Mithridates II of Commagene

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Mithridates II
Tumulus of Karakus 11.jpg
Relief of Mithridates II and his sister Laodice at the Tumulus of Karakuş, Turkey
King of Commagene
Reign38 BC – 20 BC
(18 years)
Predecessor Antiochus I Theos
Successor Mithridates III
Died20 BC
Rome, Roman Empire
Spouse Laodice
Issue Mithridates III of Commagene
Full name
Mithridates II Antiochus Epiphanes Philorhomaeus Philhellen Monocrites
House Orontid Dynasty
Father King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene
Mother Princess Isias Philostorgos of Cappadocia

Mithridates II Antiochus Epiphanes Philorhomaeus Philhellen Monocrites (Greek : Μιθριδάτης Ἀντίοχος ὀ Ἐπιφανής Φιλορωμαίος Φιλέλλην Μονοκρίτης, died 20 BC), also known as Mithridates II of Commagene, was a man of Armenian [1] and Greek descent who lived in the 1st century BC. He was a prince of Commagene and one of the sons of King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene and Queen Isias Philostorgos of Commagene. When his father died in 38 BC, he succeeded his father and reigned until his death.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

Antiochus I Theos of Commagene

Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.

According to Plutarch, he was an ally of the Roman triumvir Mark Antony. In 31 BC, Mithridates personally led his forces to Actium in Greece in support of Antony in the war against Caesar Octavian, the future Roman emperor Augustus. [2] After the defeat of Antony, however, Mithridates became a loyal ally to Augustus. Nevertheless, Augustus forced Mithridates to hand over a village in Commagene called Zeugma, which was a major crossing point of the Euphrates River, to the Roman province of Syria. To show his support for Augustus, Mithridates dropped the title Philhellen ("friend of the Greeks") from his Aulic titulature and adopted the title Philorhomaeus ("friend of the Romans") instead. Both titles were derived from the Commagenean royal cult that Mithridates' father had founded, and in which Mithridates played an important role. His other title Monocrites is an otherwise unattested title and was most likely a judicial function within the royal administration and a sign of his high social standing.

Plutarch Ancient Greek historian and philosopher

Plutarch, later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Mark Antony Roman politician and general

Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Mithridates had a brother, Antiochus II of Commagene, who was also a prince of the kingdom. [3] [4] In 29 BC, Antiochus was summoned to Rome and executed by Roman emperor Augustus, because Antiochus had caused the assassination of an ambassador whom Mithridates had sent to Rome. [3]

Antiochus II Epiphanes, also known as Antiochus II of Commagene was a man of Armenian and Greek descent. Antiochus II was a prince from the Kingdom of Commagene and the second son of King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene and Queen Isias Philostorgos. He was the youngest brother of prince and future king Mithridates II of Commagene.

Rome Capital of Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

According to an inscription found in the Turkish village of Sofraz on a funerary altar of a prominent and wealthy local family, dating to around the mid-1st century, the wife of Mithridates was a Greek woman called Laodice. The altar inscribes the names of seven generations of family members, including the names of Mithridates, of his father and of his wife. When Mithridates died in 20 BC, his son by Laodice, Mithridates III of Commagene, succeeded him. [4]

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, the part of Turkey in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city while Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 percent of the population.

Laodice, was a Greek woman who lived in the 1st century BC. She had married the Greek King from the Kingdom of Commagene, Mithridates II of Commagene, the first son and heir to Greek King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene and Greek Queen Isias of Commagene. Mithridates II reigned as King of Commagene from 38 BC-20 BC.

Mithridates III Antiochus Epiphanes was a prince who served as a King of Commagene.

Ancestry

Preceded by
Antiochus I Theos of Commagene
King of Cappadocia
38 BC – 20 BC
Succeeded by
Mithridates III

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Mithridates I Callinicus was a king of Orontid Armenian descent who lived during the late 2nd century BC and early 1st century BC. Mithridates was a prince, the son, and successor of King of Commagene, Sames II Theosebes Dikaios. Before his succession in 109 BC, he married the Syrian Greek Princess Laodice VII Thea as a part of a peace alliance. Mithridates embraced Greek culture. Laodice bore Mithridates a son, Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, a prince and future king of Commagene. Mithridates died in 70 BC and Antiochus succeeded him.

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Cappadocia (Roman province) province of the Roman Empire in Anatolia

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Classical Anatolia

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Iotapa is a daughter of King Mithridates III of Commagene. She reigned as Queen of Commagene after marrying her King brother Antiochus III.

Iotapa was a princess of Media Atropatene, daughter of King Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene. She was Queen consort of King Mithridates III of Commagene.

Julia Iotapa (daughter of Antiochus III) Roman noblewoman, daughter of Antiochus III of Commagene

Julia Iotapa, or simply Iotapa, daughter of King Antiochus III of Commagene, was Queen of Commagene, consort of her King brother Antiochus IV.

Julia Iotapa or Julia Iotape, daughter of King Antiochus IV of Commagene, was a Queen of Cetis, consort of Gaius Julius Alexander, son of Herodian prince Gaius Julius Tigranes.

References

  1. Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. Routlege. pp. 190–191. ISBN   0-7007-1452-9.
  2. Speidel, Michael Alexander (2005). "Early Roman Rule in Commagene" (PDF). citing Plutarch, Antony 61. Mavors-Institute for Ancient Military History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  3. 1 2 Smith, William, ed. (1870). "Antiochus II". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. republished at AncientLibrary.com. p. 194. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  4. 1 2 "Samosata". Catholic Encyclopedia. republished at Catholicity.com. Retrieved 20 April 2015.