|22nd Prime Minister of Iran|
27 August 1941 –9 March 1942
|Monarch|| Reza Shah |
Mohammad Reza Shah
|Preceded by||Ali Mansur|
|Succeeded by||Ali Soheili|
18 September 1933 –3 December 1935
|Preceded by||Mehdi Qoli Hedayat|
|Succeeded by||Mahmoud Jam|
1 November 1925 –13 June 1926
|Preceded by||Rēzā Pahlavi|
|Succeeded by||Mostowfi ol-Mamalek|
|Minister of Finance|
1 September 1924 –1 November 1925
|Prime Minister||Reza Khan|
15 June 1923 –26 October 1923
|Prime Minister||Hassan Pirnia|
14 March 1915 –1 May 1915
|Prime Minister||Hassan Pirnia|
24 May 1913 –3 June 1913
|Prime Minister||Saad ad-Daula|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
28 October 1923 –1 September 1924
|Prime Minister||Reza Khan|
14 February 1923 –15 June 1923
|Prime Minister||Mostowfi ol-Mamalek|
|Minister of Justice|
3 June 1913 –6 December 1914
|Prime Minister|| Saad ad-Daula |
|Speaker of the Parliament|
6 July 1912 –10 July 1912
|Preceded by||Mirza Esmaiel Khan|
|Succeeded by||Hossein Pirnia|
|Member of the Parliament of Iran|
19 November 1909 –3 August 1921
|Born||1 January 1875|
|Died||26 November 1942 67) (aged|
|Resting place||Ibn Babawayh Cemetery|
|Political party||Revival Party|
|Alma mater|| Tehran School of Political Sciences |
Mohammad Ali Foroughi (1 January 1875 – 26 November 1942, Persian : محمدعلی فروغی) also known as Zoka-ol-Molk (Persian: ذُکاءالمُلک) was a teacher, diplomat, nationalist, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.
Foroughi was born in Tehran to a merchant family from Isfahan. His ancestor, Mirza Abutorab was the representative of Isfahan in Mugan plain during Nader Shah Afshar's coronation. His grandfather, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, was amongst the most influential merchants of Isfahan and was skilled in history and geography. His father Mohammad Hosein Foroughi was the translator of the Shah from Arabic and French. He was also a poet and published a newspaper called Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar nicknamed Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, after hearing a poem that he had written. Many sources alleged that Foroughi's ancestors were Baghdadi Jews who came to Isfahan and converted to Islam.During occupation of Iran in the second world war, Nazi Germany often emphasized this alleged Jewish ancestry in radio broadcasts. During his early life, Foroughi studied at the élite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) in Tehran.
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
Mugan plain is a plain in northwestern Iran and the southern part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The highest density of irrigation canals is in the section of the Mugan plain which lies in the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is located on the bank of the Aras river extending to Iran.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahān Khānom and the third longest reigning monarch in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty and Tahmasp I of the Safavid Dynasty. Nasser al-Din Shah had sovereign power for close to 50 years and was also the first modern Iranian monarch to formally visit Europe.
In 1907, Foroughi's father died, and thus Foroughi inherited his father's title of Zoka-ol-Molk.During the same year, Foroughi became the dean of the College of Political Sciences. In 1909, he entered politics as a member of Majlis (Parliament), representing Tehran. He subsequently became speaker of the house and later minister in several cabinets as well as prime minister three times and once as the acting prime minister when Reza Khan resigned as prime minister to take up the crown as Reza Shah. In 1912, he became the president of the Iranian Supreme Court. Later he was appointed prime minister and dismissed in 1935 due to the father of his son-in-law's, Muhammad Vali Asadi, alleged participation in the riot in Mashhad against the reforms implemented by Reza Shah.
Mashhad, also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Khorasan-e Razavi Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. It has a population of 3,001,184, which includes the areas of Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv to the east.
Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
However, later Foroughi regained his status and became Prime Minister during the initial phase of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's reign.Foroughi as a prime minister was instrumental in having Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proclaimed as king after his father, Reza Shah, was forced to abdicate (16 September 1941) and exiled by the allied forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II. After the collapse of his cabinet, he was named Minister of Court and then named ambassador of Iran to the United States of America, but he died in Tehran at the age of 67 before he could assume the post.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.
The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Foroughi wrote numerous books, including
In addition to this, he prepared scholarly editions of the works of Saadi, Hafez, Rumi, Omar Khayyam and Ferdowsi.
Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī, known by his pen name Hafez and as "Hafiz", was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy". His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-14th century Persian writing more than any other author.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī, also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, Mevlânâ/Mawlānā, Mevlevî/Mawlawī, and more popularly simply as Rumi, was a 13th-century Persian poet, jurist, Islamic scholar, theologian, and Sufi mystic originally from Greater Khorasan. Rumi's influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Tajiks, Turks, Greeks, Pashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, and the Muslims of South Asia have greatly appreciated his spiritual legacy for the past seven centuries. His poems have been widely translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. Rumi has been described as the "most popular poet" and the "best selling poet" in the United States.
Omar Khayyam was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.
His son Mohsen Foroughi was a renowned architect who completed his studies in France and designed Niavarān Palace Complex, which is situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace of the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution.Franz Malekebrahimian worked directly under Mohsen Foruoghi in implementation and maintenance of the Palace.
Abdolhossein Teymūrtāsh was an influential Iranian statesman who served as the first Minister of Court of the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925 to 1932, and is credited with playing a crucial role in laying the foundations of modern Iran in the 20th century.
The Golestan Palace is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.
Fazlollah Zahedi was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced the democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh through a coup d'état, in which he played a major role.
The Sa'dabad Palace Complex is a 300 hectare complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchs, located in Shemiran, Greater Tehran, Iran. Today, the official residence of the President of Iran is located adjacent to the complex.
The Niavaran Palace Complex is a historical palace complex situated in Shemiran, Iran. It consists of several palace buildings and monuments dating back to the Qajar and Pahlavi eras.
Dar ul-Funun, established in 1851, was the first modern university and modern institution of higher learning in Iran (Persia).
Abdollah Khan Amir Tahmasebi was a Persian senior military commander, instrumental in the fall of the Qajar dynasty and rise to power of Reza Shah Pahlavi.
Ahmad Ahmadi, known as Pezeshk Ahmadi meaning Physician Ahmadi, was born in Mashhad to Mohammad Ali Ahmadi. He was an uneducated man who worked as a nurse in different hospitals.
Major General Mahmud Khan Pulādeen, also spelled as Pouladeen, was a senior military leader of the Reza Shah Pahlavi era.
Sepahbod Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi (1884–1974) was a military leader and cabinet Minister of Iran.
Ali Mansur was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Mahmoud Modir al-Molk Djam was a prime minister of Iran from 1935 to 1939.
Amir Asadollah Alam was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister during the Shah's regime from 1962 to 1964. He was also Minister of Royal Court, President of Pahlavi University and Governor of Sistan and Baluchestan Provinces.
Hasan Ali Mansur was an Iranian politician who was Prime Minister from 1964 to 1965. He served during the White Revolution of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was assassinated by a member of the Fadayan-e Islam.
Arteshbod Gholam Reza Azhari was a military leader and Prime Minister of Iran.
Morteza Gholi Bayat was a Prime Minister of Iran.
Reza Shah's Mausoleum, located in Ray south of Tehran, was the burial ground of His Imperial Majesty Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878-1944), the penultimate Shahanshah (Emperor) of Iran. It was built close to Shah-Abdol-Azim shrine.
Hassan Pirnia, was a prominent Iranian politician of 20th-century Iran. He held a total of twenty-four posts during his political career, serving four times as Prime Minister of Iran. He was also a historian, co-founding the Society for the National Heritage of Iran.
Mahmoud Afshartous, also written Afshartoos, was an Iranian general and chief of police during the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. Afshartous was abducted and killed by anti-Mossadegh conspirators, which helped pave the way for the 1953 coup d'état.
Mohammad Ebrahim Mirza Amirteymour Kalali, also known as Sardar Nosrat, was a prominent Iranian statesman and aristocrat.
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