|Bundesministerium für innerdeutsche Beziehungen|
|Formed||20 September 1949|
|Dissolved|| 9 November 1989 (effectively)|
18 January 1991 (formally)
|Jurisdiction||Government of Germany|
The Federal Minister of Intra-German Relations (German : Bundesminister für innerdeutsche Beziehungen) was a federal cabinet minister of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). The office was created under the title of Federal Minister of All-German Affairs (Bundesminister für gesamtdeutsche Fragen) in 1949, being also in charge of the German lands east of the Oder–Neisse line which had been put under Polish or Soviet administration. In 1951, the first Minister of All-German Affairs Jakob Kaiser openly raised claim to even greater territories including Austria, parts of Switzerland, the Saar area and Alsace-Lorraine.
German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
West Germany was the informal name for what was officially the Federal Republic of Germany, a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War period, the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War era West Germany is sometimes retrospectively historically designated the "Bonn Republic".
The ministry was renamed in 1969 because "All-German" might have evoked irredentist associations. The change of the name was supported by both left- and right-wing politicians.[ citation needed ]
The ministry was abolished in 1991 when a new government was established after the federal election of December 1990, some months after German reunification, having supported the transition.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 2 December 1990 to elect the members of the 12th Bundestag. This was the first all-German election since the Nazi show election in April 1938, the first multi-party all-German election since that of March 1933, which was held after the Nazi seizure of power and was subject to widespread suppression, and the first free and fair all-German election since November 1932. The result was a comprehensive victory for the governing coalition of the Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union and the Free Democratic Party, which was reelected to a third term.
The German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23. The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity, celebrated on 3 October. Following German reunification, Berlin was once again designated as the capital of united Germany.
Since West Germany maintained an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, and the legal pretense that the authorities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) or Soviet occupation zone (SBZ) should not be recognized, it could not handle relations with East Germany through the Federal Foreign Office, since this would acknowledge that the GDR was a separate country. Hence, a separate ministry for relations within Germany had to be created. Since this ministry had very limited competence and virtually no political power, it soon became a post used by chancellors to block rivals without publicly offending them. One of the main tasks of the ministry was the publication of information material about the situation in the East, to keep the idea of German unity alive and to inform the public about actions of the East German government.
An exclusive mandate is a government's assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty. It is also known as a claim to sole representation or an exclusive authority claim. The concept was particularly important during the Cold War period when a number of states were divided on ideological grounds.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", and the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet occupation zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR.
The Soviet Occupation Zone was the area of Germany occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II in 1945. On 7 October 1949 the German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly referred to in English as East Germany, was established in the Soviet Occupation Zone.
When German reunification became a possibility after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the opening of the inner German border on 9 November 1989, the ministry was completely disempowered by Chancellor Helmut Kohl; all intra-German affairs were now handled by the Ministry of the Interior under Wolfgang Schäuble. Formally, the ministry continued to exist until 1991 in order to facilitate transition.
Die Wende is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and a market economy in the German Democratic Republic around 1989 and 1990. It encompasses several processes and events which later have become synonymous with the overall process. These processes and events are:
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin, until East German officials ordered it opened in November 1989. Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.
The Inner German border was the border between the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 to 1990. Not including the similar and physically separate Berlin Wall, the border was 1,393 kilometres (866 mi) long and ran from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia.
Political Party: CDU FDP SPD
|Image||Party||Term of Office|| Chancellor |
|Federal Minister of All-German Affairs|
| Jakob Kaiser |
|CDU||20 September 1949||29 October 1957|| Adenauer |
(I • II)
| Ernst Lemmer |
|CDU||29 October 1957||13 December 1962|| Adenauer |
(III • IV)
| Rainer Barzel |
|CDU||14 December 1962||11 October 1963|| Adenauer |
| Erich Mende |
|FDP||17 October 1963||28 October 1966|| Erhard |
(I • II)
| Johann Baptist Gradl |
|CDU||28 October 1966||30 November 1966|| Erhard |
| Herbert Wehner |
|SPD||1 December 1966||21 October 1969||Kiesinger (I)|
|Federal Minister of Intra-German Relations|
| Egon Franke |
|SPD||22 October 1969||1 October 1982|| Brandt (I • II)|
Schmidt (I • II • III)
| Rainer Barzel |
|CDU||4 October 1982||29 March 1983|| Kohl |
| Heinrich Windelen |
|CDU||30 March 1983||11 March 1987|| Kohl |
| Dorothee Wilms |
|CDU||12 March 1987||18 January 1991|| Kohl |
The Central Registry of State Judicial Administrations in Salzgitter, West Germany, was established on 24 November 1961 in the aftermath of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Its function was to verify human rights violations by the government of East Germany like homicide at the Inner German border, political persecution, torture and maltreatment, etc. Intended for deterrence, in the long run the information should have led to the initiation of criminal proceedings in the case of a reunification. The organization was financed by all western German States. It was dissolved in 1992 after the German reunification.
The Ministry of Unification is an executive department of the South Korean government aimed at promoting Korean reunification. It was first established in 1969 as the National Unification Board, under the rule of Park Chung-hee. It gained its current status in 1998 and has played a major role in promoting inter-Korean dialogues, exchanges and cooperation.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP), who served as the Federal Minister of the Interior from 1969 to 1974, and as the Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 1974 to 1992, making him the longest-serving occupant of either post and the only person, holding one of these posts under two different Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 he was chairman of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
BRD ; is an unofficial abbreviation commonly used between 1968 and 1990 by the communist regime of the German Democratic Republic to refer to the Federal Republic of Germany, informally known at the time as West Germany. The East German regime previously used the term "German Federal Republic" to refer to its western counterpart.
The All-German People's Party was a minor political party in West Germany active between 1952 and 1957. It was a Christian, pacifist, centre-left party that opposed the re-armament of West Germany because it believed that the remilitarisation and NATO integration would make German reunification impossible, deepen the division of Europe and pose a danger to peace.
Professor Eckhard Jesse is a German political scientist. He holds the professorship for "political systems, political institutions" at the Technical University of Chemnitz. Jesse is one of the best known German political scholars in the field of extremism and terrorism studies. He has also specialized in the study of German political parties and the German political system.
Horst Möller is a German contemporary historian. He is Professor of Modern History at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU) and, from 1992 to 2011, Director of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte.
The Art Prize of the German Democratic Republic was an East German state award bestowed on individuals for contributions in various fields of art.
Dieter Mahncke is a scholar of foreign policy and security studies, and Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Professor Emeritus of European Foreign Policy and Security Studies at the College of Europe. He is the author of books and articles on European security, arms control, German foreign policy, Berlin, US-European relations and South Africa.
Werner E. Ablaß is a German politician who was a Christian oppositionist in East Germany (GDR). Together with minister Rainer Eppelmann, Secretary of State in the Ministerium für Abrüstung und Verteidigung (MfAuV), Ablaß played a major role in the closure of the National People's Army (NVA) during the German reunification.
Heinrich Windelen was a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union. He served as a Member of the Bundestag from 1957 to 1990, and as Federal Minister for Displaced Persons, Refugees and War Victims in the Cabinet Kiesinger in 1969 and as Federal Minister of Intra-German Relations in the Cabinet Kohl II from 1983 to 1987.
Helmut Müller-Enbergs is a German political scientist who has written extensively on the Stasi and related aspects of the German Democratic Republic's history.
Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk is a German historian and author. His work is focused on the German Democratic Republic and its Ministry for State Security.
Thomas Ammer is a German historian who as a young man studied to become a physician.
Johannes Stroux was a German classicist, scholar of Roman law and organizer of scientific projects and organizations. In 1945 he became rector of the Berlin University and president of the Berlin Academy of Science.
Ludwig A. Rehlinger is a German Jurist who became a politician and government minister. He came to wider prominence in connection with the trading of East German political prisoners.
Gerhart Hass was a German historian. His approach reflected the Marxist prism through which East Germany's historical establishment viewed their subject. He worked at the History Institute, part of the Berlin based (East) German Academy of Sciences and Humanities, where from 1974 he was a professor. His work concentrated on the History of Fascism in Europe and the Second World War.
Karl Obermann was a German historian. He became the first director of the Historical Institute of the (East) German Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
The proclamation of the German Empire, also known as the Deutsche Reichsgründung, took place in January 1871 after the joint victory of the German states in the Franco-Prussian War. As a result of the November Treaties of 1870s, the southern German states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, with their territories south of the Main line, Württemberg and Bavaria, joined the Prussian-dominated "German Confederation" on 1 January 1871. On the same day, the new Constitution of the German Confederation came into force, thereby significantly extending the federal German lands to the newly created German Empire. The Day of the founding of the German Empire, January 18, became a day of celebration, marking when the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor in Versailles.
Hans Joachim Meyer is a German politician (CDU). He served in the de Maizière government as the last East German Minister for Education and the Arts. After reunification he became Secretary of State for Sciences and the Arts in the regional government of Saxony. In addition, he served between 1997 and 2009 as President of the Central Committee of German Catholics .
Arno Donda was an East German economist and statistician. Between July 1963 and October 1990 he was in charge of the East German Statistical Authority .
Philine Fischer, néeFranke, married name Sannemüller was a German opera and concert singer (soprano).