Mohamed Brahmi

Last updated

Mohamed Brahmi
محمد براهمي
MohamedBrahmi 2Juin2012 ANC.jpg
Member of the Constituent Assembly
In office
22 November 2011 25 July 2013
Succeeded byFadhel Saghraoui
Constituency Sidi Bouzid
Leader of the People's Movement
In office
8 March 2011 7 July 2013 [1]
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded byZouhair Maghzaoui
Personal details
Born(1955-05-15)15 May 1955
Sidi Bouzid, Sidi Bouzid Governorate, Tunisia
Died25 July 2013(2013-07-25) (aged 58)
Ariana, Tunisia
Cause of death Assassination
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
People's Movement [2]
Spouse(s) Mbarka Aouinia Brahmi
Childrenfive (four daughters and one son)
Alma mater Tunis University

Mohamed Brahmi (Tunisian Arabic : محمد براهمي; 15 May 1955 – 25 July 2013) was a Tunisian politician. Brahmi was the founder and former leader of the People's Movement, [1] which, under his leadership, won two seats in the constituent election in 2011. [2]

Peoples Movement (Tunisia)

The People's Movement is a political party in Tunisia. It is a socialist, secularist and Arab nationalist party founded in April 2011. The composition of the party has changed several times as a result of mergers and splits. The People's Movement is a member of the Popular Front coalition, one of the three main coalitions of political parties in Tunisia. The former leader of the party, Mohamed Brahmi, was assassinated on 25 July 2013 by unknown killers.

Contents

Early life and career

Brahmi was born on 15 May 1955 in Sidi Bouzid, capital of the Sidi Bouzid Governorate. He graduated from his Alma Mater, the Higher Institute of Management at Tunis University with a Master's Degree in accounting in 1982. After his graduation, he taught as a professor of economics and management for two years at the Technical College of Menzel Bourguiba. [2]

Sidi Bouzid Place in Tunisia

Sidi Bouzid, sometimes called Sidi Bou Zid or Sīdī Bū Zayd, is a city in Tunisia and is the capital of Sidi Bouzid Governorate in the centre of the country. Following the suicide of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, it was the site of the first clashes of the Tunisian Revolution and a catalyst for other protests in the region, often known as the Arab Spring.

Sidi Bouzid Governorate Governorate in Tunisia

Sidi Bouzid Governorate, sometimes spelt Sidi Bou Zid, is one of the 24 governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. It is in central Tunisia and landlocked. It covers an area of 7405 km² and has a population of 429,912. The capital is its most populous settlement, Sidi Bouzid.

Tunis University

Tunis University is a university in Tunis, Tunisia. It was founded in 1960 on the basis of earlier educational establishments.

Later, he worked in the Office of Irrigation, and then in real estate from 1985 to 1993. He did consultancy work as an auditor for the Technical Cooperation Agency in Saudi Arabia. From 2004, he worked as the manager of a real estate business specializing in residential properties. [2]

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; 50% of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.

Politics

Brahmi was an active member of the Arab Progressive Unionist Students until 2005, at which point he left and founded the Nasserist Unionist Movement, an illegal party under the Ben Ali government. After the Tunisian revolution, he founded the People's Movement and became the general secretary of the group. [3] The party later joined the Popular Front on 13 April 2013. [2] [4] However, Brahmi and other members of the movement left the front on 7 July due to criticisms of the movements' central and regional leaders over cooperation with the front. [3]

The Nasserist Unionists Movement – NUM or Nasserite Unification Movement is a minor Lebanese political party headed by Samir Sabbagh. It was founded in 1982 out from a splinter faction of the INM/Al-Mourabitoun, originally under the label Movement of Unionist Nasserites – MUN. The NUM aims to unify all Lebanese Nasserite parties under one leadership and is currently a member of the pro-Syrian March 8 Alliance.

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali Tunisian politician

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, commonly known as Ben Ali, is a Tunisian former politician who served as President of Tunisia from 1987 until his ousting in 2011. Ben Ali was appointed Prime Minister in October 1987, and he assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless coup d'état that ousted President Habib Bourguiba, who was declared incompetent. Ben Ali was subsequently reelected with enormous majorities, each time exceeding 90% of the vote; the final re-election was on 25 October 2009.

Popular Front (Tunisia) Tunisian political party

The Popular Front for the Realization of the Objectives of the Revolution, abbreviated as the Popular Front (ej-Jabha), is a leftist political and electoral alliance in Tunisia, made up of nine political parties and numerous independents.

Brahmi was known for his socialist and Arab nationalist beliefs, [5] [6] particularly in the tradition of Gamal Abdel Nasser. [5] He was a practicing Muslim. Although a member of the anti-Islamist Popular Front, he did not have a reputation for being especially critical of Islamists, and in fact had many friends in the ruling Islamist Ennahda Movement. [6]

Nasserism Arab socialist and nationalist political ideology

Nasserism is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President. Spanning the domestic and international spheres, it combines elements of Arab socialism, republicanism, nationalism, anti-imperialism, developing world solidarity and international non-alignment. In the 1950s and 1960s, Nasserism was amongst the most potent political ideologies in the Arab world. This was especially true following the Suez Crisis of 1956, the political outcome of which was seen as a validation of Nasserism and a tremendous defeat for Western imperial powers. During the Cold War, its influence was also felt in other parts of Africa and the developing world, particularly with regard to anti-imperialism and non-alignment.

Gamal Abdel Nasser Second president of Egypt

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956.

Ennahda Movement Tunisian political party

The Ennahdha Party, also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahdha, is a Muslim democratic political party in Tunisia. Founded as "The Movement of Islamic Tendency" in 1981, Ennahdha was inspired by the Iranian revolution, and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, but has also been called "the mildest and most democratic Islamist party in history". Rached Ghannouchi was the movement's founder and remains its president.

Assassination

Brahmi's funeral procession CeremonieEnterrementMohamedBrahmi 3.JPG
Brahmi's funeral procession

On 25 July 2013, Brahmi was fatally shot in Tunis outside his Ariana home in front of his wife and children by two men on a motorcycle. [7] He received 11 bullets and died later that day in a hospital in Ariana district of Tunis. [8]

Aryanah City in Ariana, Tunisia

Aryanah or Ariana is a coastal city in north-eastern Tunisia, part the agglomeration of Tunis, also called "Grand Tunis". It is located at the north of Tunis city center, around 36°51′45″N10°11′44″E. It is the capital of Ariana Governorate and the country's eighth largest city.

Brahmi's death followed the assassination of opposition leader Chokri Belaid, killed on 6 February 2013. The two were members of the same left-wing coalition. [9] Interior Minister Lotfi Ben Jeddou told a news conference: "The same 9mm automatic weapon that killed Belaid also killed Brahmi." [10] The suspect in both murders was identified as Abu Muqatil al-Tunisi, [10] a Salafist being sought on suspicion of smuggling weapons from Libya. [10] [11]

A state funeral was held for Brahmi [12] and tens of thousands of people attended the procession to the Jellaz Cemetery in Tunis. [1] During Brahmi's funeral, protesters called for the government to be toppled, while police fired tear gas on them. [13]

Protest

Following his death, hundreds of his supporters, including relatives and party members of the People's Movement, demonstrated in front of the Interior Ministry's building on Avenue Habib Bourguiba and blamed the incumbent Ennahda Party and their followers for the assassination. [5] [14] Hundreds of supporters also protested in Brahmi's hometown of Sidi Bouzid. [5]

After the protests, Education Minister Salem Labiadh submitted his resignation. The opposition minority in the national assembly called for the government to resign and dissolve the legislature, but Prime Minister Ali Larayedh said that the government would continue its work and set 17 December as the date for the scheduled general election [15] (later postponed for the end of 2014). In January 2014, however, Ennahda replaced Larayedh with a technocrat.

Legacy

On 19 September 2013, Tunisia's interior minister told lawmakers the CIA informed authorities Brahmi was a target and said there had been a "failure" in the security services' response. He announced an investigation had been opened. [16]

In the 2014 election, his wife Mbarka Aouinia Brahmi, heading the Popular Front's list in the Sidi Bouzid constituency, was elected a member of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People. On 4 December 2014, she was nominated for the post of the First deputy Speaker of the Assembly by the Popular Front, but was defeated with 33 votes against 157 votes for her contender Abdelfattah Mourou of Ennahda. Apart from the Popular Front (15 seats), only Afek Tounes (8 seats) had declared their support for her. [17] She later criticized the pact of Nidaa Tounes with Ennahda, "the two parties of the political right, the one liberal and the other religious," as she put it. [18]

Related Research Articles

Rached Ghannouchi Tunisian politician

Rached Ghannouchi, also spelled Rachid al-Ghannouchi or Rached el-Ghannouchi, is a Tunisian politician and thinker, co-founder of the Ennahdha Party and serving as its "intellectual leader". He was born Rashad Khriji.

2014 Tunisian presidential election presidential election in Tunisia

A presidential election was held in Tunisia on 23 November 2014, a month after the parliamentary election. It was the first free and fair presidential election since the country gained independence in 1956, as well as the first regular presidential election after the Tunisian Revolution of 2011 and the adoption of the Constitution in January 2014.

2011 Tunisian Constituent Assembly election

An election for a constituent assembly in Tunisia was announced on 3 March 2011 and held on 23 October 2011, following the Tunisian revolution. The Assembly had 217 members. It was the first free election held in Tunisia since the country's independence in 1956, as well as the first election in the Arab world held after the start of the Arab Spring.

Habib Essid Tunisian politician

Habib Essid is a Tunisian politician who was Head of Government of Tunisia from 6 February 2015 to 27 August 2016. He was the first Head of Government to be appointed following the adoption of the new constitution and thus considered to be the first Head of Government of the Second Tunisian Republic. He previously served as Minister of the Interior in 2011.

Hamadi Jebali Tunisian politician and journalist

Hammadi Jebali is a Tunisian engineer, Islamist politician and journalist who was Prime Minister of Tunisia from December 2011 to March 2013. He was the Secretary-General of the Ennahda Movement, a moderate Islamist party in Tunisia, until he left his party in December 2014 in the course of the Tunisian presidential election, 2014.

Nidaa Tounes Tunisian political party

Nidaa Tounes is a big tent secularist political party in Tunisia. After being founded in 2012, the party won a plurality of seats in the October 2014 parliamentary election. The party's founding leader Beji Caid Essebsi was elected President of Tunisia in the 2014 presidential election.

Chokri Belaid Tunisian politician

Chokri Belaïd, also transliterated as Shokri Belaïd, was a Tunisian lawyer and politician who was an opposition leader with the left-secular Democratic Patriots' Movement. Belaïd was a vocal critic of the Ben Ali regime prior to the 2011 Tunisian revolution and of the then Islamist-led Tunisian government. On 6 February 2013, he was fatally shot outside his house in El Menzah, close to the Tunisian capital, Tunis. As a result of his assassination, Tunisian Prime Minister Hamadi Jebali announced his plan to dissolve the existing national government and to form a temporary "national unity" government.

Abdelfattah Mourou Tunisian lawyer and politician

Abdelfattah Mourou is a Tunisian politician and lawyer. He is a co-founder of the Ennahdha Party and serves as its Vice-President. He has been First Vice President of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People since 2014.

The National Salvation Front was an electoral alliance in Tunisia, made up of multiple political parties. The alliance includes the Union for Tunisia and Popular Front coalitions. The Republican Party left the Union for Tunisia alliance on 30 December 2013, though it remains part of the National Salvation Front. After the compromise with Ennahda which resulted in a technocratic government instead of an anti-Ennahda government, the front appears to have splintered between right-wing secularists and left-wing secularists.

A political crisis evolved in Tunisia following the assassination of leftist leader Mohamed Brahmi in late July 2013, during which the country's mainly secular opposition organized several protests against the ruling Troika alliance that was dominated by Rashid al-Ghannushi's Islamist Ennahda Movement. The events came as part of the aftermath of the Tunisian Revolution which ousted the country's longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by a general election which saw Ennahda win a plurality alongside Moncef Marzouki's allied Congress for the Republic (CPR). The crisis gradually subsided when Prime Minister Ali Laarayedh resigned and a new constitution was adopted in January 2014.

2014 Tunisian parliamentary election

Legislative elections were held in Tunisia on 26 October 2014. Campaigning started on 4 October 2014. They were the first free regular legislative elections since independence in 1956, and the first elections held following the adoption of the new constitution in January 2014, which created a 217-seat Assembly of the Representatives of the People. According to preliminary results, Nidaa Tounes gained a plurality of votes, winning 85 seats in the 217-seat parliament, beating the Ennahda Movement and many smaller parties.

Essid Cabinet

The cabinet of Tunisian Head of Government Habib Essid was approved on 5 February 2015 by a majority of 166 of total 217 legislators of Tunisia's Assembly of the Representatives of the People. The unity government consists of 27 ministers and 14 secretaries of state and includes independents, members of Nidaa Tounes, the two liberal parties Free Patriotic Union (UPL) and Afek Tounes, and a member of the Islamist Ennahda.

The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet is a group of four organizations that were central in the attempts to build a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011.

Socialism in Tunisia

Socialism in Tunisia or Tunisian socialism is a political philosophy that is shared by various political parties of the country. It has played a role in the country's history from the time of the Tunisian independence movement against France up through the Tunisian Revolution to the present day.

Basma Khalfaoui

Basma Khalfaoui, is a Tunisian lawyer, political activist and long-time advocate for the women’s movement who rose to national prominence following the assassination of her husband Chokri Belaid in 2013.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Thousands attend funeral of Tunisian MP". Al Jazeera. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Salma Bouzid (25 July 2013). "Who's Who: Mohamed Brahmi". Tunisia Live. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  3. 1 2 "Tunisian Speaker spurns opposition calls for parliament dissolution". BBC Monitoring International Reports. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  4. "Tunisia: 'Echaab' Movement Joins Popular Front". Tunis Afrique Presse . 9 April 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Daragahi, Borzou. Salafist identified as suspect in Tunisia assassination. Financial Times . 26 July 2013.
  6. 1 2 "Tunisia Brahmi killing: 'Same gun used' in Belaid murder". BBC News. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  7. Najjar, Yasmin (28 July 2013). "Tunisia buries slain politician". Magharebia. Tunis. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  8. "Tunisian politician Mohamed Brahmi assassinated". BBC News. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  9. "Tunisian opposition leader Mohammed Brahmi shot dead". CBS News. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 "Islamists rally to defend Tunisian government after assassination". Reuters. 26 July 2013.
  11. "Tunisia opposition figures 'shot by same gun'". Al Jazeera. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  12. "Tunisia Brahmi murder: State funeral for MP". BBC. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  13. "Tear gas fired at Tunisian protesters". Al Jazeera. 28 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  14. Gall, Carlotta (26 July 2013). "Second Opposition Leader Assassinated in Tunisia". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  15. "Tunisia Ruling Party Offers December Elections". Wall Street Journal . Associated Press. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  16. "Tunisia Says CIA Warned of Politician Murder". ABC News . American Broadcasting Company. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  17. "Tunisie: Le candidat d'Ennahdha Abdelfattah Mourou élu vice-président de l'Assemblée, avec le soutien de Nida Tounes". Al Huffington Post (in French). 4 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  18. "Politique: Mbarka Aouinia critique «l'alliance Nidaa-Ennahdha»". Kapitalis (in French). 4 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.