Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization

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Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization

سازمان مجاهدین انقلاب اسلامی
Paramilitary wing commander Mohammad Boroujerdi [2]
Supreme Leader representativeHossein Rasti-Kashani [3]
FoundedApril 1979
DissolvedOctober 1986
Succeeded by Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization (left faction)
Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution (right faction)
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Membership (1979)<1,000 [4]
Ideology Islamism
Khomeinism [1]
Anti-communism [1]
Statism [5]
Political position Left/Right factions [4]
Religion Islam
National affiliation Grand Coalition

Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (Persian : سازمان مجاهدین انقلاب اسلامی, romanized: Sāzmān-e Mojāhedin-e Enqelāb-e Eslāmi, lit.  'Holy Warriors of the Islamic Revolution ') was an umbrella political organization in Iran, founded in 1979 by unification of seven underground Islamist revolutionary paramilitary and civil [4] organizations which previously fought against the Pahlavi monarchy. [6]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Romanization of Persian or Latinization of Persian is the representation of the Persian language with the Latin script. Several different romanization schemes exist, each with its own set of rules driven by its own set of ideological goals.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

Contents

The organization was firmly allied with the ruling Islamic Republican Party and was given a share of power [7] and three of its members were appointed as government ministers under PM Mir-Hossein Mousavi: Behzad Nabavi (minister without portfolio for executive affairs), Mohammad Salamati (agriculture) and Mohammad-Shahab Gonabadi (housing and urban development). [8]

Islamic Republican Party political party

The Islamic Republican Party formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran. It was disbanded in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Iranian politician and architect

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989. He was a reformist candidate for the 2009 presidential election and eventually the leader of the opposition in the post-election unrest. Mousavi served as the president of the Iranian Academy of Arts until 2009, when Conservative authorities removed him.

Behzad Nabavi Iranian politician

Behzad Nabavi is an Iranian reformist politician. He served as Deputy Speaker of the Parliament of Iran and was one of the founders of the reformist party Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization. Prior to his career as a democratic reformist, Nabavi was considered an ideologue of the Iranian Islamic left until that force was sidelined by conservatives in the 1990s.

History

Most members were among those formerly associated with the People's Mujahedin of Iran but left the organization after it declared ideology switch to Marxism. [6] The groups were: [6]

Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Iranian political party

The People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran or the Mojahedin-e Khalq is an Iranian political–militant organization based on Islamic and Socialist ideology and advocates overthrowing the Islamic Republic of Iran leadership and installing its own government. It was the "first Iranian organization to develop systematically a modern revolutionary interpretation of Islam – an interpretation that deferred sharply from both the old conservative Islam of the traditional clergy and the new populist version formulated in the 1970s by Ayatollah Khomeini and his government." The MEK is considered the Islamic Republic of Iran's biggest and most active political opposition group.

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a theory and method of working-class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Ummah is an Arabic word meaning "community". It is distinguished from Shaʻb which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra-national community with a common history.

Battle of Badr battle in the early days of Islam

The Battle of Badr, fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE in the Hejaz region of western Arabia, was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century.

Dissolution

The organization dissolved in 1986 as a result of tensions between the leftist and rightist members. [4]

Legacy

Left-wing members of the organization decided to resume activities in 1991 and established leftist Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization (adding the words “of Iran” to the name) which later emerged as a reformist party. [4] Some right-wing members founded Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution in late-1990s. [9]

Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization political party

Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution of Iran Organization is a reformist political organization in Iran. It is a small yet influential organization, and participates in political activities similar to a political party. Historian Ervand Abrahamian referred to the group as "a circle of intellectuals and technocrats radical in economic policies but relatively liberal in cultural matters."

Iranian Reformists political movement in Iran to change the system to include more freedom and democracy

The Iranian reformists are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy. Iran's "reform era" is sometimes said to have lasted from 1997 to 2005—the length of Khatami's two terms in office. The Council for Coordinating the Reforms Front is the main umbrella organization and coalition within the movement; however, there are reformist groups not aligned with the council, such as the Reformists Front.

Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution

The Society of Devotees of the Islamic Revolution is a conservative Iranian political party. It is informally referred to as the Isargaran, a word which connotes altruism in Persian and is associated with other political movements. Many members of the party are veterans of the Iran–Iraq War. It is one of the most powerful and least discussed movements in Iran.

Notable members

NameOriginal groupFactionLater careerRef
Behzad Nabavi Ommat-e-VahedehLeftPolitics [6] [10]
Mohammad Salamati Ommat-e-VahedehLeftPolitics [6] [10]
Sadegh NorouziOmmat-e-VahedehLeftPolitics [6]
Mohsen Makhmalbaf Ommat-e-VahedehLeftCinema [6]
Abdulali Ali-Asgari RightMedia [10]
Ahmad Tavakoli RightPolitics [11]
Alireza Afshar RightMilitary → Politics [12]
Abbas Duzduzani LeftMilitary → Politics
Hashem Aghajari LeftAcademia [12]
Feyzollah Arabsorkhi Ommat-e-VahedehLeftPolitics [6]
Abdollah NasseriLeftMedia [12]
Hossein Fadaei Towhidiye-BadrRightMilitary → Politics [6] [10]
Safar Naeimi Towhidiye-BadrRightMilitary → Politics [6]
Mohammad Boroujerdi Towhidiye-SaffMilitary [6]
Mojtaba Shakeri Towhidiye-SaffRightMilitary → Politics [6]
Mohsen Armin Towhidiye-SaffLeftPolitics [6] [10]
Morteza Alviri FallahLeftPolitics [6]
Mostafa Tajzadeh FalaqLeftPolitics [6] [12]
Mohsen Rezaei MansourounRightMilitary → Politics [6] [12]
Ali Shamkhani MansourounLeftMilitary [6]
Hossein Nejat MansourounRightMilitary [6]
Esmaeil DaghayeghiMansourounMilitary [6]
Mohammad Bagher Zolghadr MansourounRightMilitary → Politics [6] [10]
Gholam Ali Rashid MansourounRightMilitary [6]
Hosein Alamolhoda MovahedinMilitary [6]

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References

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  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mohammadighalehtaki, Ariabarzan (2012). "MIRO, a Historical Background". Organisational Change in Political Parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. With Special Reference to the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) and the Islamic Iran Participation Front Party (Mosharekat) (Ph.D. thesis). Durham University. p. 168.
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