Ministry of Posts and Communications

Last updated
Ministry of Posts and Communications
郵傳部
Seal of Qing dynasty.svg
Seal of Qing dynasty
Flag of China (1889-1912).svg
Agency overview
Formed1906
Preceding agency
  • Imperial Telegraph Administration
Dissolved1912 (1912)
Superseding agency
JurisdictionLate Qing dynasty China

The Ministry of Posts and Communications or Youchuanbu [1] (Chinese : 郵傳部 ; pinyin :Yóuchuánbù) was a late Qing dynasty ministry responsible for mail and telecommunications and for the Chinese rail network.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Qing dynasty Former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity and officially proclaimed the Later Jin in 1616. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

It was established in 1906 through the unification of the Imperial Railroad of North China and other railroads with the postal administration and the recently nationalized Imperial Chinese Telegraph Administration. [2]

Imperial Chinese Telegraph Administration

The Imperial Telegraph Administration (ITA) or Imperial Chinese Telegraph Administration (ICTA) was a Qing-era government-controlled corporation supervised by Sheng Xuanhuai.

In 1908, it founded the Bank of Communications to redeem the Beijing–Hankou Railway from its Belgian concessionaires. The bank was also intended to unify funding for steamship lines, railways, and telegraph and postal facilities. After the establishment of the Central Bank of China in 1928, the Bank of Communications was used to fund general industrial development.

Bank of Communications Limited, founded in 1908, is the fifth-largest bank in mainland China.

After the 1911 revolution gave its name to the Communications Clique during the Warlord Era.

The Communications Clique was a powerful interest group of politicians, bureaucrats, technocrats, businessmen, engineers, and labour unionists in China's Beiyang government (1912-1928). It is also known as the Cantonese Clique because many of its leaders hailed from Guangdong. They were named after the Ministry of Posts and Communications which was responsible for railways, postal delivery, shipping, and telephones as well as the Bank of Communications. This ministry earned five times more revenue for the government than all the other ministries combined.

Warlord Era Period in the history of the Republic of China

The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which were spread across the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.

See also

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Postage stamps and postal history of China

The history of the postage stamps and postal history of China is complicated by the gradual decay of Imperial China and the years of civil war and Japanese occupation in the 1930s and 1940s.

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Communications in Japan

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Telegraphy long distance transmission of textual/symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object

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Railway post office

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Deutsche Bundespost the state postal company in the Federal Republic of Germany

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Ministry of Transport of the Peoples Republic of China Peoples Republic of China government ministry overseeing air and land travel

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The Ministry of Railways (MOR) is a defunct ministry under the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The last minister was Sheng Guangzu.

The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Transportation and Communications is a Norwegian ministry established in 1946, and is responsible for transportation and communication infrastructure in Norway. It is since August 2018 led by Jon Georg Dale. The department must report to the parliament (Stortinget).

The history of banking in China includes the business of dealing with money and credit transactions in China.

Ministry of Transportation and Communications (Taiwan) A ministry of the Republic of China responsible for transportation and communications

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The Woosung Road or Railway was a 19th-century, 2 ft 6 in narrow-gauge passenger railway in Shanghai, China, between the outskirts of the American Concession in the modern town's Zhabei District and Wusong in Baoshan District. Surreptitiously conceived and constructed, it ran for less than a year before it was purchased and dismantled by the Qing viceroy Shen Pao-chen. The line would not be rebuilt for twenty years. This fate was a commonly invoked symbol of the Qing dynasty's backwardness and insularity, despite the road's admitted illegality and numerous legitimate objections voiced by the Chinese during its construction and operation.

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Railway Protection Movement political protest movement in 1911 Qing China against the Qing governments plan to nationalize local railway development projects and transfer control to foreign banks

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References

  1. Chen Zhongping. Modern China's Network Revolution: Chambers of Commerce and Sociopolitical Change in the Early Twentieth Century , p. 152. Stanford University Press, 2011. ISBN   0-8047-7409-9.
  2. Harwit, Eric. China's Telecommunications Revolution , p. 28. Oxford University Press, 2008. ISBN   0-19-923374-8.