|Mingyi Nyo |
|King of Toungoo Dynasty|
|Reign||16 October 1510 – 24 November 1530|
|Coronation||11 April 1511|
|Viceroy of Toungoo|
|Reign||c. April 1485 – 16 October 1510|
|Coronation||11 November 1491|
|Born||c. July 1459 |
Wednesday, 821 ME
|Died||24 November 1530 71) (aged|
5th waxing of Nadaw 892 ME
|Consort|| Soe Min Hteik-Tin |
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi
|Issue|| Tabinshwehti |
|Mother||Min Hla Nyet|
Mingyi Nyo (Burmese : မင်းကြီးညို; also spelled Minkyi-nyo; pronounced [mɪ́ɰ̃dʑíɲò] ; 1459–1530) was the founder of Toungoo dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). Under his 45-year leadership (1485–1530), Toungoo (Taungoo), grew from a remote backwater vassal state of Ava Kingdom to a small but stable independent kingdom. In 1510, he declared Toungoo's independence from its nominal overlord Ava. He skillfully kept his small kingdom out of the chaotic warfare plaguing Upper Burma. Toungoo's stability continued to attract refugees from Ava fleeing the repeated raids of Ava by the Confederation of Shan States (1490s–1527). Nyo left a stable, confident kingdom that enabled his successor Tabinshwehti to contemplate taking on larger kingdoms on his way to founding the Toungoo Empire.
Mingyi Nyo was born to Maha Thinkhaya and Min Hla Nyet.His father was a descendant of Kyawswa I of Pinya, who himself was a descendant of kings Narathihapate of Bagan and Thihathu of Pinya. His mother was a daughter of Viceroy Sithu Kyawhtin of Toungoo, a descendant of King Swa Saw Ke.
|Ancestry of King Mingyi Nyo|
Nyo was most likely born in Ava (Inwa) as his maternal grandfather Sithu Kyawhtin did not become viceroy until 1470, and prior to 1470 served at King Thihathura I's court at Ava. He was born in 1459.He was likely about eleven or twelve years old when his entire family moved to Toungoo with Sithu Kyawhtin's appointment as viceroy. After Sithu Kyawhtin's death in 1481, his eldest son Min Sithu inherited the viceroyship. (The viceroyships in that era were hereditary, and were a primary cause of endemic rebellions that plagued Ava. The Restored Toungoo kings (1599–1752) would later eliminate the hereditary rights of viceroys.) Nyo wanted to marry his first cousin, Soe Min Hteik-Tin. But because his uncle Min Sithu repeatedly rejected Nyo's numerous requests, he murdered his uncle, took his cousin as wife. He seized power in c. April 1485.
After assassinating his uncle and seizing the viceroyship, Nyo sent a present of two young elephants to King Minkhaung II of Ava. In normal times, killing a governor was a serious crime. But Minkhaung II was facing a serious rebellion nearer to Ava (by his brother Minye Kyawswa of Yamethin)–Prome farther south had already revolted in 1482–did not want another rebellion. He gave Nyo recognition as governor of Toungoo, and solicited Toungoo's help in the rebellions. Nyo also received recognition from Hanthawaddy and Lan Na, and received propitiatory tribute from the Karenni.
Mingyi Nyo, now styled as Thiri Zeya Thura, eagerly assisted Ava in its fight against Yamethin. (His grandfather Sithu Kyawhtin died in 1481 fighting against the Yamethin rebels.) Even with Toungoo's help, the Yamethin rebellion was intractable and remained a stalemate. (It would remain so until Minye Kyawswa's death in August 1500). With Ava chiefly preoccupied by Yamethin, Nyo grew more confident and on 11 November 1491built a new fortified city called Dwayawaddy (still near Toungoo), at the estuary of the rivers Kabaung and Paunglaung.
Nyo soon tested his power by meddling into the accession affairs of Hanthawaddy Kingdom, the much larger kingdom to the south. In 1491–1492, Hanthawaddy's new king Binnya Ran II came to power by killing off all the royal offspring. Taking advantage of the chaos in the southern kingdom, Nyo sent a probing raid into the territory of Hanthawaddy without Minkhaung II's permission. At Kaungbya, he killed its Shan governor in single combat by jumping onto his elephant and cutting him down. [ citation needed ]Hanthawaddy's response was swift. In late 1495, Binnya Ran II sent in a combined land and naval force of 16,000, which ultimately laid siege to the new built Dwayawaddy itself. Toungoo barely survived the siege but Nyo would not make war against the larger neighbor for the remainder of his life.
Minkhaung II nonetheless upgraded Nyo's title to Maha Thiri Zeya Thura for surviving the Hanthawaddy attack (although it was Nyo who without his permission provoked the attack). Minkhaung had little choice but to retain Nyo as he was one of the remaining loyal vassals of Ava. In return, Toungoo participated Ava's campaigns against Yamethin and Prome for the remainder of the 1490s.
By the turn of the 16th century, Nyo's Toungoo was equally powerful as its nominal overlord Ava. Nyo, though still loyal to Minkhaung, nonetheless accepted about a thousand Yamethin rebels, who fled to Toungoo after their leader died in August 1500. When Minkhaung II also died in April 1501, Nyo was ready to assert his independence.He readily gave shelter to those who attempted on the life of the new king Shwenankyawshin.
Despite Nyo's thinly veiled insurrection, the new king wanted to retain Toungoo's loyalty as he faced a new even more pressing problem of Shan raids from the north. In 1502, he bribed Nyo by giving him his first cousin Min Hla Htut (styled as Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi)for marriage and the Kyaukse granary, the most valuable region in Upper Burma. Nyo accepted the region, and deported much of the population between Kyaukse and Toungoo–Yamethin, Meiktila, etc.–to his capital. But not only did he not provide any help to Ava but he actively joined in the rebellions by the princes of Nyaungyan and Prome. Together with the rebel forces, he raided far north as Sale. In 1509, Taungdwingyi also came under his authority.
In 1510, he founded Ketumati, the present-day Toungoo, complete with fortified walls. On 16 October 1510 (Full moon of Tazaungmon 872 ME) [ citation needed ]Nyo formally announced Toungoo's independence. At his coronation ceremony on 11 April 1511, he was crowned king with the regnal title of Maha Thiri Zeya Thura Dhamma Yaza Dipadi. Ava was in no position to contest the decision, as it had more pressing problems with the Shan raids from the north. At any rate, the announcement was a mere formality. Toungoo had been de facto independent since 1501. After the formal declaration of independence, Nyo largely stayed out of the endemic warfare between Ava and the Confederation of Shan States that consumed much of Upper Burma between 1501 and 1527. When Ava was on the ropes, he did move up his forward base to Yamethin and Taungdwingyi, former Ava territories, on 15 March 1523 (New Moon of Tabaung 884 ME). Ava responded by unsuccessfully laying siege to Toungoo for a month in April–May 1525. Otherwise, the kingdom was largely peaceful.
When the Confederation finally defeated Ava in March 1527, Nyo deliberately devastated the countryside between Ava and Toungoo, filling the wells and breaking down the channels in the hope of making an impassable belt between Toungoo and the Confederation. The Burmese bureaucracy and population at Ava largely fled to Toungoo.
Mingyi Nyo died on 24 November 1530, and was succeeded by his son Tabinshweti.
Mingyi Nyo's 45-year reign was one of the few stable regimes in Upper Burma in the era. Toungoo's remote location (nestled between the Bago Yoma mountain range and the Karen Hill country, and cut off from the main Irrawaddy river valley) proved a vital advantage. It took effort to march to Toungoo. The stability of his kingdom attracted many refugees, and the flow of refugees accelerated after Ava's fall. The increased manpower allowed Tabinshwehti and his deputy Bayinnaung to imagine an offensive war against larger kingdoms. Tabinshwehti's improbable victory over Hanthawaddy had its beginnings in Mingyi Nyo's long stable rule.[ citation needed ]
Tabinshwehti was king of Burma (Myanmar) from 1530 to 1550, and the founder of the First Toungoo Empire. His military campaigns (1534–1549) created the largest kingdom in Burma since the fall of the Pagan Empire in 1287. His administratively fragile kingdom proved to be the impetus for the eventual reunification of the entire country by his successor and brother-in-law Bayinnaung.
Mohnyin Thado was king of Ava from 1426 to 1439. He is also known in Burmese history as Mohnyin Min Taya after his longtime tenure as the sawbwa of Mohnyin, a Shan-speaking frontier state. He founded the royal house of Mohnyin that would rule the kingdom until 1527.
Thihathura of Ava was king of Ava from 1468 to 1480. He was the last king of Ava who was able to hold on to the increasingly fractious kingdom in its entirety. Soon after succeeding his father Narapati, the new king had to put down a rebellion in Toungoo (Taungoo) in 1470, and suppressed an insurrection by his brother the lord of Prome (Pyay), whom the king pardoned. He gained submission of the eastern Shan state of Yawnghwe, and quelled a potential rebellion in the northern Shan states of Mohnyin and Mogaung. He was succeeded by his son Minkhaung II.
Sithu Kyawhtin of Toungoo was Viceroy of Toungoo from 1470 to 1481, and a general in the Ava military. He was the maternal grandfather of Mingyi Nyo, the founder of Toungoo Dynasty of Myanmar. He was a son-in-law of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa of the Forty Years' War fame.
Minkhaung II was king of Ava from 1480 to 1501. His 20-year reign was the beginning of the decline of Ava's hold on Upper Burma. Yamethin, a region to the east of Ava, revolted upon Minkhaung's accession to the Ava throne and stayed independent throughout Minkhaung's reign. The southern regions of Prome and Tharrawaddy revolted in 1482, and also stayed independent. By the mid-1490s, the Shan states of Mohnyin, Mogaung, Momeik and Kale (Kalay) had also broken away, and begun raiding northern Ava territories. Minkhaung increasingly came to rely on Mingyi Nyo, the Viceroy of Toungoo, for military assistance. By the end of his reign, Toungoo was equally powerful as its nominal overlord Ava.
Shwenankyawshin Narapati was king of Ava from 1501 to 1527. His reign saw the disintegration of the Ava Kingdom. He spent much of his reign fighting back the attacks from the Confederation of Shan States. But his efforts ultimately proved unsuccessful. The king died fighting while defending his capital from Confederation attacks, after which Ava Kingdom was taken over by the Confederation.
Mingyi Swa of Prome was viceroy of Prome from 1446 to 1482 during the reigns of kings Narapati I, Thihathura I and Minkhaung II of Ava.
Thado Minsaw of Prome was the founder of Prome Kingdom, and reigned the minor kingdom from 1482 to 1527. In 1524, he entered into an alliance with the Confederation of Shan States, and participated in the 1525 sack of Ava (Inwa).
The Prome Kingdom was a kingdom that existed for six decades between 1482 and 1542 in present-day central Burma (Myanmar). Based out of the city of Prome (Pyay), the minor kingdom was one of the several statelets that broke away from the dominant Ava Kingdom in the late 15th century. Throughout the 1520s, Prome was an ally of the Confederation of Shan States, and together they raided Avan territory. After Ava fell to the Confederation armies in 1527, Prome itself became a tributary of the Confederation in 1532. In the late 1530s, Prome became ensnarled in the Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1534–1541). Despite military assistance from the Confederation and the Mrauk U Kingdom, the small kingdom fell to the Toungoo (Taungoo) forces in 1542.
Minye Sithu was viceroy of Martaban (Mottama) from 1552 to 1556. The eldest younger brother of Bayinnaung was appointed governor of Zayweon by King Tabinshwehti in 1541, and viceroy of Martaban in 1552 by Bayinnaung. He participated in the military campaigns of the Toungoo Empire from 1534, and as a commander from 1540 to 1555.
Min Hla Htut of Pyakaung was the chief queen of Viceroy Sithu Kyawhtin of Toungoo.
The Toungoo–Ava War (1538–1545) was a military conflict that took place in present-day Lower and Central Burma (Myanmar) between the Toungoo Dynasty, and the Ava-led Confederation of Shan States, Hanthawaddy Pegu, and Arakan (Mrauk-U). Toungoo's decisive victory gave the upstart kingdom control of all of central Burma, and cemented its emergence as the largest polity in Burma since the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287.
Soe Min Hteik-Tin was the chief queen consort of Toungoo from 1510 to 1530. Her reign title was Thiri Atula Maha Nanda Dewi. She was a daughter of Viceroy Min Sithu of Toungoo. In 1485, her first cousin Mingyi Nyo assassinated her father because he had refused give her in marriage to Nyo. She became the chief queen consort in 1510 when Nyo declared independence from Ava (Inwa). On 11 April 1511, at the coronation ceremony, she was crowned the chief queen with the title Thiri Atula Maha Nanda Dewi ).
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi was a principal queen consort of King Mingyi Nyo of Toungoo Dynasty.
Saw Lu Thinkhaya was the ruler of Toungoo from 1420 to 1435. He was first appointed governor of the frontier vassal state by King Minkhaung I of Ava in 1420. Following the succession crises at Ava, Thinkhaya declared independence in 1426. He seized up to Yamethin in 1428–29, and in an alliance with King Binnya Ran I of Hanthawaddy Pegu attempted to pick off Prome (Pyay) in 1430–31. But after Ava and Pegu separately reached a truce, Thinkhaya retreated to his home region, and may have lost control of the Yamethin region by 1434. Less than a year after his death in 1435, Toungoo became a vassal of Hanthawaddy.
Minye Kyawswa Saw Shwe Khet was governor of Prome (Pyay), a major vassal state of Ava, from 1417 to 1422, and from 1442 to 1446. He was the only governor or viceroy of Prome to serve more than one term. He also served as governor of districts of Prome: twice at Tharrawaddy (Thayawadi) (1422–1427) and (1446–1460) and at Paungde (1460–1470s).
Minye Kyawhtin was a pretender to the Ava throne from 1426 to 1459. The eldest son of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa, Minye Kyawhtin raised a long-running rebellion against King Mohnyin Thado and his successors, kings Minye Kyawswa I and Narapati I of Ava.
Tarabya I of Pakhan was a Burmese governor and military commander during the early Ava period. Between 1390 and 1413, Tarabya served as governor of Pakhan and as an officer in the Ava military in several campaigns, mostly against the southern Hanthawaddy forces in the Forty Years' War. In 1413, he lost his military command and was transferred to become governor of Pagan (Bagan), the ancient royal capital. He appeared to have ended his career there c. early 1430s.
Sithu Min Oo was a longtime pretender to the Pinya throne from the 1320s to the 1360s. After Ava replaced Pinya as the new power in present-day central Myanmar in 1365, Sithu entered into an alliance with King Swa Saw Ke of Ava by marrying Swa's daughter Minkhaung Medaw. Kings Mingyi Nyo, Tabinshwehti and Nanda of the Toungoo dynasty were descended from him.
Sithu Thanbawa was a Burmese prince who held in fief the Five Irrigated Districts of the Ava Kingdom in the late 14th century. Descended from the Pagan royal lines from both sides, the prince was an ancestor of kings Mingyi Nyo, Tabinshwehti and Nanda of the Toungoo dynasty.