Mohammad Beheshti

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Mohammad Hoseini Beheshti
Beheshti-10.jpg
Chief Justice of Iran
Head of Supreme Court of Iran
In office
23 February 1980 28 June 1981
Appointed by Ruhollah Khomeini
Succeeded by Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
Member of the Assembly of Experts for Constitution
In office
15 August 1979 15 November 1979
Constituency Tehran Province
Majority1,547,550 (60.93%)
Personal details
Born(1928-10-24)24 October 1928
Isfahan, Iran
Died28 June 1981(1981-06-28) (aged 52)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Political party Islamic Republican Party
Spouse(s)Ezatolsharia Modares Motlagh [1]
Children4
Alma mater University of Tehran
Signature Mohammad Beheshti signature.png

Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (Persian : سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی; 24 October 1928 – 28 June 1981) was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution. [2] Dr. Beheshti is considered to have been the primary architect of Iran's post-revolution constitution, as well as the administrative structure of the Islamic Republic. Beheshti was assassinated along with more than 70 members of the Islamic Republic Party on 28 June 1981.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Contents

Beheshti is also known to have selected and trained several prominent politicians in the Islamic Republic, such as current President Hassan Rouhani, former President Mohammad Khatami, Ali Akbar Velayati, Mohammad Javad Larijani, Ali Fallahian, and Mostafa Pourmohammadi. [3] Beheshti also served as the Secretary General of the Islamic Republic Party, and was the head of the Iranian judicial system. He further served as Chairman of the Council of Islamic Revolution, and the Assembly of Experts. Beheshti earned a Ph.D. in Philosophy, and was fluent in English, German and Arabic. Following his death, Ayatollah Khomeini referred to Beheshti as a person who was "as a nation for us." [4]

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Ali Akbar Velayati Iranian politician

Ali Akbar Velayati is an Iranian conservative politician and physician. Velayati is a distinguished professor at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, senior adviser to the Supreme Leader in international affairs and head of the board of founders and the board of trustees of the Islamic Azad University.

Early years and education

Beheshti was born in Isfahan in 1928. [5] He studied both at the University of Tehran and under Allameh Tabatabaei in Qom. Between 1965 and 1970, he led the Islamic Center in Hamburg where he was responsible for the spiritual leadership of religious Iranian students in Germany and Western Europe. In Hamburg, he also worked with Mohammad Khatami and was among his influences. Since the early 1960s, he was involved in activities against the monarchy and was arrested several times by the Shah's secret police, the SAVAK.

Isfahan City in Iran

Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.

University of Tehran university in Iran

University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. It is also one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed "The mother university of Iran". It has been ranked as one of the best universities in the Middle East in national and international rankings and among the top universities in the world. It is also the premier knowledge producing institute among all OIC countries. The university offers 111 bachelor's degree programs, 177 master's degree programs, and 156 Ph.D. programs. Many of the departments were absorbed into the University of Tehran from the Dar al-Funun established in 1851 and the Tehran School of Political Sciences established in 1899.

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Beheshti joined Ayatollah Khomeini in Najaf, Iraq, where the latter was in exile. There he became part of Khomeini's underground movement. [6]

Najaf Place in Najaf Governorate, Iraq

Najaf or Al-Najaf al-Ashraf also Baniqia is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2013 was 1,000,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shia Islam, the Shi'ite world's spiritual capital, and the center of Shi'ite political power in Iraq.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Career

Following the Islamic Revolution, he became one of the original members of the Council of Revolution of Iran and soon its chairman. As vice-president, he played a particularly important role in promoting the principle of velayat-e faqih as the basis for the new constitution. In the first post-revolutionary Iranian parliament, he led the Islamic Republic party together with Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. (He never campaigned for the parliament though, as he was already the head of Iran's Supreme Judicial System). Behesti was the founding member, first general secretary and a central committee member of the party. [7] He was also planning to run for the presidency in the first presidential elections, but withdrew after Ayatollah Khomeini told a delegation of Rafsanjani and Khamenei that he preferred non-clerics as presidents, which led to the Islamic Republic party's endorsement of first Jalaleddin Farsi and then, Hasan Habibi as candidate. [8]

Islamic Republican Party political party

The Islamic Republican Party formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran. It was disbanded in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.

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Jalaleddin Farsi Iranian politician

Jaleleddin Farsi is an Iranian former politician who served as a member of the parliament from 1984 to 1988. He was also elected to the 73-man Assembly of Experts for Constitution responsible for drafting the constitution in 1979.

Assassination

Beheshti was killed in the Hafte tir bombing on 28 June 1981, when a bomb exploded during a party conference. According to James Buchan,The Islamic Republic of Iran first blamed the Tudeh Party, SAVAK and the Iraqi regime. Two days later, Ruhollah Khomeini accused the MEK. [9] A few years later, a Kermanshah tribunal executed four "Iraqi agents" for the incident. Another tribunal in Tehran executed Mehdi Tafari for the same incident. In 1985, the head of military intelligence informed the press that this had been the work of royalist army officers. Iran's security forces blamed the United States and "internal mercenaries". [10]

The Honourable James Buchan is a Scottish novelist and historian.

SAVAK

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Along with Beheshti, many clerics, ministers, and officials also died. [11] Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini was reportedly very moved by Beheshti's death. [12] Today, a commemoration ceremony is organized each year on the day of Beheshti's assassination. [13]

Works

Some of his works were translated into Arabic. Some of them are as follow:

Opinions

Behesti had an important role in writing the constitution of Iran, particularly the economic section. He believed in cooperative companies (Ta'avoni) in the field of economy and partnership and co-operation in lieu of competition in economic affairs. According to him, in Ta'avoni companies there is no mediation between producer and consumer. He also asserts that in such as companies, rights belong to humans rather than stocks. [14] He claims the foundation of Iran's Constitution to be Islamic, and that Iran's revolutionary Islamic system is at the same time a people-oriented system according to the volition of the Iranian people. This system is designed for the betterment and evolution of humankind. [15] According to Beheshti, one of the most important pillars of political thought is that human could walk in right path along with faith to truth. [16]

Philosophy of jurisprudence

According to Beheshti, the origin of property and possession in Islam is working.

Epistemology

Beheshti raised some epistemological questions in "Knowledge from Quran's view point". He believed that knowledge no definition, and that no definition can be found. Beheshti believed there are only four sources of knowledge: perception, introspection, reason and revelation (or Vahy). He coupled an empiric attitude with foundationalism in his structure of knowledge. [17]

Anthropology

Beheshti, opposed to modernism, believed that there is a strict relationship between individual and collective aspects of human being. According to him, although the history of humans shows that they are always tend to falsehood (or Batil), the Quran says there is a strong link between humanity and truth. Beheshti also emphasized on the theory of Fitarat (innateness or primary nature) in anthropology. Beheshti also believed the human soul had to be considered in the whole rather than in part. According to the theory of primary nature, one of the characters of human soul is volition and choosing. At the same time humans undertake responsibility for their actions. Humans have two important qualities: freedom of choice and responsibility. In other words, Beheshti believes Islam has a realist slant in respect to humans as it considers humans as a mix of freedom of choice and responsibility. Whilst humans are given choice, faith has an important role in this way and could help humans in making decision. [18]

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References

  1. خادم شهید بهشتی اهل «مزارشریف» است
  2. "BEHESHTI WAS SEEN AS NO. 2 FIGURE IN IRAN AFTER THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION". The New York Times. 29 June 1981.
  3. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Mohammad Hosayn Beheshti". britannica. Retrieved 24 October 2003.
  4. "Imam Khomeini - Beheshti Was Himself a Nation for Us : Imam Khomeini". en.imam-khomeini.ir.
  5. Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 62.  via Questia (subscription required)
  6. Samii, Abbas William (1997). "The Shah's Lebanon policy: the role of SAVAK". Middle Eastern Studies. 33 (1): 66–91. doi:10.1080/00263209708701142.
  7. Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jayum A. Jawan; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law. 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  8. Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs. 59 (1): 1–20. doi:10.2307/20040651. JSTOR   20040651.
  9. James Buchan (2013). Days of God: The Revolution in Iran and Its Consequences. Simon and Schuster. p. 293. ISBN   978-1416597773.
  10. "33 HIGH IRANIAN OFFICIALS DIE IN BOMBIMG AT PARTY MEETING; CHIEF JUDGE IS AMONG VICTIMS", NY Times, 29 June 1981
  11. Ganji, Manouchehr (21 September 2017). Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to the Shah to a Leader of Resistance. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN   9780275971878 via Google Books.
  12. Video Iran Negah
  13. Mahtafar, Tara (28 June 2009). "Beheshti's Ghost". PBS. Tehran. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  14. Beheshti et al. , pp. 4–6
  15. theoretical foundations of Iran's constitution, a fragment of Beheshti's book "theoretical foundations of Iran's constitution, special monthly magazine of Voice in islamic republic of Iran, 9th year, number 54
  16. The dignity of human in political system,Sayyed Alireza Hoseini Beheshti,the recognizing the one thought(Baz Shenasi Yek Andisheh,1380 solar,foundation of publication of Beheshti's thought,p.119
  17. "نقد تحلیلی شناخت از دیدگاه قرآن اثر آیت الله دکتر بهشتی".
  18. The dignity of human in political system, Sayyed Alireza Hoseini Beheshti, the recognizing the one thought (Baz Shenasi Yek Andisheh, 1380 solar, foundation of publication of Beheshti's thought, p.109-112
Party political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Secretary-General of the Islamic Republican Party
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Legal offices
Preceded by
Unknown
Head of Judiciary System of Iran
1980–1981
Succeeded by
Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili