Minkhaung of Prome

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Minkhaung of Prome
ပြည် မင်းခေါင်
King of Prome
Reign February 1539 – 19 May 1542
Predecessor Narapati
Successor Thado Dhamma Yaza I
Bornc. 1510s
Prome (Pyay)
Died April 1553
Pegu (Bago)
Consort Thiri Hpone Htut
Full name
Minye Sithu
House Mohnyin
Father Bayin Htwe
Mother Chit Mi of Prome [1]
Religion Theravada Buddhism

Minkhaung of Prome (Burmese : ပြည် မင်းခေါင် [mɪ́ɴɡàʊɴ] ; died 1553) was the last king of Prome, who reigned three tumultuous years from 1539 to 1542. [2] He succeeded his brother Narapati in 1539. Minkhaung frantically prepared to defend against another attack by Toungoo Kingdom. He reinforced his already heavily fortified city of Prome (Pyay), and hired foreign mercenaries. Although he knew his nominal overlords, the Confederation of Shan States, would assist him, he continued the alliance with King Min Bin of Mrauk U begun by his late brother. Min Bin was married to Minkhaung's and Narapati's sister.

Burmese language language spoken in Myanmar

The Burmese language is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.

The Prome Kingdom was a kingdom that existed for six decades between 1482 and 1542 in present-day central Burma (Myanmar). Based out of the city of Prome (Pyay), the minor kingdom was one of the several statelets that broke away from the dominant Ava Kingdom in the late 15th century. Throughout the 1520s, Prome was an ally of the Confederation of Shan States, and together they raided Avan territory. After Ava fell to the Confederation armies in 1527, Prome itself became a tributary of the Confederation in 1532. In the late 1530s, Prome became ensnarled in the Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1534–41). Despite military assistance from the Confederation and the Mrauk U Kingdom, the small kingdom fell to the Toungoo (Taungoo) forces in 1542.

Narapati of Prome was king of Prome from 1532 to 1539. He seized the throne after his father Bayin Htwe was taken captive by the Confederation of Shan States in 1532 back to Upper Burma. Bayin Htwe escaped after the Confederation's leader Sawlon was assassinated by his ministers, and returned to Prome (Pyay), c. May 1533. But Narapati shut the gates against his father, who soon died in the adjoining forests.


In late 1541, Toungoo again laid siege to Prome. Prome's allies the Confederation and Mrauk U sent in help to break the siege. But Toungoo forces under the command of Gen. Bayinnaung defeated both armies. Mrauk U also sent in a naval flotilla that landed in Bassein (Pathein). Upon hearing of the Mrauk U army's defeat, the flotilla turned back. After a five months' siege, starvation set in. The besieged deserted the city in great numbers. On 19 May 1542 (5th waxing of Nayon 904 ME), Minkhaung surrendered. Minkhaung and his queen Thiri Hpone Htut were taken to Toungoo (Taungoo). [3]

Bayinnaung 16th-century King of Burma

Bayinnaung Kyawhtin Nawrahta was king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled what was probably the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, the Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Siam.

Pathein City in Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar

Pathein, formerly called Bassein, is the largest city and the capital of the Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar (Burma). It is located 190 km (120 mi) west of Yangon on the bank of the Pathein River (Bassein), which is a western branch of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of 237,089. Although once part of the Mon kingdom, Pathein has few ethnic Mon residents today. The majority are of Bamar, Burmese Indians and Karen ethnicity. There are, however, notable minority Rakhine.

The Burmese calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on sidereal years. The calendar is largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, though unlike the Indian systems, it employs a version of the Metonic cycle. The calendar therefore has to reconcile the sidereal years of the Hindu calendar with the Metonic cycle's near tropical years by adding intercalary months and days at irregular intervals.

King Tabinshwehti of Toungoo appointed Mingyi Swe, Bayinnaung's father, governor of Prome, restoring its former position of a provincial capital.

Tabinshwehti King of Burma

Tabinshwehti was king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1530 to 1550, and the founder of Toungoo Empire. His military campaigns (1534–49) created the largest kingdom in Burma since the fall of Pagan Empire in 1287. His administratively fragile kingdom proved to be the impetus for the eventual reunification of the entire country by his successor and brother-in-law Bayinnaung.

Mingyi Swe was viceroy of Toungoo (Taungoo) from 1540 to 1549 during the reign of his son-in-law King Tabinshwehti of Toungoo Dynasty. He was also the father of King Bayinnaung, as well as key viceroys in Bayinnaung's administration. He rose to the position of viceroy of the ancestral home of the dynasty, after having started out as a royal household servant of Tabinshwehti. All the Toungoo kings from Bayinnaung to Mahadhammaraza Dipadi descended from him.

Minkhaung remained under house arrest until 1553 when he was executed by Bayinnaung. Thiri Hpone Htut became a queen of Bayinnaung with the title of Sanda Dewi. [4]


The following is his ancestry as reported in the Hmannan Yazawin chronicle, which in turn referenced contemporary inscriptions. [note 1]

<i>Hmannan Yazawin</i> book by Royal Historical Commission of Burma

Hmannan Maha Yazawindawgyi is the first official chronicle of Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). It was compiled by the Royal Historical Commission between 1829 and 1832. The compilation was based on several existing chronicles and local histories, and the inscriptions collected on the orders of King Bodawpaya, as well as several types of poetry describing epics of kings. Although the compilers disputed some of the earlier accounts, they by and large retained the accounts given Maha Yazawin, the standard chronicle of Toungoo Dynasty.


  1. See (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 80) for the names of his maternal grandparents. See (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 82–84) for further ancestors.

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  1. Maha Yazawin Vol. 3 2006: 83
  2. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 215
  3. Harvey 1925: 157
  4. Harvey 1925: 342


U Kala is a Burmese historian and chronicler best known for compiling the Maha Yazawin, the first extensive national chronicle of Burma. U Kala single-handedly revolutionized secular Burmese historiography and ushered in a new generation of private chroniclers, including Buddhist monks and laymen.

<i>Maha Yazawin</i> book by U Kala

The Maha Yazawin, fully the Maha Yazawindawgyi and formerly romanized as the Maha-Radza Weng, is the first national chronicle of Burma/Myanmar. Completed in 1724 by U Kala, a historian at the Toungoo court, it was the first chronicle to synthesize all the ancient, regional, foreign and biographic histories related to Burmese history. Prior to the chronicle, the only known Burmese histories were biographies and comparatively brief local chronicles. The chronicle has formed the basis for all subsequent histories of the country, including the earliest English language histories of Burma written in the late 19th century.

The Royal Historical Commission of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) produced the standard court chronicles of Konbaung era, Hmannan Yazawin (1832) and Dutiya Yazawin (1869).

Minkhaung of Prome
Born: c. 1510s Died: 1553
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Prome
February 1539 – 19 May 1542
Succeeded by
Thado Dhamma Yaza I
as Viceroy