New South Wales
|Population||8,999 (2016 census)|
|Elevation||635 m (2,083 ft)|
Mittagong // is a town located in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. The town acts as the gateway to the Southern Highlands when coming from Sydney. Mittagong is situated at an elevation of 635 metres (2,083 ft). The town is close to Bowral, Berrima, Moss Vale and the Northern Villages such as Yerrinbool and Colo Vale. Moreover, Mittagong is home to many wineries of the Southern Highlands which has been a recent growing wine and cellar door region.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Wingecarribee Shire is the local government area of the Southern Highlands in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Wingecarribee Shire is around 110 kilometres (70 mi) southwest of the Sydney central business district and is part of regional Capital Country and to some extent can be considered part of the Southern Tablelands.
Berrima is a historic village in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. The village, once a major town, is located on the Old Hume Highway between Canberra and Sydney. It was previously known officially as the Town of Berrima. It is close to the three major towns of the Southern Highlands; Mittagong, Bowral and Moss Vale.
The town lies between three small mountain reserves, Mount Alexandra 780 metres (2,560 ft) above sea level, Mount Gibraltar 888 metres (2,913 ft) above sea level and Ninety Acre Hill (part of the greater Gibbergunyah Reserve ) 800 metres (2,600 ft) above sea level.
Mount Gibraltar is a mountain with an elevation of 863 metres (2,831 ft) AHD that is located in the Southern Highlands region, between Bowral and Mittagong, in New South Wales, Australia. Further west is Berrima.
Popular among locals and visitors is a small man made lake,Lake Alexandra, that feeds into the nearby Nattai River. Lookouts are available at all three reserves for viewing. Lookouts on Mount Gibraltar include Bowral Lookout, Mittagong Lookout and Mount Jellore Lookout. Lookouts on Mount Alexandra include Katoomba Lookout and Box Vale Track Lookout. Gibbergunyah Reserve include the Gib Lookout and Ninety Acre Hill Lookout.
The Nattai River, a perennial river that is part of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment, is located in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales, Australia.
Mount Gibraltar can also be seen up close when travelling to Bowral from Mittagong along Bowral Road.
The name "Mittagong" is said to come from an Aboriginal word meaning "little mountain".Other suggested meanings are "a companion" and "plenty of native dogs", as the Mittagong range was home to many dingos at one time.
The dingo is a dog that is native to Australia. The species name is debated: it is variously called Canis familiaris, Canis familiaris dingo, Canis lupus dingo, or Canis dingo. It is either a purebred, if breeding only in the wild, or a hybrid of a dingo and a domesticated dog. It is a medium-sized canid that possesses a lean, hardy body adapted for speed, agility, and stamina. The dingo's three main coat colours are: light ginger or tan, black and tan, or creamy white. The skull, the widest part of the dingo, is wedge-shaped and large in proportion to the body. It differs from that of the domestic dog by its larger palatal width, longer rostrum, shorter skull height, and wider sagittal crest.
Today, the town offers visitors the chance to explore its history, scenery, small waterfalls, bushwalks and its famed "Waratah" flowering in November.A chamber music festival is held each Easter. Tourists can visit Mount Gibraltar, Lake Alexandra and various wineries located around and in Mittagong. It also features one of the first iron mining sites in Australia, close to Lake Alexandra. The main street boasts a wide array of retailers and antique shops.
Waratah (Telopea) is an Australian-endemic genus of five species of large shrubs or small trees,it is a bush native to the southeastern parts of Australia. The most well-known species in this genus is Telopea speciosissima, which has bright red flowers and is the NSW state emblem. The Waratah is a member of the plant family Proteaceae, a family of flowering plants distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The key diagnostic feature of Proteaceae is the inflorescence, which is often very large, brightly coloured and showy, consisting of many small flowers densely packed into a compact head or spike. Species of waratah boast such inflorescences ranging from 6–15 cm in diameter with a basal ring of coloured bracts. The leaves are spirally arranged, 10–20 cm long and 2–3 cm broad with entire or serrated margins. The name waratah comes from the Eora Aboriginal people, the original inhabitants of the Sydney area.
Notably, Mittagong is close to many of the Southern Highland's wineries and cellar doors.The wineries have established themselves in the region since the 1980s due to the soil and climate of Mittagong which is believed to be perfect for viticulture.
Viticulture or winegrowing is the cultivation and harvesting of grapes. It is a branch of the science of horticulture. While the native territory of Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, ranges from Western Europe to the Persian shores of the Caspian Sea, the vine has demonstrated high levels of adaptability to new environments. Thus, viticulture can be found on every continent except Antarctica.
Mittagong is home to an abandoned historical building complex known as "The Maltings". In the past, The Maltings served as malthouses for the old major beer company of New South Wales, Tooth and Co. One of the malthouse buildings can be seen when entering Mittagong on the Old Hume Highway from Braemar. This building is one of the original buildings and is over 100 years old. This complex is abandoned and in decay. However, A few years ago it had been subject to an attempted renovation which was stopped shortly after.
At the 2016 census, the Mittagong Statistical Area 2, which includes the Miittagong town centre and the small surrounding villages of Welby, Balaclava, Braemar and Willow Vale, had a population of 8,999.
The Mittagong State Suburb, which does not include the surrounding villages, had a population of 5,767.
Mittagong is on the Old Hume Highway, which linked Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne, but the highway was diverted in 1992. The opening of the bypass was expected by some[ who? ]to negatively affect business in towns bypassed like Mittagong, but instead the location has become a rest stop for drivers and a daytripper destination from Sydney, only around one hour away. Moreover, Mittagong can be accessed from the Hume Highway in the north via the Aylmerton/Braemar ramp and in the south via the Welby ramp.
Mittagong railway station is served by the Southern Highlands Line with regular services to and from Sydney and Moss Vale, with some services extending Goulburn. Long distance services to Canberra and Melbourne also stop at the station.
The town is also home to the bus company Berrima Buslines depot. Berrima Buslines services the entire Wingecarribee Shire.
A number of long distance coach operators service Mittagong for Canberra, Melbourne and Adelaide. Priors Scenic Express operates a service six days a week to Greater Sydney (Campelltown, Liverpool and Parramatta) and to the Shoalhaven and South Coast of New South Wales.
The first European permanent settler in the Mittagong district was William Chalker (1775–1823) (also known as Charker), a former convict transported from England, who arrived in the area on 10 May 1821. He became the Principal Overseer of Government Stock, Chief Constable and Poundkeeper in the Cowpastures. A memorial plaque to Chalker was unveiled in May 1988 as a Bicentennial project; the plaque overlooks an area once known as Chalker's Flat and later known as Lower Mittagong.
As early as February 1841 an attempt was made to sell land in a subdivision called the “Town of Gainsborough”, followed by the “Livingstone Township” subdivision in June 1842, however the sales appeared to have failed and no further attempts to subdivide were attempted for some time until the iron works came into operation.In August 1861 Surveyor Campbell suggested a portion of land be reserved for village purposes. This reserve was made in 1862 and called the “Village of Fitzroy” (now Welby), and in May 1865 a subdivision consisting of 245 blocks was offered for sale in the township of “New Sheffield” an area which substantially coincided with the central portion of the present Mittagong, being subdivided by the Fitzroy Iron Mining Company. The area between the present-day Lyell and Pioneer Streets was called Nattai and was the postal township for many years before the name Mittagong was generally applied with the advent of the railway in 1867. In 1802, Barralier wrote of establishing his camp at a place called “Nattai” by the natives. About 1884 New Sheffield and Nattai united to form the present town of Mittagong.
Mittagong has been home to many industries, with iron being first smelted in the area. The Mittagong Coal Mining Company (Box Vale Colliery),Joadja Kerosene Shale, and the first supply of fresh milk and butter to Sydney by the Fresh Food & Ice Company all operated out of Mittagong in years gone by.
The transport of iron ore and smelted iron was made by steam train.Lake Alexandra was originally a water supply dam for railway engines hauling coal from the back of Mount Alexandra to the iron mines. It was drained in the 1890s when the land around it was given to Council by the Mittagong Land Company.
Main article: Fitzroy Iron Works
The presence of the ironstone was discovered when the deviation of the southbound road was being made through Mittagong in the early 1830s. Fifteen years elapsed before any attempt was made to work the iron deposit. In 1848 land was taken up and smelting commenced at the Fitzroy Iron Works in a small blast furnace that had been erected. The Sydney Morning Herald of 12 December 1848said the public had already witnessed the success of the mine by the specimens of manufactured articles exhibited in Sydney. On 2 February 1849 it was stated that a quarry had been opened and stone prepared for buildings in course of erection. A brickfield had also commenced operations. Smelting was being carried on by means of a Cataline furnace and two shafts had been sunk. The party engaged in operating the mine was living in tents until buildings were erected. The mine was referred to at this time as the Fitz Roy iron mine, doubtless in honour of Sir Charles A. Fitz Roy, the Governor-General.
Main article: Chalybeate Spring, Mittagong
Associated with the iron ore deposit was the Chalybeate Spring, an iron-rich mineral spring that was a tourist attraction mainly during the second half of the 19th century and first few decades of C20th.
The town was dominated by trucks and in winter inundated with traffic carrying skiers' on their way to the Australian Alps until 1992 when the Hume Highway opened and bypassed Mittagong and all the towns and villages of the Southern Highlands. The highway bypass was first evaluated as having a slightly negative impact on Mittagong's economy for about a year after its opening, due to the loss of traffic-serving business. Expectations were re-evaluated as mildly positive in 1994 taking into account hard-to-quantify benefits such as the increased appeal of the town as a place to live.
Mittagong is also home to a prestigious girls secondary private boarding school, Frensham, which was opened by Winifred Mary West in 1913. The school is notable for its alumni which include Dr Catherine Hamlin and former Lord Mayor of Sydney, Lucy Turnbull.
The Mittagong Farm Homes for Boys, Mittagong TSB (training school boys), as late as the 1970s became known as Renwick and catered for boys and girls, and was situated along Bong Bong Road. Two homes were located along the Old Southern Road near Diamond Fields Road. An apology was issued by the NSW Government in 2013 for the cruel practices suffered by many of the children who spent time in this institution. The institutions alumni are now in the process of having one of the homes donated by the government as a museum and dedicated building to remind of the injustices perpetrated against children.
In March 2007, the Highlands Marketplace was opened. The complex is located on the Old Hume Highway towards Welby. The building has retail franchises such as Big W, Woolworths, Priceline and many others. It is built upon the original iron works site dating back to the 1800s.There is a display of some of the original remains of this historical site in the carpark, interpretive signs recording the history. In November 2008, a new shopping complex was opened alongside the Highlands Marketplace known as the Highlands Hub. It has franchises such as OfficeWorks, Best & Less, Subway, Supercheap, Godfreys and as at 2017 Service NSW being the RMS.
Mittagong has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
The Wingecarribee River, a perennial river that is part of the Hawkesbury–Nepean catchment, is located in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales, Australia.
The Southern Highlands, also locally referred to as the Highlands, is a geographical region and district in New South Wales, Australia and is 110 km south-west of Sydney. The entire region is under the local government area of the Wingecarribee Shire. The region is also considered a wine region.
The Division of Throsby was an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was named after Charles Throsby, a prominent pioneer and explorer in the early nineteenth century of the areas to the south of Sydney.
Bowral is the largest town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, about ninety minutes south of Sydney. It is the main business and entertainment precinct of the Wingecarribee Shire and Highlands. At the 2016 census, the population of the Bowral area was 12,949.
Mittagong railway station is a heritage-listed railway station on the Main South line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Mittagong in the Southern Highlands. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Bowral railway station is located on the Main South line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Bowral opening on 1 March 1867.
Burradoo is a suburb of Bowral, in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. At the 2016 census, Burradoo had a population of 2,645 people.
Balmoral is a Northern Village of the Southern Highlands area of New South Wales, Australia. It is the northern most village in Wingecarribee Shire.
Fitzroy Falls is a village in the Wingecarribee Shire, located within the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales, Australia. The locality was known as Yarrunga, but was renamed after the 81-metre (266 ft) waterfall. At the 2016 census, Fitzroy Falls had a population of 216.
Welby is a small town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire. It was originally called Fitz Roy. The town is located 1 km west of Mittagong and houses the local Southern Highlands RTA office. At the 2016 census, Welby had a population of 759.
The Parish of Berrima is a parish of the County of Camden in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales. Berrima is the largest town in the parish, and the parish includes the land to the north and north-east of this town. The Wingecarribee River forms part of the boundary of the parish in the south, although some of the land near Berrima that is to the south of the river is also included in the parish. Both the old and new Hume Highway pass through the parish from the south-west to the north-east. Gibraltar creek is part of the boundary in the north-east. Bowral and Mittagong are located just to the east of the parish, along with the Southern Highlands railway line. Mandemar is located in the north-west of the parish.
The Parish of Mittagong is a parish of the County of Camden in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales. It includes the town of Bowral and the southern parts of Mittagong.
The Parish of Colo is a parish of the County of Camden in the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales. It is centred on the town of Colo Vale, and includes Aylmerton, Willow Vale, Alpine and Yerrinbool. It also includes the northern parts of Mittagong that are north of the Old Hume Highway. The new Hume Highway runs through the parish from south-west to north-east.
Bowral is a town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia. It has a history spanning nearly 200 years.
Mount Gibraltar Trachyte Quarries Complex is a heritage-listed former stone quarry on Mount Gibraltar at Oxley Drive, Bowral, Wingecarribee Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was worked from 1886 to 1986. It is also known as The Gib. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 December 2013.
The Chalybeate Spring at Mittagong, New South Wales was a perennial, carbonated, chalybeate (iron-rich) mineral spring