Miranda de Ebro

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Miranda de Ebro
Municipality and town
Puente Carlos III Miranda.JPG
Bandera de Miranda de Ebro.svg
Flag
Escudo de Miranda de Ebro.svg
Coat of arms
Municipio Miranda de Ebro (Espana).png
Location of Miranda de Ebro in the province of Burgos
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Miranda de Ebro
Location in Spain
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Miranda de Ebro
Miranda de Ebro (Spain)
Coordinates: 42°41′N2°56′W / 42.683°N 2.933°W / 42.683; -2.933
Country Spain
Autonomous community Bandera de Castilla y Leon.svg Castile and León
Province Flag Burgos Province.svg Burgos
Comarca Comarca del Ebro
Government
  MayorAitana Hernando (2015) (PSOE)
Area
  Total101.33 km2 (39.12 sq mi)
Elevation
471 m (1,545 ft)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total35,477
  Density350/km2 (910/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Mirandeses
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
09200
Website Official website

Miranda de Ebro (Spanish: [miˈɾan̪da ðe ˈeβɾo]) is a city on the Ebro river in the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It is located in the north-eastern part of the province, on the border with the province of Álava and the autonomous community of La Rioja. According to the 2008 census conducted by Spain's National Institute of Statistics ( Instituto Nacional de Estadística ), it has a population of 39,589 inhabitants, making it the second most populous city in the province after the capital, Burgos.

Ebro river in the Iberian Peninsula

The Ebro is a river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the second longest river in the Iberian peninsula after the Tagus, second biggest by discharge volume and by drainage area after the Douro, and longest river running entirely within Spain.

Castile and León Autonomous community of Spain

Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.

Álava Province of Spain

Álava or Araba, officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see.

Contents

The city has an industrial economy focusing on the chemical industry. It is an important transportation hub, especially as a railroad junction. Within 80 kilometres (50 miles) are the cities of Bilbao, Burgos, Logroño and Vitoria-Gasteiz.

Bilbao Municipality in Basque Country, Spain

Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is also the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015. The Bilbao metropolitan area has 1,037,847 inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain; with a population of 875,552 the comarca of Greater Bilbao is the fifth-largest urban area in Spain. Bilbao is also the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region.

Burgos Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile. It is situated on the confluence of the Arlanzón river tributaries, at the edge of the Iberian central plateau. It has about 180,000 inhabitants in the actual city and another 20,000 in the metropolitan area. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. Burgos was once the capital of the Crown of Castile, and the Burgos Laws or Leyes de Burgos which first governed the behaviour of Spaniards towards the natives of the Americas were promulgated here in 1512.

Logroño Place in La Rioja, Spain

Logroño is a city in northern Spain, on the Ebro River. It is the capital of the province of La Rioja.

Geography

The city of Miranda de Ebro is located in the northeastern part of the province of Burgos, 80 kilometres (50 mi) from the capital, in the autonomous community of Castile and León (Spain). The coordinates of the city are: latitude 42° 41′ 6″ N, longitude 2° 55′ 60″ W; it has an area of 101.33 square kilometres (39.12 sq mi), a perimeter of 72,312 metres (237,244 ft) and is 471 metres (1,545 ft) above sea level, according to the National Geographic Institute.

The city is divided into two parts by the river Ebro. The old part is named Aquende and the new part is named Allende.

History

Miranda de Ebro in 1836 by David Roberts Miranda on the Ebro.jpg
Miranda de Ebro in 1836 by David Roberts
Miranda de Ebro in 1874 by baron Jean Charles Davillier and Gustave Dore "Miranda de Ebro" (19929345282) (cropped).jpg
Miranda de Ebro in 1874 by baron Jean Charles Davillier and Gustave Doré
Miranda del Ebro - a corner in the town in 1906 by Edgar Thomas Ainger Wigram Miranda del Ebro - a corner in the town.jpg
Miranda del Ebro - a corner in the town in 1906 by Edgar Thomas Ainger Wigram

The first settlements in the area date from the Iron Age. The Roman ruins of Arce are located only 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from Miranda. There, according to the most recent studies, the Roman city of Deóbriga was built. Roman ruins are also found in the nearby municipalities of Cabriana and Puentelarrá.

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. The concept has been mostly applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy, also to other parts of the Old World.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In Historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

The earliest mention of the name of Miranda de Ebro is in the Codex Vigilanus, which describes the famous expedition that Alfonso I of Asturias undertook in 757. This codex discusses destroyed localities, one of which was Miranda.

<i>Codex Vigilanus</i> Chronicle from 9th century

The Codex Vigilanus or Codex Albeldensis is an illuminated compilation of various historical documents accounting for a period extending from antiquity to the 10th century in Hispania. Among the many texts brought together by the compilers are the canons of the Councils of Toledo, the Liber Iudiciorum, the decrees of some early popes and other patristic writings, historical narratives, various other pieces of civil and canon law, and a calendar.

Alfonso I of Asturias, called the Catholic, was the third King of Asturias, reigning from 739 to his death in 757. His reign saw an extension of the Christian domain of Asturias, reconquering Galicia and León.

After the assassination of Sancho Garcés IV of Navarre, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja and the royal family, Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon was recognized as king. This event passed Miranda de Ebro into the hands of the Kingdom of Castile in 1076. To consolidate his power, Alfonso VI granted the fuero of Miranda de Ebro in 1099.

In 1254, Alfonso X of Castile granted the May fair, consolidating commerce, and in 1332 Alfonso XI of Castile granted the March fair. The possession of a bridge over the Ebro since at least the 10th century, together with the concession of the fuero, have made Miranda de Ebro a great commercial center in the region since ancient times. During the 14th and 15th centuries, and after the disputes between Peter of Castile and Henry of Trastámara, the town of Miranda would pass from hand to hand, first to the domain of Burgos, then to the Álava Hermandad and ultimately once again to Burgos in 1493, where it has remained to the present day.

The arrival of the railway in 1862 marked the beginning of the industrial revolution in the city. The junction of the lines from Madrid to Irun and Castejón to Bilbao was at Miranda railway station, making it the most important rail junction in northern Spain.

In 1907, King Alfonso XIII granted city status to Miranda.

During the Civil War and World War II, the city was the location of a Nationalist concentration camp that remained active until 1947, and was the last camp to close down. During its existence, it held more than 65,000 prisoners, both Spanish and foreign. WWII Czechoslovak fighter pilot ace František Fajtl was held here as a POW for two months in 1942.

Since 1992, Vierzon (France) has been the twin city of Miranda de Ebro. In 1999, a celebration to commemorate the Ninth Centenary of the Fuero of Miranda took place in the presence of Infanta Doña Cristina and her husband Don Iñaki de Urdangarín.

Politics

The mayoress of the city is Aitana Hernando, member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE). The People's Party (PP) and the United Left Party (IU) have minority representation. Another local party is Izquierda Mirandesa.

GroupLeaderSeatsSituation
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Aitana Hernando10Government
People's Party Borja Suárez7Opposition
United Left Guillermo Ubieto2Opposition
Miranda Can (Podemos)María Esperanza Muñoz1Opposition
Let's Win Miranda (Mirandese left/Equo)José Ignacio Redondo1Opposition

Economy and demographics

Paper mill in Miranda de Fefasamiranda50s.jpg
Paper mill in Miranda de

The primary sector is disappearing; nevertheless the cultivation of grain still remains the primary activity of the region. Others, like irrigated farming and viticulture, are of lesser importance. In the past cattle and horses were important as demonstrated by the fairs that have taken place since the 16th century in March and May. Mining also has its place; there are limestone quarries on the outskirts of the city.

The secondary sector is developed thanks to its excellent geographic situation, next to the Basque Country and La Rioja, making Miranda de Ebro a city with a strong industrial and logistic character. The industrial revolution of the city began with the arrival of the railway in 1862. In the first half of the 20th century a sugar plant was the first big industry in the city (1925). Later on, FEFASA (1948) was created for the production of paper products. In the middle of the 20th century many chemical industries proliferated like Montefibre, ELF-Atochem, Rests, etc. The nuclear power station of Santa Maria de Garoña is located nearby.

In 1969 the first industrial estate of Bayas was conceived, but not until 1981 were various businesses established. It marked the beginning of many projects for the industrial and commercial development of the city. Other companies in the region produce food, aeronautical, iron and steel products.

Traditional commerce has made way for new enterprises for business and leisure. Companies like E.Leclerc, Inditex, Eroski, Mercadona and others have settled in the city. No commercial center exists and the commerce of Miranda is harmed due to the competition generated from nearby Vitoria.

The last data gathered by the INE (2008) indicate that Miranda de Ebro has a population of 39,586 inhabitants. After a gradual reduction of population during the 1990s, Miranda has gained inhabitants each year due in part to arrivals from neighboring Álava in search of cheap housing. There has also been an increase in the immigrant population (10.8% of the total).

Transport

Railway control center in Miranda de Ebro Gerencia Adif Miranda.JPG
Railway control center in Miranda de Ebro

Its geographic location straddling the northern plateau of Ebro Valley and Basque territory makes Miranda de Ebro an important transport hub, especially for rail traffic.

Intercity transport

Numerous national roads, highways or dual carriageways ( autovías ), and motorways or freeways ( autopistas ) pass through the city, connecting it with all the surrounding major cities. A project is underway to construct a new highway and a new freeway originating in the city. The first, A-68 or Autovía del Ebro (Ebro Highway), will connect Miranda to Aragón via the Ebro valley. The second, AP-69 or Autopista Dos Mares (Two Seas Freeway), will connect Miranda to the Cantabrian coastal plain via the Merindades.

The Miranda de Ebro railway station is considered first class within the national rankings. Two lines, Madrid–Hendaye railway and Casetas–Bilbao railway, converge there. Since December 2007 the city has been connected to the main provincial capitals by the high-speed Alvia service. It also possesses an important distribution hub in its Merchandise Classification and numerous RENFE [note 1] shops. The ADIF [note 2] command post, which is in charge of traffic control for the whole of northern Spain, [2] is located in Miranda's railway facilities.

The Miranda de Ebro bus terminal will be located on Railway Circle in the city centre, a few metres from the station. Construction is expected to start in 2009. [3]

Although Miranda de Ebro has no airport of its own, Vitoria Airport is located only 35 kilometres (22 miles) away in Vitoria, which can be reached in under half an hour by the A-1 highway. Other airports near the city include Bilbao Airport, Burgos Airport, and Logroño-Agoncillo Airport.

Local transport

A fleet of buses operate a single route between the hospital and El Lago, though two new lines are expected in 2009. [4]

Miranda de Ebro also has its own fleet of taxis covering services to Vitoria and Plaza de la Estación. In recent years the city has been creating a network of bicycle lanes expected to extend 27 kilometres (17 miles) and, since September 2008, the city has provided a bike rental service, Biciudad Miranda, similar to those of other major cities.

Main sights

Civil structures

Carlos III Bridge (1777) DSCF4858.jpg
Carlos III Bridge (1777)
Apolo Theatre (1921) Miranda de Ebro - Teatro Apolo 8.JPG
Apolo Theatre (1921)
Casa de los Urbina Miranda de Ebro - Casa de los Urbina.JPG
Casa de los Urbina

Religious structures

San Esteban Church. Oron (Miranda de Ebro) - Iglesia de San Esteban 11.jpg
San Esteban Church.
Santa Maria church Miranda - Santa Maria 03.JPG
Santa María church

Parks and gardens

Botanical garden of Miranda de Ebro. Miranda de Ebro - Centro de Interpretacion de la Miranda Antigua (CIMA), Jardin Botanico 19.JPG
Botanical garden of Miranda de Ebro.
Miranda de Ebro y Ameyugo mountains Cruz de Motrico Spain.JPG
Miranda de Ebro y Ameyugo mountains

Miranda de Ebro has not historically been known for having many areas of greenery within the city, but in recent years a series of parks and gardens have been created to correct this shortcoming. In January 2009 the city had 646,377 square meters of green areas, amounting to 16.35 square meters per inhabitant.

Sports

The town of Miranda de Ebro features most of its sports facilities in Anduva Municipal MultiSports (Polideportivo Municipal de Anduva), which contains tennis courts, a covered court, a heated pool, outdoor pools, multi-sport fields, a gymnasium, a running track, and soccer pitches with both natural and artificial grass. Other sporting facilities in the city include Anduva Municipal Stadium (Estadio Municipal de Anduva) (soccer), La Charca facility, José García facility, the Multifunction Pavilion, and the Ebro Pavilion. The city also has a kart racing track, a motocross track, and a model airplane field.

Sports clubs

Anduva Municipal Stadium Mirandes - Burgos.JPG
Anduva Municipal Stadium

Sporting events

Celebrations and events

Mediaeval Market Mercado Medieval Miranda.JPG
Mediaeval Market

There are many celebrations and fairs held in Miranda de Ebro throughout the year. The first event of the year is the March Fair or Fair of the Angel, which is celebrated on 1 March and whose origin dates back to the 14th century. The first weekend of May is the May Fair, which has coincided since 1997 with the Medieval market.

The main celebration in Miranda de Ebro is the Saint John of the Mountain Festival , which is celebrated on the Whit Monday. This celebration has a procession which is considered the best in Northern Spain. In addition, 12 September is the day of the city's patron, the Virgin of Altamira. This event contains float competitions, concerts and a firework display.

Twin towns – sister cities

Notes

  1. Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles, Spanish National Railway Network
  2. Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias, Railway Infrastructure Administration

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References

  1. "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute . Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  2. "Miranda asume ya desde su nuevo puesto de mando el control ferroviario del norte del pais". El Correo (in Spanish). March 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  3. "Adif saca a licitación el proyecto de estación de autobuses de Miranda de Ebro (Burgos)". Europa Press (in Spanish). November 14, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  4. Crespo, María Ángeles (November 18, 2008). "Miranda esperimentará con dos nuevas líneas de autobuses urbanos en 2009". El Correo (in Spanish). Retrieved January 14, 2008.