|Minister of National Defence of Canada|
|The Defence Portfolio|
|Appointer||Governor General of Canada on behalf of the Queen of Canada|
|Term length||At Her Majesty's pleasure|
|Inaugural holder||George Perry Graham|
|Formation||1 January 1923|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Minister of National Defence (French : Ministre de la Défense nationale) is a Minister of the Crown and is the politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the management and direction of all matters relating to the national defence of Canada. The Department of National Defence is headed by the Deputy Minister of National Defence, the department's senior civil servant, while the Canadian Armed Forces are headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff, Canada's senior serving military officer. Both are responsible to the Minister. The Queen of Canada (represented by the Governor General of Canada) is the Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces and has final authority on all orders and laws for the "defence of the realm" (see Queen-in-Council). The minister is responsible, through the tenets of responsible government, to Parliament for "the management and direction of the Canadian Forces". Any orders and instructions for the Canadian Armed Forces are issued by or through the Chief of the Defence Staff. The Department of National Defence exists to aid the minister in carrying out his responsibilities, and acts as the civilian support system for the Canadian Forces.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy. The term indicates that the minister serves at His/Her Majesty's pleasure, and advises the sovereign or viceroy on how to exercise the Crown prerogatives relative to the minister's department or ministry.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
The current Minister of National Defence is Harjit Sajjan.
Harjit Singh Sajjan,, is a Canadian Liberal politician, the current Minister of National Defence and a Member of Parliament representing the riding of Vancouver South. He is Canada's first Sikh Minister of Defence. Sajjan was first elected during the 2015 federal election, defeating Conservative incumbent MP Wai Young and was sworn as defence minister into the Cabinet, headed by Justin Trudeau, on November 4, 2015. Before politics, Sajjan was a detective investigating gangs for the Vancouver Police Department and at the same time a Lieutenant Colonel in the Canadian Armed Forces decorated for his service in Afghanistan. Sajjan was also the first Sikh Canadian to command a Canadian Army reserve regiment.
ON 1 January 1923, the National Defence Act, 1922 came into effect, merging the Department of Militia and Defence, the Department of the Naval Service, and the Air Board to form the Department of National Defence. The ministerial heads of the former departments, the Minister of Militia and Defence, the Minister of the Naval Service, and the Minister of Aviation was merged to form a new position, the Minister of National Defence.
The National Defence Act is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada's military.
The Department of Militia and Defence was the department responsible for military land forces in Canada from 1906 to 1921.
The Air Board, Canada's first governing body for aviation, existed from 1919 to 1923. The Canadian government established the Air Board by act of Parliament on June 6, 1919, with the purpose of controlling all flying within Canada. Canada was the first country to legislate and implement rules governing the entire domain of aviation.
During World War II, the Minister of National Defence was assisted by two subordinate ministers. The Minister of National Defence for Air was an additional minister in the Department of National Defence responsible for the Royal Canadian Air Force; while the Minister of National Defence for Naval Services was another minister in the Department of National Defence responsible for the Royal Canadian Navy. The air and naval post was reincorporated into the portfolio of the Minister of National Defence following World War II.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Minister of National Defence for Air (Canada) was the minister responsible for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II. post created by the 1940 War Measures Act. The act specifically amended the National Defence Act of 1923.
The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, and operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff.
The Defence portfolio for the Minister of National Defence includes:
The Canadian Armed Forces, or Canadian Forces (CF), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."
The Canadian Cadet Organizations, marketed under the name of Cadets Canada, are a youth program known as the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets, Royal Canadian Army Cadets, and Royal Canadian Air Cadets. The program is sponsored by the Canadian Armed Forces and funded through the Department of National Defence (DND), with support from civilian groups, namely the Navy League, the Army Cadet League and the Air Cadet League, as well as local community sponsors that include service organizations and parents of cadets.
The Canadian Forces Housing Agency is a Special Operating Agency, established in October 1995, to operate and maintain 15,000 military family housing units across Canada for military members and their families located on wings and bases. Funds are distributed amongst Housing Management Offices on a pro-rata basis by portfolio size and condition in relation to others nationally, and on average occupancy rates at each site. The organization is headed by a Chief Executive Officer.
The Minister of National Defence is also the designated Lead Minister for Search and Rescue (LMSAR) within the federal government.
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term of office||Political party||Ministry|
|1||George Perry Graham||January 1, 1923||April 27, 1923||Liberal||12 (King)|
|2||Edward Mortimer Macdonald||April 28, 1923|
(Acting until Aug.17)
|June 28, 1926||Liberal|
|3||Hugh Guthrie||June 29, 1926|
(Acting until Jul.13)
|September 25, 1926||Conservative (historical)||13 (Meighen)|
|–||VACANT||September 25, 1926||September 30, 1926||—||14 (King)|
|–|| James Robb |
|October 1, 1926||October 7, 1926||Liberal|
|4|| James Ralston |
|October 8, 1926||August 7, 1930||Liberal|
|5||Donald Matheson Sutherland||August 7, 1930||November 16, 1934||Conservative (historical)||15 (Bennett)|
|6||Grote Stirling||November 17, 1934||October 23, 1935||Conservative (historical)|
|7||Ian Alistair Mackenzie||October 24, 1935||September 18, 1939||Liberal||16 (King)|
|8||Norman McLeod Rogers||September 19, 1939||June 10, 1940||Liberal|
|–|| Charles Power |
|June 11, 1940||July 4, 1940||Liberal|
|(4)|| James Ralston |
|July 5, 1940||November 1, 1944||Liberal|
|9||Andrew McNaughton||November 2, 1944||August 20, 1945||Military|
|10||Douglas Abbott||August 21, 1945||December 9, 1946||Liberal|
|11||Brooke Claxton||December 10, 1946||November 15, 1948||Liberal|
|November 15, 1948||June 30, 1954||17 (St. Laurent)|
|12||Ralph Campney||July 1, 1954||June 20, 1957||Liberal|
|13||George Pearkes||June 21, 1957||October 10, 1960||Progressive Conservative||18 (Diefenbaker)|
|14||Douglas Harkness||October 11, 1960||February 3, 1963||Progressive Conservative|
|–||VACANT||February 4, 1963||February 11, 1963||—|
|15||Gordon Churchill||February 12, 1963||April 21, 1963||Progressive Conservative|
|16||Paul Hellyer||April 22, 1963||September 18, 1967||Liberal||19 (Pearson)|
|17||Léo Cadieux||September 18, 1967||April 19, 1968||Liberal|
|April 20, 1968||September 16, 1970||20 (P. E. Trudeau)|
|–|| Charles Drury |
(1st time; Acting)
|September 17, 1970||September 23, 1970||Liberal|
|18||Donald Macdonald||September 24, 1970||January 27, 1972||Liberal|
|19||Edgar Benson||January 28, 1972||August 31, 1972||Liberal|
|–|| Jean-Eudes Dubé |
|September 1, 1972||September 6, 1972||Liberal|
|–|| Charles Drury |
(2nd time; Acting)
|September 7, 1972||November 26, 1972||Liberal|
|20||James Richardson||November 27, 1972||October 12, 1976||Liberal|
|21||Barney Danson||October 13, 1976|
(Acting until Nov.3)
|June 3, 1979||Liberal|
|22||Allan McKinnon||June 4, 1979||March 2, 1980||Progressive Conservative||21 (Clark)|
|23||Gilles Lamontagne||March 3, 1980||August 11, 1983||Liberal||22 (P. E. Trudeau)|
|24||Jean–Jacques Blais||August 12, 1983||June 29, 1984||Liberal|
|June 30, 1984||September 16, 1984||23 (Turner)|
|25||Robert Coates||September 17, 1984||February 11, 1985||Progressive Conservative||24 (Mulroney)|
|26||Erik Nielsen||February 12, 1985|
(Acting until Feb.26)
|June 29, 1986||Progressive Conservative|
|27||Perrin Beatty||June 30, 1986||January 29, 1989||Progressive Conservative|
|28||Bill McKnight||January 30, 1989||April 20, 1991||Progressive Conservative|
|29||Marcel Masse||April 21, 1991||January 3, 1993||Progressive Conservative|
|30||Kim Campbell||January 4, 1993||June 24, 1993||Progressive Conservative|
|31||Tom Siddon||June 25, 1993||November 3, 1993||Progressive Conservative||25 (Campbell)|
|32||David Collenette||November 4, 1993||October 4, 1996||Liberal||26 (Chrétien)|
|33||Doug Young||October 5, 1996||June 10, 1997||Liberal|
|34||Art Eggleton||June 11, 1997||June 25, 2002||Liberal|
|35||John McCallum||June 26, 2002||December 11, 2003||Liberal|
|36||David Pratt||December 12, 2003||July 19, 2004||Liberal||27 (Martin)|
|37||Bill Graham||July 20, 2004||February 5, 2006||Liberal|
|38||Gordon O'Connor||February 6, 2006||August 14, 2007||Conservative||28 (Harper)|
|39||Peter MacKay||August 14, 2007||July 15, 2013||Conservative|
|40||Rob Nicholson||July 15, 2013||February 9, 2015||Conservative|
|41||Jason Kenney||February 9, 2015||November 4, 2015||Conservative|
|42||Harjit Sajjan||November 4, 2015||Incumbent||Liberal||29 (J. Trudeau)|
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division.
The Canadian Army is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2018 the Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, about 17,000 reserve soldiers, including 5,000 rangers, for a total of 40,000 soldiers. The Army is supported by 3,000 civilian employees. It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada, and is also responsible for the Army Reserve, the largest component of the Primary Reserve. The Commander of the Canadian Army and Chief of the Army Staff is Lieutenant-General Jean-Marc Lanthier.
III Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Minister of Militia and Defence was the federal government minister in charge of the volunteer army units in Canada, the Canadian Militia, before the creation of the Canadian Army.
Colonel commandant is a military title used in the armed forces of some English-speaking countries. The title, not a substantive military rank, could denote a senior colonel with authority over fellow colonels. Today, the holder often has an honorary role outside the executive military structure, such as advocacy for the troops.
Andrew Brooke Leslie is a retired Canadian Forces Lieutenant-General who served as Chief of Transformation and earlier as Chief of the Land Staff. He is the incumbent Member of Parliament for the riding of Orléans, after being elected in the October 19, 2015, federal election.
The history of the Canadian Army, began when the title first came into official use in November 1940, during the Second World War, and is still used today. Although the official titles, Mobile Command, and later Land Force Command, were used from February 1968 to August 2011, "Canadian Army" continued to be unofficially used to refer to the ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces, much as it has been from Confederation in 1867 to the present. The term was often even used in official military publications, for example in recruiting literature and the official newspaper of the Canadian Forces, The Maple Leaf. On August 16, 2011, the title, "Canadian Army", was officially restored, once again bringing the official designation in line with common and historical usage.
Beginning with establishment of Fort Calgary in 1875, the city of Calgary, Alberta, has had some degree of permanent military presence throughout its history.
The Diamond Jubilee Honours for the British Empire were announced on 22 June 1897 to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria on 20 June 1897.
The Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, also referred to as commander in chief of the armed forces of the Crown, is a constitutional role vested in the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, who as head of state is the "Head of the Armed Forces". Long-standing constitutional convention, however, has vested de facto executive authority, by the exercise of Royal Prerogative, in the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Defence. The Prime Minister makes the key decisions on the use of the armed forces. The Queen however, remains the supreme authority of the military.
The Department of National Defence, commonly abbreviated as DND, is a Canadian government department responsible for defending Canada's interests and values at home and abroad.
The 1906 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 29 June, to celebrate the birthday of Edward VII on 9 November.
The 1940 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George VI to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published on 9 July 1940.
The 1884 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The Queen, and were published in the London Gazette on 25 May 1894. and in The Times on 26 May 1894.
The 1915 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published in The London Gazette and in The Times on 3 June 1915.
The 1917 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published on 4 June.
The 1918 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published in The London Gazette in early June 1918.
The 1919 New Year Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were published in The London Gazette and The Times in January 1919.
The 1881 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of the Queen, and were published in The London Gazette on 24 May 1881.