Mo i Rana

Last updated

Mo i Rana

Mo
Mo i Rana Norwegen.JPG
View of the town from the fjord in July 2003
Norway Nordland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mo i Rana
Location of the town
Norway adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mo i Rana
Mo i Rana (Norway)
Coordinates: 66°18′46″N14°08′34″E / 66.3128°N 14.1428°E / 66.3128; 14.1428 Coordinates: 66°18′46″N14°08′34″E / 66.3128°N 14.1428°E / 66.3128; 14.1428
Country Norway
Region Northern Norway
County Nordland
District Helgeland
Municipality Rana Municipality
Established1997
Area
[1]
  Total12.03 km2 (4.64 sq mi)
Elevation
[2]
26 m (85 ft)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total18,866
  Density1,568/km2 (4,060/sq mi)
Demonym(s) moværing
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Post Code
8600 Mo i Rana
Former Municipality:Mo ladested
Municipality ID NO-1803
Created from Mo herred in 1923
Merged into Rana in 1964
Area12 km2 (4.6 sq mi) [3]

Mo i Rana (Norwegian pronunciation:  [ˈmuː i ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ] ) is a town and the administrative centre of the municipality of Rana in Nordland county, Norway. It is located in the Helgeland region of Nordland, just south of the Arctic Circle. Some of the outlying areas of the town include the suburbs of Båsmoen and Ytteren in the north and Selfors in the east and Åga/Hauknes/Dalsgrenda in the south.

Contents

The town is called "Mo i Rana" to distinguish it from other places named Mo (including the town of Mosjøen, also in Helgeland) though locally the town is usually just called Mo. The postal address for Mo was "Mo 8600" until it was changed to "Mo i Rana 8600" in 1999.

The 12.03-square-kilometre (2,970-acre) town has a population (2018) of 18,866 and a population density of 1,568 inhabitants per square kilometre (4,060/sq mi). [1] This makes it the largest town in Helgeland and the second largest town (after Bodø) in Nordland county.

Name

The name Mo i Rana means "Mo in Rana" in Norwegian. "Mo" comes from an old farm that was situated near the modern town. The name of the farm comes from the Old Norse name Móar, which means sand or grass lowland. The name Rana probably comes from Old Norse too. Rana means quick or fast, probably because the fast water flow in the Ranfjorden outside town. The town was an old trade centre in Helgeland. Farmers have lived in the area since the Iron Age. [4]

History

Rana Museum, department for cultural history Ranamuseum02.JPG
Rana Museum, department for cultural history

Mining, building boats (Nordlands boats), and hunting/fishing used to be the main ways of life. Starting the summer 1730, there was a Sámi market in Mo. The market was held on the main church grounds until 1810. In 1860, wholesale merchant L.A. Meyer started a trade center, on license from the royal authority. Meyer traded flour, herring and tobacco, reindeer meat, skins and venison with the Swedes. The trade with Sweden increased, especially during Sweden's difficult economic years from 1892 to the start of the First World War. Many paths now used as hiking trails were originally trade paths for mountain dwellers in Sweden to Mo i Rana. One example is a path that starts in the Vindelfjällens Nature Reserve at Ammarnäs and follows the Vindel River valley then joins Vindelkroken and then crosses the Norwegian border to Mo i Rana.

The municipality is rich on iron ores, and water to produce power. This was very important in industry development. Dunderland Iron Ore Company (1902–1947) established the first mines in Storforshei (27 kilometres or 17 miles north of Mo i Rana). Rana Gruber was established in 1937, also a mining company. In 1946 the Norwegian Parliament approved plans for the construction of an Iron mill in Norway. The Parliament selected Mo i Rana. A/S Norwegian Iron Work Company was established. In 1955, the first steel was produced to Norway and other countries. The construction of the iron works took nine years.

During this period the village of Mo i Rana was changed to an industrial city. People from all over the country moved to Mo i Rana in order to obtain work. The community needed homes for thousands of new residents. Construction of houses and residential blocks started immediately. It was also established electricity and water supply to the city. In 1930, the population was 1300 people, this increased to 7,000 in 1955. In 1978 The Iron Mill employed approximately 4,500 of the 25,000 town's inhabitants. [5]

The Norwegian Parliament resolved in June 1988 to phase out state ownership of the company. Today there are 119 industrial companies at the industrial estate (Mo Industrial Park). The companies have activity in the iron and steel industry, the engineering industry, the research and development service industry and the information technology industry. In total, the companies employ approximately 1900 people.

From the end of the Second World War until the early 1990s, Mo i Rana, with the town's steel mill as its cornerstone, was dependent upon heavy industry. Following the decline of heavy industry, new service industries have now grown in the town.

Municipality

Rana Municipality was established on 1 January 1838 under the old formannskapsdistrikt law. Shortly afterwards, in 1839, the municipality was divided into Nord-Ranen and Sør-Ranen . [3] In 1844, Nord-Ranen was renamed Mo herred. On 1 January 1923, the village of Mo was designated as a ladested and so it was separated from the rest of the municipality to become a municipality of its own. The new town of Mo (population: 1,305) kept the name Mo and the rest of the old municipality became known as Nord-Rana (bringing back the old name for the area).

During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the municipality of Nord-Rana (population: 11,636) was merged with the town of Mo i Rana (population: 9,616), the part of the municipality of Sør-Rana located north of the Ranfjorden (population: 697), and the Sjona area of Nesna Municipality (population: 543) to create the large, new Rana Municipality. [6]

The "Graveyard War" in 1951

During the autumn of 1951, around "700 or 800" protesters showed up at the local graveyard as a result of a "nighttime mobilization" [7] to oppose the government's attempt to remove Soviet corpses from graves. Some 93,000 Soviet POWs had been brought to Norway between 1941 and 1945 by the Germans to work on improvements to infrastructure in Norway. A 2013 article in Dagbladet says that "the protests were so powerful that [then minister of defence] Jens Chr. Hauge personally stopped the [government's] action". [7] (Only at this locality, was the government's Operation Asphalt stopped by civilians. More than 8000 Soviet corpses were removed from other graveyards in North Norway, without the government having decided the location of a new graveyard for these corpses. [7] The protests in Mo i Rana were not mentioned in national media during the Cold War.)

Government

Mo was a municipality from 1923 until 1964, and during that time, it was self-governing as a municipality. All municipalities in Norway, including Mo, are responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elects a mayor. [8]

Municipal council

The municipal council (Bystyre) of Mo was made up of representatives that were elected to four year terms. The party breakdown of the final municipal council was as follows:

Mo Bystyre 19601963 [9]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)18
  Conservative Party (Høyre)4
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)4
  Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
  Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:29
Mo Bystyre 19561959 [10]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)15
  Conservative Party (Høyre)4
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)6
  Liberal Party (Venstre)3
  Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
Total number of members:29
Mo Bystyre 19521955 [11]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)15
  Conservative Party (Høyre)3
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)6
  Liberal Party (Venstre)3
  Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
Total number of members:28
Mo Bystyre 19481951 [12]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)9
  Conservative Party (Høyre)3
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)6
  Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:20
Mo Bystyre 19451947 [13]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)7
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)7
  Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)3
  Local List(s) (Lokale lister)3
Total number of members:20
Mo Bystyre 19381941* [14]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)11
  Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)8
  Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
Total number of members:20
Mo Bystyre 19351937 [15]   
Party Name (in Norwegian)Number of
representatives
  Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)9
  Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)1
  Liberal Party (Venstre)3
  Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
  Non-Socialist Group (Borgerlig Samling)6
Total number of members:20

Geography and climate

View over parts of Mo i Rana from hill east of town Furuhagen.jpg
View over parts of Mo i Rana from hill east of town

Mo i Rana is located at the head of Ranfjorden, just on the southern side of the Saltfjellet mountains with the Svartisen glacier, Norway's second largest. The river Ranelva meets the Ranfjorden in Mo i Rana. Rana and Saltfjellet are famous for their numerous caves.[ citation needed ] Two of the caves are open to the public, Grønligrotta and Setergrotta. Mo i Rana is situated about 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of the Arctic Circle.

Nerdal/ Mo i Rana (1961–90)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
146
 
 
−3
−8
 
 
117
 
 
−2
−7
 
 
112
 
 
2
−4
 
 
74
 
 
5
−1
 
 
64
 
 
12
4
 
 
70
 
 
16
8
 
 
97
 
 
18
10
 
 
110
 
 
16
9
 
 
155
 
 
11
6
 
 
186
 
 
6
2
 
 
136
 
 
1
−4
 
 
163
 
 
−1
−6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: met.no/klimastatistikk/eklima

Mo i Rana's climate is usually classified as subarctic (Köppen Dfc bordering on Dsc), [16] with long, cold winters, and short, warm summers. However it's very mild compared to Oymyakon, Russia and Verkhoyansk, Russia which are continental subarctic climates. The Norwegian Current (extension of Gulf Stream), follows the coastline of Norway all the way north. The stream has a heavy influence on the climate, helping to keep the temperatures from getting too low in the winter, despite the city being located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the coast line. The distance from the coast, however, does give it slightly lower temperatures in the winter than towns nearer the coast. There is much precipitation due to the mountains north of town, often with much snow in winter. The weather can be very unpredictable, and change quickly. Blizzards can go on for hours, potentially creating traffic difficulties and cancelling flights. Because of Mo i Rana's latitude, summer days are very long and winter days are very short on daylight. In the winter season, the Northern Lights can be seen on the night sky. It varies in intensity, coloured from white green to deep red, and comes in different shapes, such as beams, arches and draperies.

The summer is short; July and August are the warmest months. The 24-hr average temperature in July is 13.2 °C (55.8 °F). [17] This is based on the 1961–1990 base period; recent years have tended to be warmer in this area. There are usually two to three warm periods during the summer, when the average temperature is between 20 and 26 °C (68 and 79 °F) at daytime. The warm days may last for 2–14 days, with the temperature peaking at 31 °C (88 °F). Occasionally, the temperatures stay over 20 °C (68 °F) even at night time, a phenomenon called tropenatt in Norwegian.

Autumn begins in September. The trees lose their leaves in October, and the flowers disappear. During November, fresh water and rivers start to freeze, and the landscape is covered with snow. Only the spruce forest stays green throughout the winter. In the winter, the sun is low on the horizon, and is only visible for a few hours. Heating through sunlight is limited because of Mo i Rana's high-latitude location. Mountains block the sunlight when the sun is low on the horizon, which means that the sun is not visible at all during the month of December. There are normally two to three very cold periods in the winter with temperature dipping close to minus 30 °C. The cold periods normally last 3–7 days. But in the summer has midnight sun and there is no polar night in December at all. Average precipitation is 1400 mm/year. [17]

Climate data for Mo i Rana (1961–90)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−2.7
(27.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
1.6
(34.9)
5.3
(41.5)
11.6
(52.9)
15.9
(60.6)
17.7
(63.9)
16.4
(61.5)
11.3
(52.3)
6.1
(43.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−1.1
(30.0)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low °C (°F)−8.1
(17.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−4.4
(24.1)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.5
(38.3)
7.8
(46.0)
10.3
(50.5)
9.3
(48.7)
5.7
(42.3)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.5
(25.7)
−6.4
(20.5)
0.7
(33.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)146
(5.7)
117
(4.6)
112
(4.4)
74
(2.9)
64
(2.5)
70
(2.8)
97
(3.8)
110
(4.3)
155
(6.1)
186
(7.3)
136
(5.4)
163
(6.4)
1,430
(56.2)
Source: http://met.no/Klima/Klimastatistikk/Klimadata/

Industry

Nordland theater Nordland teater A.JPG
Nordland theater

Norsk Jernverk, established in 1946, produced steel for the country until 1988, when it was divided into several new companies. The iron mill had a significant impact on the town development. In 1978, the city's population had grown from approximately 2000 to 25,000. Mo Industrial Park is one of Norway's largest industrial parks. It is important for the local society, giving work to approximately 1900 people. The iron and steel factory Jernverket consumes more power than the entire Oslo municipality.[ citation needed ] The National Library of Norway has a division in Mo i Rana. HelgelandsKraft supplies electric power to the Helgeland region. NRK (Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) has a division in Mo i Rana. Rana Blad and Rana No Are the towns local newspapers. Radio 3 Rana is the local radio station.

Transport

Mo i Rana has a regional airport, Mo i Rana Airport, Røssvoll, situated 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the city in Røssvoll. The airport is a part of the Norwegian STOLport network. Mo i Rana is connected to the Nordland Line railway. This is a railway line between Trondheim and Bodø. The main north–south road in Norway, European route E6, passes through the city. The European route E12 begins in Mo i Rana and connect the city to Sweden and Finland. A bus network runs throughout most of the city and its suburbs.

An international tourist route Blue Highway (in Norwegian: Blå vegen) begins in Mo i Rana. The route goes via Sweden and Finland to Russia.

Culture

Havmann (English: The Man from the Sea) is a sculpture made from Arctic granite located in the Ranfjord. It was made in 1995 by the English sculptor Antony Gormley. It is a part of Artscape Nordland, which can be seen from the city centre. The festival Havmanndagene is held in the town every year in May. Nordland Theater is a regional theater that tours in Nordland. It was established in 1979, and is situated in a new theater building with three stages. Rana Museum, department of Helgeland Museum, is situated in the city centre. The main exhibit focuses on everyday life in the town in the 20th century. It has a photo gallery with about 80,000 images, and a folk music archive. The museum also contains a miniature model of the city from around 1930. Natural History museum is situated in the old part of town, known as Moholmen. It focuses on exhibitions of the animal life in the region. The county library of Nordland is situated in Mo i Rana. Arctic Circle Raceway is a motorsports and road racing track, situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Mo i Rana.

Churches

Mo Church Mo kirke Rana.jpg
Mo Church

Mo Church is the oldest building in Mo i Rana. Built in 1724, it is made of wood and has 400 seats. The church was built on the initiative of Thomas von Westen, a Norwegian priest and missionary who worked among the Sami. Numerous victims of World War II are buried in the graveyard, which receives visitors from the entire world in search of relatives. Gruben Church is another church in Mo i Rana. It was built in 1965 to serve the growing town.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Mo i Rana is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Bodø Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Bodø is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the traditional region of Salten. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Bodø. Some of the notable villages in Bodø include Misvær, Skjerstad, Saltstraumen, Løding, Løpsmarka, Kjerringøy, Sørvær, and Fenes.

Bindal Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Bindal is a municipality in the Helgeland region in the extreme southwest part of Nordland county, Norway. The administrative centre is the village of Terråk. Other villages include Bindalseidet, Holm, Vassås, Horsfjord and Åbygda.

Sømna Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Sømna is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative center of Sømna is the village of Vik i Helgeland. Other villages in the municipality include Dalbotn, Sund, Vennesund, and Berg.

Brønnøy Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Brønnøy is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland region. The administrative centre and commercial centre of the municipality is the town of Brønnøysund. A secondary centre is the village of Hommelstø. Other villages include Tosbotn, Lande, Trælnes, and Indreskomo.

Vega, Norway Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Vega is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Gladstad. Other villages include Holand and Ylvingen.

Herøy, Nordland Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Herøy is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Silvalen. The municipality is located about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of the town of Sandnessjøen.

Alstahaug Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Alstahaug is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Sandnessjøen. Some of the villages in Alstahaug include Søvika and Tjøtta.

Leirfjord Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Leirfjord is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Leland. Other villages in Leirfjord include Bardalssjøen and Sundøy. The large Helgeland Bridge is partly located in the municipality, connecting it to Alstahaug Municipality and the town of Sandnessjøen.

Vefsn Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Vefsn is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Mosjøen. Some of the notable villages in Vefsn include Drevvassbygda, Elsfjord, and Husvik.

Nesna Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Nesna is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Nesna. Other villages in Nesna include Handnesneset, Husby, Saura, and Vikholmen.

Hemnes Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Hemnes is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Korgen. Other villages include Bjerka, Bleikvasslia, Hemnesberget, and Sund.

Lurøy Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Lurøy is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Lurøy, located on the island of Lurøya. Other villages in Lurøy include Aldra, Haugland, Konsvikosen, Lovund, Sleneset / Solværøyene, Stokkvågen, and Tonnes.

Træna Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Træna is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the island/village of Husøya. Other population centres include Selvær and Sanna.

Rødøy Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Rødøy is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Vågaholmen. Other villages include Gjerøy, Jektvika, Kilboghamn, Melfjordbotn, Oldervika, Sørfjorden, and Tjong. The municipality consists of many islands to the west of Norway's second biggest glacier, Svartisen.

Fauske Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Fauske (Norwegian) or Fuossko (Lule Sami) is a municipality located in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the traditional district of Salten. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Fauske. Some of the villages in Fauske include Nystad, Venset, Straumsnes, and Sulitjelma.

Mosjøen Town in Northern Norway, Norway

Mosjøen or Mussere (Southern Sami) is a town in Vefsn Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. Mosjøen is the oldest town in the Helgeland region, with only the town of Bodø being older within Nordland county. The town is also the administrative centre of Vefsn Municipality. The old village of Mosjøen was declared a ladested in 1875. It was also a town municipality from 1875 until 1961 when it was merged into Vefsn, losing its status as a town (ladested). It is also a former garrison town and customs place. In 1998, the urban area of Mosjøen was declared to be a town once again. People from Mosjøen are referred to using the demonym "mosjøværing". The 6.36-square-kilometre (1,570-acre) town has a population (2018) of 9,834 and a population density of 1,528 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,960/sq mi).

Rana, Norway Municipality in Nordland, Norway

Rana is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is part of the Helgeland traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Mo i Rana, which houses the National Library of Norway. Other population centers in Rana include Båsmoen, Dunderland, Eiteråga, Flostrand, Hauknes, Mæla, Myklebustad, Nevernes, Røssvoll, Selfors, Skonseng, Storforshei, Utskarpen, and Ytteren.

Brønnøysund Town in Northern Norway, Norway

Brønnøysund is a town and the administrative centre of Brønnøy Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. It is also a former municipality within Nordland county. The village of Brønnøysund originally was declared a ladested in 1923 which made it an independent municipality. After merging with Brønnøy in 1964, it lost its town status. Then in 2000, it once again received town status. The town lies along the coast and is often called "the coastal town in the middle of Norway." Brønnøysund is also the regional center of Southern Helgeland.

Sør-Rana Former municipality in Nordland, Norway

Sør-Rana is a former municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 777-square-kilometre (300 sq mi) municipality existed from 1929 until 1964. Sør-Rana encompassed an area on both sides of the middle section of the Ranfjorden around where the Sørfjorden and Elsfjorden branch off the main fjord.

Nord-Rana Former municipality in Nordland, Norway

Nord-Rana is a former municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The 3,980-square-kilometre (1,540 sq mi) municipality existed from 1839 until its dissolution in 1964. From 1839 until 1844, it was named Nord-Ranen, from 1844 until 1923, it was called Mo, and then from 1923 until 1964 it was named Nord-Rana. The former municipality was located at the innermost part of the Ranfjorden. It encompassed the eastern 90% of what is now Rana Municipality. The administrative centre was the village of Ytteren, just north of the town of Mo i Rana.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Statistisk sentralbyrå (1 January 2018). "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality".
  2. "Mo i Rana, Rana (Nordland)". yr.no . Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  3. 1 2 Thorsnæs, Geir, ed. (18 September 2016). "Nord-Rana". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget . Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  4. Rygh, Oluf (1905). Norske gaardnavne: Nordlands amt (in Norwegian) (16 ed.). Kristiania, Norge: W. C. Fabritius & sønners bogtrikkeri. p. 13.
  5. no:Norsk Jernverk
  6. Jukvam, Dag (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Statistisk sentralbyrå.
  7. 1 2 3 "60 års taushet og tristesse". Dagbladet. 4 July 2013.
  8. Hansen, Tore, ed. (12 May 2016). "kommunestyre". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget . Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  9. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1959" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1960. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  10. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1955" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1957. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  11. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1951" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1952. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  12. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1947" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1948. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  13. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1945" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1947. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  14. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1937" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1938. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  15. "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1934" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1935. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  16. "World map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". climate.gi.alaska.edu. University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  17. 1 2 met.no: Normaler for Rana Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine