Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Japan)

Last updated

The Ministry of Commerce and Industry (商工省, Shōkō-shō) was a cabinet-level ministry in the government of the Empire of Japan from 1925-1947. It was created from the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce (農商務省, Nō-shōmu-shō), and was briefly merged with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (農林省, Nōrin-shō) to reestablish that Ministry during World War II.

Contents

History

The original Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce was created on 7 April 1881, initially under the Meiji Daijō-kan Cabinet, and then under the Meiji Constitution. It combined the Bureaus of Agriculture, Forestry, Natural History and post station maintenance which were formerly directly under the Prime Minister with the Bureau of Commerce formerly under the control of the Ministry of Finance.

On 1 April 1925, under Prime Minister Takahashi Korekiyo, the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce was divided into the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The division was a result of long-standing acrimony within the ministry between the “commerce” portion of the ministry, which sought expanded overseas trade, and the protectionist “agriculture” portion of the ministry which sought to ban imports of food, especially rice.

In 1934, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry divested itself of the iron and steel industry, leading to the formation of the Nippon Steel Corporation. Following the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry found its role changing from promotion of trade and commerce to enforcing restrictions on trade and management of rationing programs. By the middle of World War II, the Ministry of Munitions, Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Planning Board absorbed most of the functions of the Ministry of Commerce, and the vestigial remains were merged with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to re-establish the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce on November 1, 1943. The re-formed ministry was also in charge of distribution of rationed goods.

In the post-war period, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry was re-established briefly under the aegis of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, and was assigned control of electrical power production and electrical power distribution. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry became the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, or MITI on May 25, 1949.

Ministers of Commerce

NameCabinetFromTo
1 Korekiyo Takahashi Katō 1 April 192417 April 1925
2 Noda Utarō Katō 17 April 19252 August 1925
3 Kataoka Naoharu Katō
1st Wakatsuki
2 August 192514 September 1926
4 Fujisawa Ikunosuke 1st Wakatsuki 14 September 192620 April 1927
5 Nakahashi Tokugorō 1st Tanaka 20 April 19273 July 1929
6 Tawara Magoichi Hamaguchi 3 July 192914 April 1931
7 Sakurauchi Yukio 2nd Wakatsuki 14 April 193113 December 1931
8 Maeda Yonezo Inukai 13 December 193126 May 1932
9 Nakajima Kumakichi Saitō 26 May 19329 February 1933
10 Matsumoto Jōji Saitō 9 February 19338 July 1934
11 Machida Chūji Okada 8 July 19349 March 1936
12 Kawasaki Takukichi Hirota 9 March 193627 March 1936
13 Ogawa Gōtarō Hirota 27 March 19362 February 1937
14 Godō Takuo Hayashi 2 February 19374 June 1937
15 Yoshino Shinji 1st Konoe 4 June 193726 May 1938
16 Ikeda Shigeaki 1st Konoe 26 May 19385 January 1939
17 Hatta Yoshiaki Hiranuma 5 January 193930 August 1939
18Godō Takuo Abe 30 August 193916 October 1939
19Godō Takuo Abe 16 October 193916 January 1940
20 Fujiwara Ginjirō Yonai 22 January 19405 July 1940
21 Kobayashi Ichizō 2nd Konoe 22 July 19404 April 1941
22 Toyoda Teijirō 2nd Konoe 4 April 194118 July 1941
23 Sakonji Seizō 3rd Konoe 18 July 194118 October 1941
24 Kishi Nobusuke Tōjō 18 October 19418 October 1943
25 Tōjō Hideki Tōjō 8 October 19431 November 1943
26 Chikuhei Nakajima Higashikuni 26 August 19459 October 1945
27 Sankurō Ogasawara Shidehara 9 October 19452 May 1946
28 Jirō Hoshijima 1st Yoshida 2 May 194631 January 1947
29 Mitsujirō Ishii 1st Yoshida 31 January 194726 May 1947
30 Chōsaburō Mizutani Katayama 26 May 194710 March 1948
31Chōsaburō Mizutani Ashida 10 March 194815 October 1948
32 Sanzō Ōya 2nd Yoshida 15 October 194816 February 1949
32 Heitarō Inagaki 2nd Yoshida 16 February 194925 May 1949

Related Research Articles

The Ministry of International Trade and Industry was a ministry of the Government of Japan from 1949 to 2001. The MITI was one of the most powerful government agencies in Japan and, at the height of its influence, effectively ran much of Japanese industrial policy, funding research and directing investment. In 2001, MITI was merged with other agencies during the Central Government Reform to form the newly created Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

Yamamoto Tatsuo Japanese politician and Governor of the Bank of Japan

Yamamoto Tatsuo was a Japanese politician and Governor of the Bank of Japan from 1898 to 1903. He was also a member of the House of Peers and served as a cabinet minister in the pre-war government of the Empire of Japan.

Imperial Household Agency Agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family

The Imperial Household Agency (IHA) is an agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family, and also the keeping of the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. From around the 8th century AD, up until the Second World War, it was known as the Imperial Household Ministry.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a cabinet-level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations.

Ministry of Finance (Japan)

The Ministry of Finance is one of the cabinet-level ministries of the Japanese government. The ministry was named the Ōkura-shō (大蔵省) until 2001. The Ministry is headed by the Minister of Finance, who is a member of the Cabinet and is typically chosen from members of the Diet by the Prime Minister.

The Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, or Nōsui-shō (農水相), is the Cabinet of Japan member in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The current minister is Kōtarō Nogami.

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries a cabinet level ministry in the government of Japan responsible for oversight of the agriculture, forestry and fishing industries. Its acronym is MAFF. The current Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is Taku Etō.

Ministry of the Navy (Japan) Former Japanese government ministry (1872–1945)

The Navy Ministry was a cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). It existed from 1872 to 1945.

Ministry of the Army Former Japanese government ministry (1872–1945)

The Army Ministry, also known as the Ministry of War, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). It existed from 1872 to 1945.

Ministry of Munitions (Japan)

The Ministry of Munitions was a cabinet-level ministry in the final days of the Empire of Japan, charged with the procurement and manufacture of armaments, spare parts and munitions to support the Japanese war effort in World War II.

The ministries of Japan are the most influential part of the executive branch of the Japanese government. Each ministry is headed by a Minister of State appointed by the Prime Minister. In postwar politics, the posts of ministers have been given to senior legislators, mostly of the LDP. However, few ministers serve for more than one or two years to develop the necessary grasp of the organisation to become really influential. Thus, most of the power lies within the ministries, with the senior bureaucrats.

Home Ministry Japanese government ministry (1873–1947)

The Home Ministry was a Cabinet-level ministry established under the Meiji Constitution that managed the internal affairs of Empire of Japan from 1873 to 1947. Its duties included local administration, police, public works and elections, and monitoring people. This Ministry changed its name to Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications after Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers restoration in 1945.

Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality is the Dutch Ministry responsible for Agricultural policy, Food policy, Food safety, Fisheries, Forestry, Natural conservation and Animal welfare. The Ministry was created in 1935 and in 2010 the department was merged with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and was named the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation. In 2017 the Ministry was reinstated. The Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality is the head of the Ministry and a member of the Cabinet of the Netherlands. The current Minister is Carola Schouten who also serves as Third Deputy Prime Minister.

Etsusaburo Shiina Foreign Minister of Japan for 1964–66

Etsusaburo Shiina was a career bureaucrat and politician. As Foreign Minister of Japan from 1964 to 1966 he played a pivotal role in diplomatic relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea.

Council of Agriculture

The Council of Agriculture is the official government body in the Republic of China (Taiwan) under the Executive Yuan in charged with overseeing affairs related to agriculture, forestry, fishery, animal husbandry and food affairs.

Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce

The Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce or Trade was a cabinet-level ministry in the government of the Empire of Japan from 1881-1925. It was briefly recreated as the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce during World War II

The Ministry of Public Works was a cabinet-level ministry in the Daijō-kan system of government of the Meiji period Empire of Japan from 1870-1885. It is also sometimes referred to as the “Ministry of Engineering” or “Ministry of Industry”.

Ministry of Communications (Japan) Cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan

The Ministry of Communications was a Cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan. Its modern successors include the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Japan Post and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone

The administrative structure of the government of the Empire of Japan on the eve of the Second World War broadly consisted of the Cabinet, the civil service, local and prefectural governments, the governments-general of Chosen (Korea) and Formosa (Taiwan) and the colonial offices. It underwent several changes during the wartime years, and was entirely reorganized when the Empire of Japan was officially dissolved in 1947.

Ministry of Public Works (Japan)

The Ministry of Public Works was a cabinet-level ministry in the Daijō-kan system of government of the Meiji period Empire of Japan from 1870-1885. It is also sometimes referred to as the “Ministry of Engineering” or “Ministry of Industry”.

References