Mohammad-Javad Bahonar

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Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
محمد جواد باهنر
Mohammad Javad Bahonar.jpg
48th Prime Minister of Iran
In office
4 August 1981 30 August 1981
President Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Preceded by Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Succeeded by Reza Mahdavi Kani (Acting)
Minister of Education
In office
10 August 1980 10 August 1981
President Abolhassan Banisadr
Prime Minister Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Preceded by Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Succeeded by Ali Akbar Parvaresh
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
28 May 1980 10 August 1980
Constituency Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr
Majority1,385,197 (64.8%)
Member of Assembly of Experts for Constitution
In office
15 August 1979 15 November 1979
Constituency Kerman Province
Majority205,765 (80.2%)
Personal details
Born(1933-09-05)5 September 1933
Kerman, Iran
Died30 August 1981(1981-08-30) (aged 47)
Tehran, Iran
Political party Islamic Republican Party
Spouse(s)Zahra Eynakian (1966–1981, his death) [1]
Relatives Mohammad-Reza Bahonar (brother)
Alma mater University of Tehran
Signature Mohammad-Javad Bahonar signature.svg

Mohammad Javad Bahonar (Persian : محمدجواد باهنر, 5 September 1933 – 30 August 1981) was a Shia Iranian theologian and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Iran for less than one month in August 1981. [2] Bahonar and other members of Mohammad-Ali Rajai's government were assassinated by Mujahideen-e Khalq. [3]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iranian peoples diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group

The Iranian peoples, or the Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

Contents

Early life

Mohammad Javad Bahonar was born on 3 September 1933 in Kerman, Iran. [4] His father was a simple tradesman and had little shop at the Kerman. [5] He was the second child of nine, and his family was very poor. As a child, he was taught the Quran by local women, also learning to read and write. Guided by Ayatollah Haghighi, he studied at the Masoumieh seminary. At the same time he could obtain the degree of fifth of ancient school. [6]

Kerman City in Iran

Kerman is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,394, in 221,389 households, making it the 10th most populous city of Iran.

Quran The central religious text of Islam

The Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature. The Quran is divided into chapters, which are subdivided into verses.

Education

Bahonar passed his primary school at Masoumieh School of Kerman. In 1953, he went to Qom Seminary and attended in the class of Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of Iranian revolution. [7] [3] [8] He received a PhD in theology from the University of Tehran. [7] Also, he was faculty member of the Tehran University and taught religious lessons and theology. [3] [7] [9]

Qom Seminary largest traditional Islamic school of higher learning

The Qom Seminary is the largest Islamic seminary (hawza) in Iran, established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi in Qom.

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

University of Tehran university in Iran

University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. It is also one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The mother university of Iran". It has been ranked as one of the best universities in the Middle East in national and international rankings and among the top universities in the world. It is also the premier knowledge producing institute among all OIC countries. The university offers 111 bachelor's degree programs, 177 master's degree programs, and 156 Ph.D. programs. Many of the departments were absorbed into the University of Tehran from the Dar al-Funun established in 1851 and the Tehran School of Political Sciences established in 1899.

Revolutionary activities

Before Iranian revolution

Bahonar was a reviler of the Pahlavi dynasty and had activities against Mohammad Reza Shah that led to imprisonment him in 1963, [4] 1964, and 1975. [3] [9] On 1963, he was jailed for opposing the Shah's White Revolution. [4] Also, during exile of Khomeini in Iraq and France, he continued his revolutionary activities and was an influential member among Khomeini's followers. [9] [3] [7] [10] Bahonar along with Morteza Motahari was active speaker of Hosseiniyeh Ershad, a religious lecture hall in the Tehran. [9]

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the Monarchy of Iran was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. According to Reza Shah, He named Agha Ameri the successor to his dynasty if it fell.

White Revolution

The White Revolution or the Shah and People Revolution was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah’s reform program was built especially to weaken those classes that supported the traditional system. It consisted of several elements, including land reform, sale of some state-owned factories to finance this land reform, construction of an expanded road, rail, and air network, a number of dam and irrigation projects, the eradication of diseases such as malaria, the encouragement and support of industrial growth, enfranchisement of women, nationalization of forests and pastures, formation of literacy and health corps for rural isolated areas, and institution of profit sharing schemes for workers in industry. In the 1960s and 1970s the shah sought to develop a more independent foreign policy and established working relationships with the Soviet Union and eastern European nations. In subsequent decades, per capita income for Iranians skyrocketed, and oil revenue fueled an enormous increase in state funding for industrial development projects.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

After Iranian revolution

Upon release from custody, Bahonar did not engage in further activism until Khomeini became Iran's de facto ruler. For his service in the revolution, Bahonar became the new government's ministry of culture and Islamic guidance in 1981, and was responsible for censoring any media disapproved by Muslim leaders in Tehran. He also directed a purge of all secular influence from Iranian Universities. [11]

He also became a founding member of the Islamic Republican party [12] and an original member of the Council of Revolution of Iran. Also, he was member of Assembly of Experts. [9] Bahonar along with Mohammad Ali Rajai purging Iranian universities of western cultural influences which known as the Islamic Cultural Revolution. [3] [7] After the assassination of Mohammad Beheshti on 28 June 1981, he was appointed general secretary of the party where he was also a member of the central committee. [3] [12] Bahonar served as the minister of culture and Islamic guidance under Mohammad Ali Rajai's prime ministry from March 1981 to August 1981. When Rajai became president on 5 August 1981, he chose Bahonar as his prime minister. [13]

Islamic Republican Party political party

The Islamic Republican Party formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran. It was disbanded in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.

Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran. However all directly-elected members after the vetting process by the Guardian Council still have to be approved by the Supreme Leader of Iran before gaining membership to the Assembly of Experts.

Hafte Tir bombing

On 28 June 1981, a powerful bomb went off at the headquarters of the Iran Islamic Republic Party (IRP) in Tehran, while a meeting of party leaders was in progress. Seventy-three leading officials of the Islamic Republic were killed, including Chief Justice Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti. The Islamic Republic of Iran first blamed SAVAK and the Iraqi regime. Two days later, Ruhollah Khomeini accused the People's Mujahedin of Iran. A few years later, a Kermanshah tribunal executed four "Iraqi agents" for the incident. Another tribunal in Tehran executed Mehdi Tafari for the same incident. In 1985, the head of military intelligence informed the press that this had been the work of royalist army officers. Iran's security forces blamed the United States and "internal mercenaries".

Assassination

Bahonar was assassinated along with Rajai and other members of Islamic Republican Party when a bomb exploded at the party's office in Tehran on 30 August 1981. [4] [14] [15] [13] In Iran, this explosion is known as the Hashteh-Shahrivar bombing. The bomb was set off when one of the victims opened a briefcase. The briefcase was carried by Massoud Keshmiri, a security official at the Islamic Republican Party, to the meeting. One week later, Keshmiri was announced as responsible for planning and execution of the assassination. [8] Keshmiri was identified as an operative of Mujahedin that was supported by Saddam Hussein. [4] [3] He tried to assassinate Rajai and Bahonar on 22 August when Rajai introduced his cabinet to Ruhollah Khomeini. Ahmad Khomeini explained that Keshmiri was with Rajai when they came to see Imam Khomeini. He had a suitcase but they did not allow him to bring it. [8]

See also

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References

  1. شهید باهنر به روایت همسر
  2. Robin B. Wright (2010). The Iran Primer: Power, Politics, and U.S. Policy. US Institute of Peace Press. p. 221. ISBN   978-1-60127-084-9.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Mohammad Javad Bahonar (Prime minister of Iran)". Britannica. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Michael Newton (17 April 2014). Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 27–28. ISBN   978-1-61069-286-1.
  5. "An index of memories of Mohammad Javad Bahona". Maryrdom and Sacrifice. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  6. http://www.ensani.ir/fa/content/79974/default.aspx
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "Joint Crisis: Supreme Defense Council of Iran, 1980" (PDF). Harvard Model United Nations. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
  8. 1 2 3 Baqer Moin (1999). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. I.B.Tauris. p. 242. ISBN   978-1-85043-128-2.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 John H. Lorentz (14 April 2010). The A to Z of Iran. Scarecrow Press. p. 44. ISBN   978-1-4617-3191-7.
  10. Manouchehr Ganji (2002). Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-275-97187-8.
  11. Michael Newton (2014). "Bahonar, Mohammad-Javad (1933–1981)". Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 27. ISBN   978-1-61069-286-1.
  12. 1 2 Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jayum A. Jawan; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law. 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  13. 1 2 Glenn E. Curtis; Eric Hooglund (18 July 2008). Iran: A Country Study. Government Printing Office. p. 63. ISBN   978-0-8444-1187-3.
  14. The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2010 (New Edition). Pearson Education India. 1 January 2010. p. 1. ISBN   978-81-317-2790-4 . Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  15. Nikou, Semira N. "Timeline of Iran's Political Events". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
Political offices
Preceded by
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Minister of Education
1980–1981
Succeeded by
Ali Akbar Parvaresh
Preceded by
Mohammad Ali Rajai
Prime Minister of Iran
1981
Succeeded by
Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani
Party political offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Beheshti
Secretary-General of the Islamic Republican Party
1981
Succeeded by
Ali Khamenei