Minister President of Prussia

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Minister President of Prussia
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0057, Otto von Bismarck.jpg
Otto von Bismarck, the most famous and longest serving officeholder
Residence Berlin, Prussia
Appointer King of Prussia (1848–1918)
Landtag of Prussia (1918–1933)
Formation19 March 1848
First holder Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg
Final holder Hermann Göring
Abolished23 April 1945
Preussischer Adler (1871-1914).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Prussia

The office of Minister President (German : Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed from 1848, when it was formed by the King Frederick William IV during the 1848–49 Revolution, until the abolition of Prussia in 1947 by the Allied Control Council.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Prussia state in Central Europe between 1525–1947

Prussia was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany.

Frederick William IV of Prussia King of Prussia

Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne Cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament as not the Parliament's to give. In 1857, he suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated until his death. His brother Wilhelm served as regent for the rest of his reign and then succeeded him as King.

Contents

History of the office

Under the Kingdom of Prussia the Minister President functioned as the chief minister of the King, and presided over the Landtag (the Prussian legislature established in 1848). After the unification of Germany in 1871 and until the collapse in 1918, the office of the Prussian Minister President was usually held ex officio by the Chancellor of the German Empire, beginning with the tenure of Otto von Bismarck.

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

Landtag of Prussia parliament

The Landtag of Prussia was the representative assembly of the Kingdom of Prussia implemented in 1849, a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and the lower House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus). After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Landtag diet continued as the parliament of the Free State of Prussia between 1921 and 1933.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Under the Free State of Prussia the Minister President was the head of the state government in a more traditional parliamentary role during the Weimar Republic. The office ceased to have any real meaning except as a kind of political patronage title after the takeover by the national government in 1932 ( Preußenschlag ), and after Nazi Germany dismantled Prussia as a state in 1935 ( Reichsstatthaltergesetz ). Eventually, the office was abolished along with Prussia itself by the Allies after World War II.

Free State of Prussia former federated state of Germany between 1918 and 1947

The Free State of Prussia was a state of Germany from 1918 to 1947.

Weimar Republic Germany state in the years 1918/1919–1933

The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although commonly translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself. The Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

Preußenschlag July 1932 incident in Prussia, Germany

The Preußenschlag of 1932, also known in English as the coup in Prussia or the putsch in Prussia, was the takeover of the Free State of Prussia, the largest German state, by Chancellor Franz von Papen, using an emergency decree issued by President Paul von Hindenburg under Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution on July 20, 1932.

List of Ministers President of Prussia (1848–1947)

Ministers-President of the Kingdom of Prussia (1848–1918)

Political Party:   Zentrum    None

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
Took OfficeLeft OfficeDays
AHArnimB.jpg Count Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg
(1803–1868)
19 March 184829 March 184810Non-partisan
Camphausen.jpeg Gottfried Ludolf Camphausen
(1803–1890)
29 March 184820 June 184883Non-partisan
Rudolf von Auerswald Haase BNF Gallica.jpg Rudolf von Auerswald
(1795–1866)
25 June 18488 September 184875Non-partisan
Pfuel.jpg Ernst von Pfuel
(1779–1866)
21 September 18481 November 184841Non-partisan
FWvBrandenburg.jpg Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg
(1792–1850)
2 November 18486 November 1850734Non-partisan
Manteuffel, Otto Theodor von (1805-1882).jpg Baron Otto Theodor von Manteuffel
(1805–1882)
9 December 18506 November 18582889Non-partisan
Karl Anton von Hohenzollern.jpg Prince Karl Anton von Hohenzollern
(1811–1885)
6 November 185812 March 18621222Non-partisan
No image.svg Prince Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
(1797–1873)
17 March 186223 September 1862190Non-partisan
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0057, Otto von Bismarck.jpg Prince Otto von Bismarck
(1815–1898)
1st term
23 September 18621 January 18733753Non-partisan
Albrecht Graf von Roon by Gustav Graf.jpg Count Albrecht von Roon
(1803–1879)
1 January 18739 November 1873312Non-partisan
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0057, Otto von Bismarck.jpg Prince Otto von Bismarck
(1815–1898)
2nd term
9 November 187320 March 18905975Non-partisan
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R09316, Leo Graf von Caprivi.jpg Count Leo von Caprivi
(1831–1899)
20 March 189022 March 1892733Non-partisan
Botho Wendt zu Eulenburg.jpg Count Botho zu Eulenburg
(1831–1912)
22 March 189226 October 1894948Non-partisan
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst - Die Gartenlaube (1894) 773.jpg Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
(1819–1901)
29 October 189417 October 19002179Non-partisan
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0098, Bernhard Furst von Bulow (cropped).jpg Prince Bernhard von Bülow
(1849–1929)
17 October 190014 July 19093192Non-partisan
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.jpg Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
(1856–1921)
14 July 190913 July 19172921Non-partisan
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2004-0720-500, Georg Michaelis.jpg Georg Michaelis
(1857–1936)
14 July 19171 November 1917110Non-partisan
Georg von Hertling.jpg Count Georg von Hertling
(1843–1919)
1 November 191730 September 1918333 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R04103, Prinz Max von Baden.jpg Prince Maximilian of Baden
(1867–1929)
3 October 19189 November 191837Non-partisan

Ministers-President of the Free State of Prussia (1918–1947)

Political Party:   SPD    Zentrum    NSDAP    None

PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical Party
Took OfficeLeft OfficeDays
Ministers-President of the Free State of Prussia in the Weimar Republic
Friedrich Ebert face.jpg Friedrich Ebert
(1871–1925)
9 November 191811 November 19182 Social Democratic Party of Germany
No image.svg Paul Hirsch
(1868–1940)
11 November 191827 March 1920502 Social Democratic Party of Germany
Otto Braun - circa 1930.jpg Otto Braun
(1872–1955)
1st term
27 March 192021 April 1921390 Social Democratic Party of Germany
Adam Stegerwald JS2.jpg Adam Stegerwald
(1874–1945)
21 April 19215 November 1921198 Centre Party
Otto Braun - circa 1930.jpg Otto Braun
(1872–1955)
2nd term
5 November 192118 February 19251201 Social Democratic Party of Germany
Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx (cropped1).jpg Wilhelm Marx
(1863–1946)
18 February 19256 April 192547 Centre Party
Otto Braun - circa 1930.jpg Otto Braun
(1872–1955)
3rd term
6 April 192520 July 19322662 Social Democratic Party of Germany
FranzVonPapenEn1933.jpeg Franz von Papen
(1879–1969)
Reichskommisar136Non-partisan
20 July 19323 December 1932
KurtVonScheleicherEn1932.jpeg Kurt von Schleicher
(1882–1934)
Reichskommisar56Non-partisan
3 December 193228 January 1933
FranzVonPapenEn1933.jpeg Franz von Papen
(1879–1969)
Reichskommisar70Non-partisan
30 January 193310 April 1933
Hitler portrait crop.jpg Adolf Hitler
(1889–1945)
Reichsstatthalter730 National Socialist German Workers' Party
30 January 193330 January 1935
Minister-President of the Free State of Prussia in Nazi Germany
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-15607, Potsdam, Goring.jpg Hermann Göring
(1893–1946)
Ministerpräsident4396 National Socialist German Workers' Party
10 April 193323 April 1945
Reichsstatthalter3736
30 January 193523 April 1945

See also

Deputy Prime Minister of Prussia

This page lists deputy prime ministers or ministers-president of Prussia.

The Constitution of Prussia, was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was promulgated on 5 December 1848 by Frederick William IV, in response to the revolutions of 1848. Thereby committing himself to unification, forming a liberal government and convening a national assembly.

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