Mohammad Ali Foroughi

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Mohammad-Ali Foroughi
محمدعلی فروغی
Foroughi PM1314.jpg
22nd Prime Minister of Iran
In office
27 August 1941 9 March 1942
Monarch Reza Shah
Mohammad Reza Shah
Preceded by Ali Mansur
Succeeded by Ali Soheili
In office
18 September 1933 3 December 1935
MonarchReza Shah
Preceded by Mehdi Qoli Hedayat
Succeeded by Mahmoud Jam
In office
1 November 1925 13 June 1926
MonarchReza Shah
Preceded by Rēzā Pahlavi
Succeeded by Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Finance
In office
1 September 1924 1 November 1925
Prime Minister Reza Khan
In office
15 June 1923 26 October 1923
Prime Minister Hassan Pirnia
In office
14 March 1915 1 May 1915
Prime Minister Hassan Pirnia
In office
24 May 1913 3 June 1913
Prime Minister Saad ad-Daula
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
28 October 1923 1 September 1924
Prime Minister Reza Khan
In office
14 February 1923 15 June 1923
Prime Minister Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Justice
In office
3 June 1913 6 December 1914
Prime Minister Saad ad-Daula
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Speaker of the Parliament
In office
6 July 1912 10 July 1912
Preceded by Mirza Esmaiel Khan
Succeeded by Hossein Pirnia
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
19 November 1909 3 August 1921
Constituency Tehran
Personal details
Born1 January 1875
Tehran, Iran
Died26 November 1942(1942-11-26) (aged 67)
Tehran, Iran
Resting place Ibn Babawayh Cemetery
Political party Revival Party
Children6
Alma mater Tehran School of Political Sciences
Dar ul-Funun

Mohammad Ali Foroughi (1 January 1875 [1] [2] [3] 26 November 1942, Persian : محمدعلی فروغی) also known as Zoka-ol-Molk (Persian: ذُکاءالمُلک) was a teacher, diplomat, nationalist, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script, which itself evolved from the Aramaic alphabet.

Prime Minister of Iran former a political post in Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

Contents

Early life and education

Foroughi was born in Tehran to a merchant family from Isfahan. His ancestor, Mirza Abutorab was the representative of Isfahan in Mugan plain during Nader Shah Afshar's coronation. His grandfather, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, was amongst the most influential merchants of Isfahan and was skilled in history and geography. His father Mohammad Hosein Foroughi was the translator of the Shah from Arabic and French. He was also a poet and published a newspaper called Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar nicknamed Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, after hearing a poem that he had written. Many sources alleged that Foroughi's ancestors were Baghdadi Jews who came to Isfahan and converted to Islam. [4] During occupation of Iran in the second world war, Nazi Germany often emphasized this alleged Jewish ancestry in radio broadcasts. [5] During his early life, Foroughi studied at the élite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) in Tehran.

Tehran City in Iran

Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.4 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Mugan plain plain

Mugan plain is a plain in northwestern Iran and the southern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The highest density of irrigation canals is in the section of the Mugan plain which lies in the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is located on the bank of the Aras river extending to Iran.

Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Persian Shah

Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahān Khānom and the third longest reigning monarch in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty and Tahmasp I of the Safavid Dynasty. Nasser al-Din Shah had sovereign power for close to 50 years and was also the first modern Iranian monarch to formally visit Europe.

Career

In 1907, Foroughi's father died, and thus Foroughi inherited his father's title of Zoka-ol-Molk. [6] During the same year, Foroughi became the dean of the College of Political Sciences. In 1909, he entered politics as a member of Majlis (Parliament), representing Tehran. He subsequently became speaker of the house and later minister in several cabinets as well as prime minister three times and once as the acting prime minister when Reza Khan resigned as prime minister to take up the crown as Reza Shah. In 1912, he became the president of the Iranian Supreme Court. Later he was appointed prime minister and dismissed in 1935 due to the father of his son-in-law's, Muhammad Vali Asadi, alleged participation in the riot in Mashhad against the reforms implemented by Reza Shah. [7]

Mashhad City in Razavi Khorasan, Iran

Mashhad, also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. It has a population of 3,001,184 inhabitants, which includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv to the east.

Reza Shah Shah of the Imperial State of Iran

Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

However, later Foroughi regained his status and became Prime Minister during the initial phase of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's reign. [7] Foroughi as a prime minister was instrumental in having Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proclaimed as king after his father, Reza Shah, was forced to abdicate (16 September 1941) and exiled by the allied forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II. After the collapse of his cabinet, he was named Minister of Court and then named ambassador of Iran to the United States of America, but he died in Tehran at the age of 67 before he could assume the post.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union,, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.

Foroughi with Ali Mansour, Mostafa Gholibayat, Aliakbar Davar and Mahmoud Jam. فروغی، داور، بیات، منصور و جم.jpg
Foroughi with Ali Mansour, Mostafa Gholibayat, Aliakbar Davar and Mahmoud Jam.

Books

Foroughi at the court of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. PMforoughi2.jpg
Foroughi at the court of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Foroughi wrote numerous books, including

The History of Iran,
The History of the Ancient Peoples of The East,
A Short History of Ancient Rome,
Constitutional Etiquette,
A Concise Course in Physics,
Far-fetched Thoughts,
The Wisdom of Socrates,
The History of Philosophy in Europe,
My Message to the Academy of Language (Farhangestan),
The Rules of Oratory or The Technique of Speech Making,
a book on the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings). [ clarification needed ]

In addition to this, he prepared scholarly editions of the works of Saadi, Hafez, Rumi, Omar Khayyam and Ferdowsi.

Hafez Persian poet

Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī, known by his pen name Hafez and as "Hafiz", was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy". His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-14th century Persian writing more than any other author.

Rumi 13th-century Persian poet

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī, also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, Mevlânâ/Mawlānā, Mevlevî/Mawlawī, and more popularly simply as Rumi, was a 13th-century Persian poet, jurist, Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan. Rumi's influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, and the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy for the past seven centuries. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. Rumi has been described as the "most popular poet" and the "best selling poet" in the United States.

Omar Khayyam Persian poet, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer

Omar Khayyam was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.

His son Mohsen Foroughi was a renowned architect who completed his studies in France and designed Niavarān Palace Complex, which is situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace of the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution.Franz Malekebrahimian worked directly under Mohsen Foruoghi in implementation and maintenance of the Palace.

See also

Abdolhossein Teymourtash Iranian politician

Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.

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Dar ul-Funun (Persia) university

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Hassan Pirnia Iranian politician

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References

  1. http://seemorgh.com/culture/history-and-civilization/history-and-civilization-of-iran/274314-با-محمدعلی-فروغی-آشنا-شوید/
  2. https://cgie.org.ir/fa/news/181533
  3. Mina Shahmiri, A look at the life of Mohammad Ali Foroughi, in the midst of culture and power, Etemad Newspaper, No 1842, 2008.
  4. Bagher Agheli, A biography of political and military figures in contemporary Iran, Elm publishing, Tehran, 2001.
  5. Amanat: FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK. Encyclopedia Iranica, 1999, pp. 108–112.
  6. 1 2 Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN   978-0-520-25328-5 . Retrieved 4 November 2012.

Sources

Political offices
Preceded by
Reza Khan
Prime Minister of Iran
1925–1926
Succeeded by
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Preceded by
Mehdi Qoli Hedayat
Prime Minister of Iran
1933–1935
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Jam
Preceded by
Ali Mansur
Prime Minister of Iran
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Ali Soheili