Mohammad Mofatteh

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Martyr Dr. Ayatollah

Mohammad Mofatteh
Mohammad Mofatteh (04).jpg
A Portrait of Dr. Ayatollah Mohammad mofatteh
Born(1928-06-17)June 17, 1928
DiedDecember 18, 1979(1979-12-18) (aged 51)
Tehran, Iran
Cause of deathAssassination by bullet shot
Resting place Fatemeh Ma'sumeh shrine
NationalityIranian
OccupationUniversity professor, Dean of colleague, seminary teacher
Known forUnity of seminary and university
Notable work
Tafsir Kabir Majmaolbayan, The Way of Thought, Outcomes of Imperialism
Political party Combatant Clergy Association
Children Mohammad Mehdu
Parent(s)
  • Mahmoud Mofatteh [1] (father)

Mohammad Mofatteh (Persian : محمد مفتح; 1928–1979) was an Iranian philosopher, theologian, and political activist, born in Famenin, Hamadan, Iran. [2] After he finished his primary education in Hamadan, he left for the Islamic Seminary in Qom, where he was taught by reputable teachers such as Ayatollah Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari, Ayatollah Sayyed Hossein Tabatabei Borujerdi, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Ayatollah Marashi, and Allameh Tabatabie. He continued his studies at seminary and at the same time studied philosophy at Tehran University, where he earned his PhD and became a professor and a dean of colleague.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Philosopher person with an extensive knowledge of philosophy

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.

Famenin City in Hamadan, Iran

Famenin is a city and capital of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 14,019, in 3,634 families.

Contents

Mofatteh was a religio-political activist who worked for unity between the seminary and the academic disciplines. Also, he had an important role in fighting against the Shah's regime and in familiarizing the new generation with Islamic issues. He was a prayer leader in Javid and Qoba Mosque where he held and presided over religious and ideological sessions and organized political activities against the Shah. He performed the Eid al-Fitr prayer in Tehran in 1978, and his sermon led to the demonstrations of 7 and 8 December. His activities led to his arrest and exile by SAVAK on several occasions.

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to server as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry. The English word is taken from the Latin seminarium, translated as seed-bed, an image taken from the Council of Trent document Cum adolescentium aetas which called for the first modern seminaries. In the West, the term now refers to Catholic educational institutes and has widened to include other Christian denominations and American Jewish institutions.

Shah Persian title

Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.

Qoba Mosque

The Qoba Mosque is a Mosque in Tehran, with a view of the Alborz Mountains to the north. It is located on Ghoba (Qoba) Street between Negin Street and Khushak Street.

He was the author of several books such as Translation of Tafsir Kabir Majmaolbayan, The Way of Thought, and Outcomes of Imperialism, among others. He also wrote many articles such as "The Role of Muslim Scientists in The Advance of Science" and "Where Did Islamic Scientific Movements Begin?".

He was assassinated by four gunmen, all members of the Forqan group, in front of the Theology Department of Tehran University, on 18 December 1979. He was shot four times, with the bullets going through his head, shoulder, hands, and knees. The day of his assassination is called the day for "unity among seminaries and universities".

Assassination murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler

Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons.

Early education

He was born into a family of religious scholars. His father, Haj Sheikh Mahmoud Mofatteh, known as Mirza Mahmoud, was one of the eminent teachers of Hamadan Seminary. His father also was knowledgeable in subjects including Arabic and Persian literature. Mohammad used to participate in his father's courses, from which absorbed his primary knowledge. [1]

Mohammad Mofatteh attended Akhund Mullah Ali Hamedani's school in Hamadan. [3] After completing his primary education there, at 16 he left for the well-known Islamic Seminary in Qom, [1] where he was taught by Ayatollah Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari, Ayatollah Sayyed Hossein Tabatabei Borujerdi and Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Ayatollah Marashi, and Allameh Tabatabie. [2]

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari

Sayyed Muhammad Hojjat KouhKamre'i was a Shia jurist and scholar in the principles of Islamic jurisprudence, hadith studies and narration studies. He was a Grand Ayatollah (marja') among Shia and founded the Hojjatiyyah School in Qom.

Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi Iranian ayatollah

Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi March 1875 – 30 March 1961) was an Iranian Shia Marja' and the leading Marja in Iran from roughly 1947 to his death in 1961.

Activities

Political

Mofatteh and Beheshti were among those who articulated Khomeini's spiritual and political authority in the Islamic revolution. In other words, they extended the views of Khomeini in politics and ideology. [4] As a religio-political activist, he used to travel to different places of Iran in the 1950s and 1960s. Especially, during Ramadhan, Moharram, and Safar, he used to go to Khuzestan province to guide the people. After he developed his activities in Khuzestan, SAVAK prohibited his entrance to the province. In 1968 he was fired from the Department of Education for his political activities and was exiled to Zahedan. After the period of exile was finished, SAVAK prohibited his entrance to Qom and instead, "to neutralize his religio-political activities", suggested that he be assigned as a professor at Tehran University. [1]

Ṣafar is the second month of the lunar based Islamic calendar. The Arabic word ṣafar means "empty", corresponding to the pre-Islamic Arabian time period when people’s houses were empty, as they were out gathering food. Ṣafar also means "whistling of the wind", as this was likely a windy time of year. Most of the Islamic months are named according to weather conditions of the time; however, since the calendar is lunar, the months shift about 11 days every year, meaning that the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month.

SAVAK

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

Ministry of Education (Iran) Iranian ministry responsible for education

The Ministry of Education established in 1964, is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of K-12 education in Iran. Each year, 20% of government spending and 5% of GDP goes to education, a higher rate than most other developing countries. 50% of education spending is devoted to secondary education and 21% of the annual state education budget is devoted to the provision of tertiary education. Also Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University and Farhangian University are the university of teacher education and human resource development in Ministry of Education.

In 1973, at the invitation of the people, he went to Javid Mosque in Tehran to lead the prayers. There, he held ideological classes on "the fundamentals of beliefs", philosophy, Tafsir of Quran, Nahj al-Balagha, history of religions, and sociology. He continued his activities in the Javid Mosque so that it became a center for fighting against the Shah, leading to its closing on 24 November 1974 by SAVAK after Khamenei's speech there, and Mofatteh being sent to prison for almost two months. In 1976 he accepted the responsibility of managing Qoba Mosque in Tehran, where he introduced some innovations such as inviting Egyptian Quran reciters, and inviting Abdul Fatah Abdul Maqsood, the author of the book Ali . He established a library and an interest-free loan center in the mosque. After a while, he was prohibited from giving lectures. [1] As an Islamist leader, Ayatollah Mofatteh organized demonstrations in the Qoba Mosque against the Shah's regime. [5]

Mofatteh traveled to Lebanon and Syria and visited Imam Musa Sadr, with whom he aimed to help the Lebanese evacuees and lead cultural activities. During that trip, Musa Sadr and Mofatteh decided to establish a center where the children of evacuees could obtain an education from the primary grades up to the university level. They bought a piece of land for constructing the center but they did not carry out their plan after Sadr's disappearance. [6]

Mofatteh performed the prayer of Eid al-Fitr in 1978 [7] in Gheytarieh, in which an unprecedented number of people took part and which was marked as a "shining point in the history of the Islamic Revolution". [8] After finishing the prayer, he gave a "very revolutionary and crucial" lecture, mentioned "Imam Khomeini", and emphasized the importance of respecting him. The lecture led to demonstrations of 7 September (16th of Shahrivar). He was injured in the demonstration, arrested while returning home from the hospital, and then imprisoned for two months. [1] After the demonstration, people promised to gather the next day on 8 September at Jaleh (Shohada) Square which led to the Black Friday event. [8] [9]

He was a part of Khomeini's welcoming committee and was responsible for managing the affairs in Behesht-e Zahra. The committee organized 65,000 people as a disciplinary force to protect Khomeini. [6] Mofatteh was one of the founders of the "Combatant Clergy Association", [10] and was among those who joined secular organizations such as the Teachers Association in order to counter the influence of the Tudeh party, [11] and to "advance their common cause against the state". [12]

Academic

Mofatteh was studying at the university and teaching in the seminary at the same time, which garnered criticism from some people who told him, in a kind manner, that this was tarnishing his status. [1] As the initiator of "seminary-university unity", he studied philosophy at the university and attended seminary in Qom. Then he became a professor at Tehran University and taught divine law and principles of philosophy at Qom seminary. [13] Like his colleague Professor Motahari, he started to teach university students in 1969. He was experienced enough in teaching because he was a teacher at a high school in Qom as well.[ citation needed ] Along with Ayatollah Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Beheshti, he worked at the Religion and Knowledge high school in Qom, where they aimed to familiarize the new generation with Islam and seminary students with academic and scientific activities. Also, for this goal, Mofatteh established the Islamic Association of Students and Educators, in cooperation with Ayatollah Beheshti and Ayatollah Khamenei. [1]

Works

He wrote many books, including Translation of Tafsir Kabir Majmaolbayan, The Way of Thought, and Outcomes of Imperialism. [13] His doctoral dissertation was "Divine Wisdom in Nahj al-Balagha". He was concerned in the aforementioned essay with the relation of religion and philosophy. [14] Besides those, he authored many works in different fields of Islamic science as follows:

  • A gloss on Hikmat Muta'aliyyeh
  • The way of thought in logic
  • The verses of beliefs in Quran
  • Unity of academics and seminary [14]

He published articles mainly in "Islam School" and "Shia School" magazines. Also, he published some other articles entitled "The Role of Muslim Scientists in The Advance of Science", "Where Did Islamic Scientific Movements Begin?", "Muslims' learning and research in Medicine", and "Research Method of Muslim Scientists" (all of the above articles were published by the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology in a collection entitled "The Role of Scientists in the Advance of Science"). [1]

Death

Mohammad Mofatteh in Hospital after Assassination Mohammad Mofatteh after Assassination.jpg
Mohammad Mofatteh in Hospital after Assassination
Funeral of Mohammad Mofatteh Funeral of Mohammad Mofatteh.jpg
Funeral of Mohammad Mofatteh

Assassination

Mofatteh was assassinated by Forghan group, when he was in front of the building of Theology department of Tehran University along with his two guards, Asghar Nematy and Javad Bahmany, on 18 December 1979, [15] [16] when he was dean of the Theology Department. [17] He was shot at four times, with the bullets going through his head, shoulder, hands, and knees. He was taken to Ayatollah Taleghany Hospital where he died on the same day. [18] Four members of Forghan namely, Kamal Yassini, Mahmud Kashani, Mohammad Nouri, and Hassan Nouri, were charged in the assassination. [19] Kamal Yasini, Mofatteh's assassin, a 20-year-old youth who held the responsibility of planning the groups terror, said that their previous terror attempts, including one at the Pars school, were unsuccessful and that he had aimed to perform the deed by himself. [15]

Funeral

On the morning of 19 December Mofatteh's body, with those of his guards, was carried from the university's mosque, then carried to Qom and buried in the courtyard of the Fatemeh Ma'sumeh shrine. [15]

Reception

December 18, the day Mofatteh was assassinated, is called the day for "unity among seminaries and universities". [13]

See also

Sources

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Staff writer. "Mofatteh, Mohammad (Ayatollah)". Encyclopedias of Islamic revolution and Iranian history (Encyclopedia contemporary clerics). Archived from the original on 2015-10-17.
  2. 1 2 "Life, ethics and family of martyr doctor Mofatteh". Message of Woman (201). 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  3. "Grant ayatollah molla Ali Masumi hamedani". comprehensive center of Iran's contemporary history. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  4. Gheissari, Ali; Nasr, Vali; Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. Democracy in Iran: History and the Quest for Liberty. Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780195396966.
  5. Afkhami, Gholam Reza. The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. ISBN   9780520942165 . Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  6. 1 2 "Martyr Mofatteh by the narration of his closest friend" . Retrieved 11 July 2016.
  7. Parsa, Misagh. Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution. Rutgers University Press. ISBN   9780813514123 . Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  8. 1 2 "Assassination of Ayatollah Mofatteh and the Day of unity between Islamic Seminaries and universities". Islamic Revolution Document Center. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  9. "Martyr Ayatollah Dr. Mofatteh from the mosques base in the cultural and social field". Guardian of Islam (276): 26. 2004. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  10. "New leader of Iran's main conservative party appointed". TREND News Agency. Infotrac Newsstand. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  via Infotrac Newsstand (subscription required)
  11. Brumberg, Daniel. Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. University of Chicago Press. ISBN   9780226077581 . Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  12. Boroujerdi, Mehrzad. Iranian Intellectuals and the West: The Tormented Triumph of Nativism. Syracuse University Press. ISBN   9780815627265 . Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 "December 18 marks seminary-university unity". Iran Daily. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  14. 1 2 Tabrizi, Qasim (2006). "A glance to biography of mofatteh". Yaran (in Persian) (14).
  15. 1 2 3 "How martyr Mofatteh was assassinated". IRIB News Network. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  16. Zabir, Sepehr. Iran Since the Revolution (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis. ISBN   9781136833007 . Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  17. Behrooz, Maziar. Rebels With A Cause: The Failure of the Left in Iran. I.B.Tauris. ISBN   9781860646300 . Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  18. "Assassination of martyr Mofatteh by the narration of papers". Mashregh News (in Persian). Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  19. Einollahzadeh, Soheila. "Dr. Mohammad Mofatteh". The Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies (IICHS). Retrieved 10 July 2016.

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