Modern pentathlon

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Modern pentathlon
Modern Pentathlon 2004 Olympics.jpg
Conclusion of the men's event at the 2004 Summer Olympics
Highest governing body Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM)
Characteristics
ContactSemi-Contact
Type Fencing, swimming, show jumping, shooting, and running sport

The modern pentathlon is an Olympic sport that comprises five different events; fencing (one-touch épée), freestyle swimming (200 m), equestrian show jumping (15 jumps), and a final combined event of pistol shooting and cross country running (3200 m). This last event is now referred to as the laser-run, since it alternates four legs of laser pistol shooting followed by an 800 m run (for 3200 m in total). The event is inspired by the traditional pentathlon held during the ancient Olympics; as the original events were patterned on the skills needed by an ideal Greek soldier of the era, the modern pentathlon is similarly patterned on events representing the skills needed by cavalry behind enemy lines.

Contents

The sport has been a core sport of the Olympic Games since 1912 despite attempts to remove it. [1] A world championships for modern pentathlon has been held annually since 1949.

Originally, the competition took place over four or five days; in 1996, a one-day format was adopted in an effort to be more audience-friendly. [2] Modern pentathlon, despite its long Olympic history, has had to justify its inclusion in the modern Olympic Games several times. On February 11, 2013 in Lausanne, the IOC confirmed modern pentathlon once again as one of the 25 core sports of the Olympic program through to 2020. The governing body, Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM), administers the international sport in more than 90 countries. [1]

History

The foundation of the modern pentathlon is disputed. On the one hand, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, claimed authorship. [2] On the other hand, Viktor Balck, the President of the Organizing Committee for the 1912 Games, showed that he made use of the long tradition of Swedish military multi-sports events, to create a manageable modern pentathlon. [3]

The name derives from the Greek péntathlon "contest of five events". [2] The addition of modern to the name distinguishes it from the original pentathlon of the ancient Olympic Games, which consisted of the stadion foot race, wrestling, long jump, javelin, and discus. As the events of the ancient pentathlon were modeled after the skills of the ideal soldier to defend a castle of that time, Coubertin created the contest to simulate the experience of a 19th-century cavalry soldier behind enemy lines: he must ride an unfamiliar horse, fight enemies with pistol and sword, swim, and run to return to his own soldiers. [2] In the 1912 Games as only officers competed, the competitors were permitted to use their own horses. Up to the 1952 Olympics the ordinary cavalry soldier was considered a professional athlete, as he was riding and training horses for a living, while the officer was the amateur. As long as there was no official international federation for Modern Pentathlon an IOC committee was set up for the sport making use of the expertise of IOC members. [4]

The event was first held at the 1912 Olympic Games, and was won by Swedish athlete Gösta Lilliehöök. The modern pentathlon has been on the Olympic program continuously since 1912. A team event was added to the Olympic Games in 1952 and discontinued in 1992. After much lobby work of the President of the German Modern Pentathlon Federation Prof. Wilhelm Henze, women were for the first time admitted at the World Championships in 1977, and at the official world championships in 1981. [5] An event for women was added in 2000. [2] A World Championship is held every year. The competitions include Men and Women's Individual and Team event together with relay events for Men and Women and, since 2010, a mixed relay event.

Competition format

Athletes gain points for their performance in each event and scores are combined to give the overall total. In the modern pentathlon, starting times for the last event (cross country running before 2009; combined laser pistol shooting and cross-country running since 2009), [6] are staggered so that the first person to cross the finish line is the winner. Before the last event competitors are ranked according to their score from the other disciplines and given start times accordingly, with the leader going first. The first person to cross the finish line, therefore, is the overall points leader and wins the pentathlon.

Until 2009, the shooting discipline involved firing a 4.5 mm (.177 cal) air pistol in the standing position from 10 metres distance at a stationary target. The format was that of the 10 metre air pistol competition: each competitor had 20 shots, with 40 seconds allowed for each shot. Beginning with the Rancho Mirage World Cup (Feb 2011), the pistols changed to a laser instead of an actual projectile. There is a slight delay between the trigger pull and the laser firing, simulating the time it would take for a pellet to clear the muzzle. [9]

The running discipline involved a 3 km cross-country race until 2009 when it was combined with the shooting event. From the start of the 2013 season, the laser-run was changed again to consist of four 800m laps each preceded by laser shooting at five targets. This change was intended to restore some of the importance of the shooting skill felt to have been lost in the original 2009 combined event. Until the 2000 Olympics, the distance was 4 kilometres. [7]

The laser-run has been criticized as altering too radically the nature of the skills required. The New York Times asked whether the name ought to be changed to "tetrathlon" given that two of the five disciplines had been combined into a single event. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

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1912 Summer Olympics Games of the V Olympiad, celebrated in Stockholm in 1912

The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Stockholm, Sweden, between 5 May and 22 July 1912.

Pentathlon

A pentathlon is a contest featuring five events. The name is derived from Greek: combining the words pente (five) and -athlon (competition). The first pentathlon was documented in Ancient Greece and was part of the Ancient Olympic Games. Five events were contested over one day for the Ancient Olympic pentathlon, starting with the long jump, javelin throwing, and discus throwing, followed by the stadion and wrestling. Pentathletes were considered to be among the most skilled athletes, and their training was often part of military service—each of the five events in the pentathlon was thought to be useful in war or battle.

The modern pentathlon at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held from 30 September to 1 October 2000. The men's and women's events each involved 24 athletes. The venues for the events were The Dome and Exhibition Complex, the Sydney International Aquatic Centre (swimming), and Sydney Baseball Stadium. For the first time in Olympic history, modern pentathlon at these Olympic games had the highest ratio of NOC representation with respect to its quota out of all the sports, and also, the women's event was officially included in the program.

Military pentathlon

The Military Pentathlon is a multisport. It resembles the modern pentathlon but updated to skills used by the modern military.

The men's modern pentathlon at the 2004 Summer Olympics took place at the Olympic Modern Pentathlon Centre in Goudi Olympic Complex on 26 August. Thirty-two athletes from 20 nations participated in this event.

The women's modern pentathlon at the 2004 Summer Olympics took place at the Olympic Modern Pentathlon Centre in Goudi Olympic Complex on 27 August. On its second appearance at the Olympics, thirty-two athletes from 21 nations participated in this event.

Modern pentathlon at the Summer Olympics

Modern pentathlon is a sports contest created especially for the Summer Olympic Games by the founder of the modern Games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, and was first contested in 1912. Coubertin was inspired by the pentathlon event in Ancient Olympic Games, which was modeled after the skills of the ideal soldier at the time.

The women's modern pentathlon at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing was held on Friday, August 22. Three venues were used: Olympic Green Convention Center, Ying Tung Natatorium (swimming), and the Olympic Sports Center Stadium.

The Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne, commonly known by the acronym UIPM, has been the international governing body of modern pentathlon since its foundation in London in 1948. Its headquarters are in Monte-Carlo, Monaco and it has 115 national federation members. Modern pentathlon was introduced at the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm (SWE) in 1912, comprising the contemporary sports of pistol shooting, fencing, swimming, horse riding and running, which embraced the spirit of its ancient counterpart.

Modern pentathlon at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The modern pentathlon at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was held from 11 to 12 August 2012. The men's and women's events each involved 36 athletes. The venues for the events were the Copper Box (fencing), the Aquatics Centre (swimming), and Greenwich Park.

The Modern Pentathlon Association Great Britain is the national governing body for the sport of modern pentathlon in Great Britain, recognised by the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne. Modern Pentathlon, the sport Baron Pierre de Coubertin called ‘the veritable consecration of the complete athlete’ comprises five events: fencing, swimming, riding, shooting and running. Today's competition involves fencing épée for a single hit against each of the other competitors; swimming 200 metres freestyle; riding an unknown horse round a show-jumping course, and then running four 800 metre laps each preceded by shooting at five targets with a laser pistol. First appearing in the Olympic Games of 1912 at the specific request of de Coubertin, founder of the Modern Olympic Games, the same five sports have comprised this greatest of all Olympic challenges and the sport completed one hundred years of unbroken Olympic participation in 2012. Despite technological changes the five events have remained essentially the same. In Stockholm in 1912, competitors brought their own horses, fenced outdoors without electric equipment, used military pistols and swam and ran outdoors. The Stockholm event took six days to complete while the super-athletes of today finish in a single day; in 1912 only men competed while today women share equal billing; the 1912 competitors were nearly all military men while today civilians generally dominate the sport. The recent changes in the sport which combine shooting and running in a single event and make use of laser pistols are some of the exciting new developments that put Modern Pentathlon at the forefront of 21st century sporting advances. Even after one hundred years of Olympic competition, Modern Pentathlon's ability to move with the times has made it the true test of the all-round Olympic super athlete.

The men's modern pentathlon at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was held on 11 August. Three venues were used: the Copper Box (fencing), Aquatics Centre (swimming) and Greenwich Park.

The women's modern pentathlon at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London was held on 12 August. Three venues were used: the Copper Box (fencing), Aquatics Centre (swimming) and Greenwich Park.

Modern pentathlon at the 2016 Summer Olympics

The modern pentathlon at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 19 to 20 August 2016 at Deodoro Aquatics Centre, Deodoro Stadium, and Youth Arena.

The men's modern pentathlon at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held on 30 September. Three venues were used: The Dome and Exhibition Complex, Sydney International Aquatic Centre (swimming) and Sydney Baseball Stadium. Dmitry Svatkovsky from Russia won the gold medal with a score of 5,376 points.

The modern pentathlon at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo will take place in 2021 at Musashino Forest Sports Plaza and Ajinomoto Stadium.

The men's modern pentathlon at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro was held on 19 August. Three venues were used: Deodoro Aquatics Centre (swimming), Deodoro Stadium and Youth Arena (fencing).

The women's modern pentathlon at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro was held on 19 August. Three venues were used: Deodoro Aquatics Centre (swimming), Deodoro Stadium and Youth Arena (fencing).

Laser-run Sport that combines three events

Laser-Run is a multisport competition consisting of running and shooting. It is a sport in its own right. As Combined, the Laser-Run is the last event of the Modern Pentathlon.

References

  1. 1 2 "Special Edition: Refuting IOC's Plan to End Modern Pentathlon Competition". The Sport Journal. Fall 2002. Archived from the original on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Branch, John (November 26, 2008). "Modern Pentathlon Gets a Little Less Penta". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  3. Sandra Heck: Von Spielenden Soldaten und kämpfenden Athleten. Die Genese des Modernen Fünfkampfes. Göttingen: V & R Unipress. 2013, ISBN   978-3-8471-0201-4
  4. Arnd Krüger: Forgotten Decisions. The IOC on the Eve of World War I, in: Olympika 6 (1997), 85 – 98. (https://web.archive.org/web/20100810031033/https://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/Olympika/Olympika_1997/olympika0601g.pdf)
  5. Uta Engels: "Now the Problem: Modern Pentathlon for Ladies." Zur Rolle Prof. Dr. Peter-Wilhem Henzes bei der Entwicklung des Modernen Frauenfünfkampfes, in: Arnd Krüger & Bernd Wedemeyer (eds.): Aus Biographien Sportgeschichte lernen. Festschrift zum 90. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Henze. Hoya: Niedersächsisches Institut für Sportgeschichte 2000, S. 47 -66. ISBN   3-932423-07-0
  6. Pentathlon change irks Livingston, BBC, 24 November 2008
  7. 1 2 "Modern Pentathlon". 'Good Luck Beijing'. 2007-03-10. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  8. "Rules for Combined Event Running and Shooting" (PDF). UIPM. Retrieved 2012-08-12.[ permanent dead link ]
  9. "Can Lasers Save the Modern Pentathlon?". 2012-08-12.
Notes
  1. This unusual skill—the riding of a random horse is also used in the US for college equestrian team competitions and in club IEA horse back riding.

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