Mitja Ribičič

Last updated
Mitja Ribičič
Stevan Kragujevic, Mitja Ribicic, Savezna skupstina, 1983.jpg
22nd President of the Federal Executive Council
In office
18 May 1969 30 July 1971
President Josip Broz Tito
Preceded by Mika Špiljak
Succeeded by Džemal Bijedić
Personal details
Born 19 May 1919
Trieste, Kingdom of Italy
Died 28 November 2013(2013-11-28) (aged 94)
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Nationality Slovenian
Political party League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ)

Mitja Ribičič (19 May 1919 – 28 November 2013) was a Slovenian Communist official and Yugoslav politician. He was the only Slovenian prime minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1969–1971).

Slovenia republic in Central Europe

Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. It covers 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi) and has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of NATO. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana.

Yugoslavia 1918–1992 country in Southeastern and Central Europe

Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, and constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign. The kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929.

Prime minister most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system

A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.

Contents

Life and career

He was born in a Slovene-speaking family in Trieste, Italy. His father was the Slovene author Josip Ribičič (born in town Baška, Isle of Krk, Croatia). His mother, Roza Ribičič, née Arrigler [1] or Arigler, [2] was a teacher in Slovene schools in Trieste, and an editor and public figure. She was the niece of the poet Anton Medved.

Slovene language language spoken in Slovenia

Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.

Trieste Comune in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City, as well as a maritime border with Croatia. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe.

In 1925 the family moved to Rakek, Slovenia, then part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia), where Ribičič attended elementary school. In 1929 they settled in Ljubljana. In 1938 Ribičič enrolled in the University of Ljubljana, where he studied law. In his student years, he became a member of several left wing youth organizations, and associations of Slovene emigrants from the Julian March. In April 1941, when Yugoslavia was invaded by the Nazis, he volunteered for the Royal Yugoslav Army. After the Yugoslav defeat in late April, he joined the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People. In October 1941 he became a member of the Yugoslav Communist Party's (KPJ) Slovenian branch.

Rakek Place in Inner Carniola, Slovenia

Rakek is a settlement in the Municipality of Cerknica in the Inner Carniola region of Slovenia.

Ljubljana Capital city in City Municipality of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It has been the cultural, educational, economic, political, and administrative centre of independent Slovenia since 1991.

University of Ljubljana Slovene public university

The University of Ljubljana is the oldest and largest university in Slovenia. It has approximately 40.000 enrolled students.

In May 1942 he joined the Partisan resistance. He fought in various units parts of Slovenia that had been annexed by Germany, first in Lower Styria, then in Upper Carniola, and in southern Carinthia. In November 1944 he was sent to the Soviet Union for training.

Upper Carniola

Upper Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj, while other urban centers include Jesenice, Tržič, Škofja Loka, Kamnik, and Domžale. It has around 300,000 inhabitants or 14% of the population of Slovenia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

After his return in early 1945, he served as a high-ranking official of the OZNA, the Yugoslav military intelligence, and then in the UDBA, the secret police. He was in charge of political repression of the anti-communist opposition in Slovenia. Between 1951 and 1952 he served as chief prosecutor for the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, and then until 1957 as the Secretary of the Interior of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.

The Department for People's Protection or OZNA was the security agency of Communist Yugoslavia that existed between 1944 and 1952.

Socialist Republic of Slovenia federated state of Yugoslavia 1944 and 1991

The Socialist Republic of Slovenia was one of the six republics forming the post-World War II country of Yugoslavia. It existed under different names from 29 November 1945 until 25 June 1991. In 1990, while the country was still a part of the Yugoslav federation, the League of Communists of Slovenia allowed for the establishment of other political parties, which led to the democratization of the country. The official name of the republic was Federal Slovenia until 20 February 1946, when it was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia. It retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia, though remaining a constituent state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 25 June 1991, when it enacted the laws resulting in independence.

Between 1957 and 1963 he was a member of the Slovenian government, and then a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Slovenia. In 1966 he rose to the leadership of the Yugoslav Communist Party, serving first as a member of the Executive Central Committee of the Party, and then as president of the Yugoslav government.

Between 1974 and 1982 he was president of the Socialist Union of the Working People of Slovenia, the official platform that included all professional and voluntary associations in Slovenia. Between 1982 and 1983, he became president of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, and was one of its members until 1986, when he retired. He died on 28 November 2013 at the age of 94 in Ljubljana and is buried in the family grave in Žale cemetery in Ljubljana. [3] [4] His son, Ciril is a left wing politician (member of the Social Democrats) and lawyer, as of 2013 a member of the Slovenian Constitutional Court.

Accusations of human rights violations

Several victims of Communist political persecution accused him of brutal treatment during the time when he was an official with the secret police, including Angela Vode [5] and Ljubo Sirc. [6] In 1970, when Ribičič visited Great Britain as the head of the Yugoslav Government, Sirc, a British citizen, launched a public protest, disclosing the mistreatment suffered at the hands of Ribičič in 1946. [7]

In 2005 Ribičič was investigated by the Slovenian state prosecutor for genocide involving the actions of the Yugoslav People's Army against prisoners of war in the aftermath of World War II. [8] The case, opened 60 years after the crime, was dismissed due to a lack of evidence. [9]

Related Research Articles

The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovenian territory from the 5th century BC to the present. In the Early Bronze Age, Proto-Illyrian tribes settled an area stretching from present-day Albania to the city of Trieste. Slovenian territory was part of the Roman Empire, and it was devastated by Barbarian incursions in late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages, since the main route from the Pannonian plain to Italy ran through present-day Slovenia. Alpine Slavs, ancestors of modern-day Slovenians, settled the area in the late 6th Century A.D. The Holy Roman Empire controlled the land for nearly 1,000 years, and between the mid 14th century and 1918 most of Slovenia was under Habsburg rule. In 1918, Slovenes formed Yugoslavia along with Serbs and Croats, while a minority came under Italy. The state of Slovenia was created in 1945 as part of federal Yugoslavia. Slovenia gained its independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991, and is today a member of the European Union and NATO.

Edvard Kardelj yugoslav politican

Edvard Kardelj, also known under the pseudonyms Bevc, Sperans and Krištof, was a Yugoslav journalist from Ljubljana, Slovenia, and one of the leading members of the Communist Party of Slovenia before World War II. During the war he was one of the leaders of the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People and a Slovene Partisan, and after the war a federal political leader in socialist Yugoslavia who led the Yugoslav delegation that negotiated peace talks with Italy over the border dispute in the Julian March. He is considered the main creator of the Yugoslav system of workers' self-management. He was an economist and a full member of both the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

TIGR organization

TIGR, an abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka), full name Revolutionary Organization of the Julian March T.I.G.R., was a militant anti-fascist and insurgent organization established as a response to the Fascist Italianization of the Slovene and Croat people on part of the former Austro-Hungarian territories that became part of Italy after the First World War, and were known at the time as the Julian March. It is considered one of the first anti-fascist resistance movements in Europe. It was active between 1927 and 1941.

Ljubo Sirc British economist

Ljubo Sirc CBE was a British-Slovene economist and prominent dissident from the former Yugoslavia.

League of Communists of Slovenia communist party

The League of Communists of Slovenia was the Slovenian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1989. It was established in April 1937 as the Communist Party of Slovenia, as the first autonomous sub-national branch of the Yugoslav Communist Party.

Peter Vodopivec is a Slovenian historian and public intellectual.

Katja Boh (1929–2008) was a Slovenian sociologist, diplomat and politician.

Pavel Gantar Slovenian politician

Pavel Gantar, also known as Pavle Gantar is a Slovenian politician and sociologist. Between 2008 and 2011, he served as speaker of the Slovenian National Assembly. Since February 2012, he has been the president of the social liberal extra-parliamentary party Zares.

Angela Vode Political and human rights activists

Angela Vode was a Slovenian pedagogue, feminist author and human rights activist. An early member of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, she was expelled from the Party in 1939 because of criticism against the Hitler-Stalin Pact. During World War II, she joined the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People, but was expelled in 1942 because of disagreements with the Communist Party of Slovenia. In 1944, she was interned in a Nazi concentration camp. After the war, she was arrested by the Yugoslav communist authorities, trialed at the Nagode Trial and imprisoned for several years. After her release from prison she was excluded from public life for the rest of her life. In the 1990s, she became one of the foremost symbols of victims of totalitarian repression in Slovenia.

Josip Ribičič writer

Josip Ribičič was a Slovene writer, known as an author of popular children's literature.

Andrej Gosar Slovenian and Yugoslav politician, sociologist, economist

Andrej Gosar was a Slovenian and Yugoslav politician, sociologist, economist and political theorist.

Boris Furlan was a Slovenian jurist, philosopher of law, translator and liberal politician. During World War II, he worked as a speaker on Radio London, and was known as "London's Slovene voice". He served as a Minister in the Tito–Šubašić coalition government. In 1947, he was convicted by the Yugoslav Communist authorities at the Nagode Trial.

Demetrio Volcic, also known in Slovene as Mitja Volčič is an Italian journalist, author, and politician of Slovenian descent. He rose to prominence in the late 1960s and early 1970s as foreign correspondent for the Italian television RAI. In the late 1990s, he served as member of the Italian Senate, and later as Member of European Parliament for the European Socialist Party. He currently resides in Trieste.

Ciril Ribičič is a Slovenian jurist, politician and author. Since 2000, he has served as member of the Constitutional Court of Slovenia.

Marko Natlačen Slovenian politician

Marko Natlačen was a Slovenian politician and jurist, who also served as the last ban (governor) of the Drava Banovina in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. His assassination at the hands of the Slovenian Communist secret police (VOS) during World War II was an important event in the escalation of the armed conflict between the Slovenian partisans and the Slovenian anti-revolutionary forces in the Province of Ljubljana. The role of Natlačen during World War II and the extent to which he collaborated with the Fascist Italian forces has been disputed.

Janez Stanovnik Slovenian politician

Janez Stanovnik is a Slovenian economist, politician, and former partisan. He served as the last President of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia between 1988 and 1990. Since 2003, he has been the president of the Slovenian Partisan veterans' association.

Slovene minority in Italy, also known as Slovenes in Italy is the name given to Italian citizens who belong to the autochthonous Slovene ethnic and linguistic minority living in the Italian autonomous region of Friuli – Venezia Giulia. The vast majority of members of the Slovene ethnic minority live in the Provinces of Trieste, Gorizia, and Udine. Estimates of their number vary significantly; the official figures show 24.706 Slovenian speakers in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, as per the 1971 Census, but Slovenian estimates speak of 83,000 to 100,000 people.

Črtomir Nagode was a Slovenian politician and geologist.

Nagode Trial

The Nagode Trial was a political show trial in Slovenia in 1947.

References

  1. "Imenovanja in napredovanja." 1925. Učiteljski tovariš 65(12) (26 March): 3. (in Slovene)
  2. "Goriške vesti." 1913. Učiteljski tovariš 53(42) (17 October): 3 (in Slovene)
  3. Žale cemetery grave listings Archived 2013-12-14 at the Wayback Machine .
  4. Ribičič family grave
  5. Angela Vode, Skriti spomin (Ljubljana: Nova revija, 2006).
  6. Ljubo Sirc, Between Hitler and Tito: Nazi Occupation and Communist Oppression (London: Andre Deutsch, 1989)
  7. http://cobiss4.izum.si/scripts/cobiss?ukaz=DISP&id=1925436113536572&rec=12&sid=4
  8. Post-war Killings - Enter the Bloody History Archived 2010-06-17 at the Wayback Machine .
  9. Judge drops investigation request (slo)

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
Mika Špiljak
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
18 May 1969 – 30 July 1971
Succeeded by
Džemal Bijedić