Ministry of War (pre-modern Japan)

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Premodern Japan
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Part of a series on the politics and
government of Japan during the
Nara and Heian periods
Daijō-daijin
Minister of the Left Sadaijin
Minister of the Right Udaijin
Minister of the Center Naidaijin
Major Counselor Dainagon
Middle Counselor Chūnagon
Minor Counselor Shōnagon
Eight Ministries
Center Nakatsukasa-shō   
Ceremonial Shikibu-shō
Civil Administration Jibu-shō
Popular Affairs Minbu-shō
War Hyōbu-shō
Justice Gyōbu-shō
Treasury Ōkura-shō
Imperial Household Kunai-shō

The Ministry of War or Military Ministry [1] (兵部省, Hyōbu-shō), sometimes called Tsuwamono no Tsukasa, was a division of the eighth century Japanese government of the Imperial Court in Kyoto, [2] instituted in the Asuka period and formalized during the Heian period. The Ministry was replaced in the Meiji period.

Contents

Overview

The highest-ranking official or head of the military (兵部卿,, Hyōbu-kyō) was ordinarily a son or a close relative of the Emperor. This important court officer was responsible for directing all military matters; and after the beginning in the late 12th century, this military man would have been empowered to work with the shogunate on the emperor's behalf. [3]

The ambit of the Ministry's activities encompasses, for example:

History

The ministry was established as part of the Taika Reforms and Ritsuryō laws which were initiated in the Asuka period and formalized during the Heian period. After 702, the Hyōbu-shō replaced the Hyōseikan, which was created in 683. [5]

In the Edo period, titles associated with the ministry became ceremonial titles.

In the Meiji period, the hyōbu-shō was reorganized into a modern Ministry of War and Ministry of the Navy.

Hierarchy

The Asuka-, Nara- and Heian-period Imperial court hierarchy encompassed a ministry dealing with military affairs. [1]

In the 18th century, the top ritsuryō officials within this ministry structure were:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Ministry of War, Sheffield.
  2. Kawakami, Karl Kiyoshi. (1903). The Political Ideas of the Modern Japan, pp. 36-38. , p. 36, at Google Books
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 431. , p. 431, at Google Books
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kawakami, p. 37 n3, , p. 37, at Google Books citing Ito Hirobumi, Commentaries on the Japanese Constitution, p. 87 (1889).
  5. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). "Hyōbusho" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 363. , p. 363, at Google Books
  6. Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 272; Titsingh, p. 431.

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References

Further reading