks. The central and northern portions of this range contain several peaks between 2,000 and 2,600 m (6,600 and 8,500 ft), and here the belt of mountains is about 30 miles (48 km) across.
West of Davao City stand two inactive volcanoes: Mount Talomo at 2,893 meters (9,491 ft), and Mount Apo at 2,964 m (9,724 ft). Mount Apo is the highest point in the Philippines. South of Mount Apo, this central mountain belt is somewhat lower than it is to the north, with peaks averaging only 1,100 to 1,800 m (3,600 to 5,900 ft).
In Western Mindanao, a range of complex structural mountains forms the long, hand-like Zamboanga Peninsula. These mountains, reaching heights of only 1,200 meters (3,900 feet), are not as high as the other structural belts in Mindanao. There are several places in the Zamboanga Mountains where small inter-mountain basins have been created, with some potential for future agricultural development. The northeastern end of this range is marked by the twin peaks of the now-extinct volcano, Mount Malindang, that towers over Ozamis City at a height of 2,425 m (7,956 ft). Mount Dapia is the highest mountain in the Zamboanga Peninsula, reaching a height of 2,617 m (8,586 ft). Batorampon Point is the highest mountain of the southernmost end of the peninsula, reaching a height of only 1,335 m (4,380 ft); it is located in the boundary of Zamboanga City.
A series of volcanic mountains is located within the vicinity of Lake Lanao forming a broad arc through the Lanao del Sur, Cotabato and Bukidnon provinces. At least six of the twenty odd peaks in this area are active and several stand in semi-isolation. The Butig Peaks, with their four crater lakes, are easily seen from Cotabato. Mount Ragang, an active volcano cone reaching 2,815 m (9,236 ft), is the most isolated, while the greatest height is reached by Mount Kitanglad at 2,889 m (9,478 ft).
In South Cotabato, is another range of volcanic mountains, this time paralleling the coast. These mountains have a maximum extent of 110 miles (180 km) from northwest to southeast and measures some 30 miles (48 km) across. One of the well-known mountains here is Mount Parker, whose almost circular crater lake measures a mile-and-a-quarter in diameter and lies 300 m (980 ft) below its 2,040 m (6,690 ft) summit. Mount Matutum is a protected area and is considered as one of the major landmarks in the South Cotabato province.
Another important physiographic division of Mindanao is the series of upland plateaus in the Bukidnon and Lanao del Sur provinces. These plateaus are rather extensive and almost surround several volcanoes in this area. The plateaus are made up of basaltic lava flows inter-bedded with volcanic ash and tuff. Near their edges, the plateaus are cut by deep canyons, and at several points waterfalls drop down to the narrow coastal plain. These falls hold considerable promise for development of hydroelectric energy. Indeed, one such site at Maria Cristina Falls has already become a major producer. The rolling plateaus lie at an elevation averaging 700 meters above sea level, and offer relief from the often oppressive heat of the coastal lowlands.
Lake Lanao occupies a large portion of one such plateau in Lanao del Sur. This lake is the largest lake in Mindanao and the second largest in the country; it is roughly triangular in shape with an 18-mile-long (29 km) base, having a surface at 780 meters above sea level, and is rimmed on the east, south, and west by a series of peaks reaching 2,300 meters.[ citation needed ] Marawi City, at the northern tip of the lake, is bisected by the Agus River, that feeds the Maria Cristina Falls.
Another of Mindanao's waterfall sites is located in Malabang, 15 miles (24 km) south of Lake Lanao. Here the Jose Abad Santos Falls present one of the nation's scenic wonders at the gateway to a 200-hectare national park development.
The Limunsudan Falls, with an approximate height of 800 ft (240 m), is the highest waterfall in the Philippines; it is located in Iligan City.
Mindanao contains two large lowland areas in the valleys of the Agusan River in Agusan, and the Rio Grande de Mindanao in Cotabato City.
There is some indication that the Agusan Valley occupies a broad syncline between the central mountains and the east-coast mountains. This valley measures 110 miles (180 km) from south to north and varies from 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) in width. 35 miles (56 km) north of the head of Davao Gulf lies the watershed between the Agusan and the tributaries of the Libuganon River, which flows to the Gulf. The elevation of this divide is well under 200 m (660 ft), indicating the almost continuous nature of the lowland from the Mindanao Sea on the north to the Davao Gulf.
The Rio Grande de Mindanao and its main tributaries, the Catisan and the Pulangi, form a valley with a maximum length of 120 miles (190 km) and a width which varies from 12 miles (19 km) at the river mouth to about 60 miles (97 km) in central Cotabato. The southern extensions of this Cotabato Valley extend uninterrupted across a 350-meter (1,150 ft) watershed from Illana Bay on the northwest to Sarangani Bay on the southeast.
Other lowlands of a coastal nature are to be found in various parts of Mindanao. Many of these are tiny isolated pockets, along the northwest coast of Zamboanga. In other areas such as the Davao Plain, these coastal lowlands are 16 km (9.9 mi) wide and several times in length.
From Dipolog City eastward along the northern coast of Mindanao approaching Butuan City extends a rolling coastal plain of varying width. In Misamis Occidental, the now dormant Mount Malindang has created a lowland averaging 13 km (8.1 mi) in width. Shallow Panquil Bay divides this province from Lanao del Norte, and is bordered by low-lying, poorly drained lowlands and extensive mangroves. In Misamis Oriental, the plain is narrower and in places whittle into rugged capes that reach the sea. East of Cagayan de Oro, a rugged peninsula extends into the Mindanao Sea.
As of 2017, Mindanao had a population of over 25 million people. This comprises 22.1 percent of the entire population of the country.
An American census conducted in the early 1900s noted that the island was inhabited by people "greatly divided in origin, temperament and religion".Evidence of the island's cultural diversity can be seen in the buildings and ruins of old Spanish settlements in the northwestern peninsula that span eastwards to the southern gulf coast, the site of the ancient Rajahnate of Butuan in the northeast region (Caraga), the Sultanates in the southwest (Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Lanao, Sultanate of Maguindanao), a number of Buddhist and Taoist temples, and the numerous indigenous tribes.
Today around 25.8 percent of the household population in Mindanao classified themselves as Cebuanos. Other ethnic groups included Bisaya/Binisaya (18.4%), Hiligaynon/Ilonggo (8.2%), Maguindanaon (5.5%), and Maranao (5.4%). The remaining 36.6 percent belonged to other ethnic groups. Cebuano registered the highest proportion of ethnic group in Northern Mindanao and Davao Region with 35.59 percent and 37.76 percent, respectively. In SOCCSKSARGEN, it was Hiligaynon/Ilonggo (31.58%), Binisaya/Bisaya (33.10%) in Zamboanga Peninsula, Maranao (26.40%) in ARMM, and Surigaonon (25.67%) in Caraga.
Dozens of languages are spoken in Mindanao; among them, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Maranao, Maguindanao, and Chavacano are most widely spoken. Of the seven aforementioned regional languages, Cebuano (often referred as Bisaya) has the highest number of speakers, being spoken throughout Northern Mindanao (except the southern parts of Lanao del Norte), the Davao region, the western half of the Caraga region (as well as the city of Bislig and the municipalities surrounding it in Surigao del Sur), the entirety of the Zamboanga Peninsula (with the exception of Zamboanga City), and southern SOCCSKSARGEN. Hiligaynon is the main language of SOCCSKSARGEN, where majority of the inhabitants are of ethnic Hiligaynon stock. Surigaonon is spoken in the eastern half of the Caraga region, mainly by the eponymous Surigaonons. Tausug is widely spoken in the western territories of the ARMM, specifically the Sulu Archipelago, which comprises the provinces of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi, with a sizeable community of speakers residing in Zamboanga City. Maguindanao and Maranao are the dominant languages of the eastern territories of the ARMM, respectively, with the former being spoken in Lanao del Sur as well as the southern areas of Lanao del Norte, and the latter in the eponymous province of Maguindanao and also in adjacent areas which are part of SOCCSKSARGEN. Chavacano is the native language of Zamboanga City and is also the lingua franca of Basilan; it is also spoken in the southernmost fringes of Zamboanga Sibugay. It is also spoken, albeit as a minority language, in Cotabato City and Davao City, where dialects of it, respectively, exist, namely Cotabateñ and Castellano Abakay, both of which evolved from the variant of the language spoken in Zamboanga City. English is also widely understood and spoken, being highly utilized in business and academia.
Christianity is the dominant religious affiliation in Mindanao with 60.9% of the household population, majority of which are adherents of Roman Catholicism, Islam comprised 23.39%,and other religions were Evangelical (5.34%), Aglipayan (2.16%), and Iglesia ni Cristo (1.66%).
Major tourist spots are scattered throughout Mindanao, consisting mostly of beach resorts, scuba diving resorts, surfing, museums, nature parks, mountain climbing, and river rafting. Siargao, best known for its surfing tower in Cloud 9, also has caves, pools, waterfalls, and lagoons.There are archaeological sites, historical ruins, and museums in Butuan. White Island is a popular tourist spot in Camiguin. The Duka Bay and the Matangale dive resorts in Misamis Oriental offer glass bottomed boat rides and scuba diving lessons. Cagayan de Oro has beach resorts, the Mapawa Nature Park, white water rafting and kayaking, museums, and historical landmarks. Ziplining is the main attraction at the Dahilayan Adventure Park in Bukidnon. Iligan City has The Maria Christina Falls, Tinago Falls, nature parks, beaches, and historical landmarks. There are parks, historical buildings, the Vinta Ride at Paseo del Mar, boat villages, 11 Islands (commonly called as Onçe Islas), 17th-century Fort Pilar Shrine & Museum and the world-renowned Pink Sand Beach of Sta. Cruz in Zamboanga City. There are festivals, fireworks, and the Beras Bird Sanctuary in Takurong City. Davao has Mt Apo, parks, museums, beaches, historical landmarks, and scuba diving resorts.
This section needs to be updated.July 2017)(
Many areas in Mindanao suffer rotating 12-hour blackouts due to the island's woefully inadequate power supply.The island is forecast to continue suffering from a 200-megawatt power deficit until 2015, when the private sector begins to operate new capacity. Aboitiz Equity Ventures, a publicly listed holdings company, has committed to supplying 1,200 megawatts through a coal-fired plant on the border of Davao City and Davao del Sur that is slated for operation by 2018. The Agus-Pulangui hydropower complex, which supplies more than half of Mindanao's power supply, is currently producing only 635 megawatts of its 982 megawatts capacity due to the heavy siltation of the rivers that power the complex. Zamboanga City, an urbanised center in southwest Mindanao, is expected to begin experience daily three-hour brownouts due to the National Power Corporation's decision to reduce power supply in the city by 10 megawatts. The Manila Electric Company (Meralco), the largest power distributor in the Philippines, and Global Business Power Corp (GBPC), also a major provider, have announced plans to enter Mindanao for the first time to establish solutions for the power problems within the island.
The Philippines is an archipelago that comprises 7,641 islands with a total land area of 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi). It is the world's 5th largest island country. The eleven largest islands contain 95% of the total land area. The largest of these islands is Luzon at about 105,000 square kilometers (40,541 sq mi). The next largest island is Mindanao at about 95,000 square kilometers (36,680 sq mi). The archipelago is around 800 kilometers (500 mi) from the Asian mainland and is located between Taiwan and Borneo.
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 81 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by an elected legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and by an elected governor.
Northern Mindanao is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region X. It comprises five provinces: Bukidnon, Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, and Lanao del Norte, and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin. The regional center is Cagayan de Oro. Lanao del Norte was transferred to Northern Mindanao from Region XII by virtue of Executive Order No. 36 in September 2001.
Soccsksargen, formerly known as Central Mindanao, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao. It is numerically designated as Region XII. The name is an acronym that stands for the region's four provinces and 1 city. The regional center is in Koronadal located in the province of South Cotabato, and the center of commerce and industry is General Santos, which is the most populous city in the Region.
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consisted of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi. It was the only region that had its own government. The region's de facto seat of government was Cotabato City, although this self-governing city was outside its jurisdiction.
TV Patrol North Mindanao is the local news network broadcast of the ABS-CBN Regional Network Group in Cagayan de Oro City. It has been the most watched news program in Cagayan de Oro City and Misamis Oriental. The newscast is a tabloid-style format and the program delivers news headlines about current events in Northern Mindanao, parts of Zamboanga Peninsula and, since 2018, Caraga Region
Mindanao Association State Colleges and Universities Foundation, Inc. is an association of public Tertiary level schools in the Mindanao region of the Philippines. It is composed of the following schools:
The Legislative district of Mindanao and Sulu was the collective representation of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and its component provinces of Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Sulu and Zamboanga as a single at-large district in the lower house of the Philippine Legislature from 1916 until 1935.
The Legislative district of Agusan was the representation of the historical province of Agusan in the various national legislatures of the Philippines until 1969. Butuan also remained part of the province's representation even after becoming a chartered city in 1950.
The Legislative district of Lanao was the representation of the historical province of Lanao in the various national legislatures of the Philippines until 1969. Marawi and Iligan also remained part of the province's representation even after becoming chartered cities in 1940 and 1950, respectively.
The Department of Mindanao and Sulu was an agency of the United States colonial administration in the Philippine Islands tasked to administer all Muslim-dominated areas in the territory. It was established on July 23, 1914, pursuant to Act No. 2408, replacing the Moro Province after the latter was divided into the then districts/provinces of Zamboanga, Lanao, Cotabato, Davao, and Sulu. It was later split into provinces/regions organized under the Department of Mindanao and Sulu, along with the former provinces of Agusan, Surigao and current province of Bukidnon, but excluding Lanao.
General elections are held for the first time in the newly created Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao for the Regional Governor and Vice-Governor were held on February 12, 1990. The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao region was first created on August 1, 1989 through Republic Act No. 6734 otherwise known as the Organic Act in pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for an autonomous area in Muslim Mindanao. A plebiscite was held in the provinces of Basilan, Cotabato, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Palawan, South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur; and in the cities of Cotabato, Dapitan, Dipolog, General Santos, Iligan, Marawi, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa and Zamboanga to determine if the residents would want to be part of the ARMM. Of the areas where the plebiscites were held only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi voted favorably for inclusion in the new autonomous region.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Philippines:
The southern island group of Mindanao in the Philippines is divided into six administrative regions. Each region is subdivided into provinces.
Misamis is a former province of the Philippines. It corresponds to the present provinces of Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Camiguin, Bukidnon, part of Zamboanga del Norte, Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte, and part of Cotabato.
DXJC-TV, channel 35, is a television station of Philippine television network GMA Network. Its studios are located at the 2nd floor Centro Mariano Building, Sergio Osmeña St., Barangay 12, Cagayan de Oro City and the transmitter is located at Malasag Heights, Barangay Cugman, Cagayan de Oro City.
24 Oras Northern Mindanao, formerly Testigo Northern Mindanao is a Philippine television newscast show broadcast by GMA Network in the Northern Mindanao. It premiered on February 5, 2013 replacing Isyu Karon. The newscast concluded on April 24, 2015. It was replaced by One Mindanao in its timeslot.
An autonomous region of the Philippines is a first-level administrative division and it has the authority to control the region's culture and economy. It is a minority entity that has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group. The Constitution of the Philippines allows for two autonomous regions: for Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mindanao .|
|Look up mindanao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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|Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article " Mindanao ".|