Molise

Last updated
Molise

Mulise  (Neapolitan)
Regione-Molise-Stemma.svg
Coat of arms
Molise in Italy.svg
Coordinates: 41°41′59″N14°36′40″E / 41.6997°N 14.6111°E / 41.6997; 14.6111
Country Italy
Capital Campobasso
Government
  President Donato Toma (FI)
Area
  Total4,438 km2 (1,714 sq mi)
Population
 (31-12-2017)
  Total308,493
  Density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
Demonym(s) English: Molisan
Italian: Molisano (man)
Italian: Molisana (woman)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code IT-67
GDP (nominal) €6.5 billion (2018) [1]
GDP per capita €20,900 (2018) [2]
HDI (2018)0.863 [3]
very high · 15th of 21
NUTS Region ITF
Website www.regione.molise.it

Molise ( UK: /mɒˈlz/ , [4] US: /ˈmliz,mˈlz/ , [5] [6] [7] Italian:  [moˈliːze] ; Molisano : Mulise) is a region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo. The split, which did not become effective until 1970, makes Molise the youngest region in Italy. Covering 4,438 square kilometres (1,714 sq mi), it is the second smallest region in the country after the Aosta Valley, and has a population of 313,348 (as of 1 January 2015).

Contents

The region is split into two provinces, named after their respective capitals Campobasso and Isernia. Campobasso also serves as the regional capital.

Geography

Molise is bordered by Abruzzo to the north, Apulia to the east, Lazio to the west, and Campania to the south. It has 35 kilometres (22 miles) of sandy coastline to the northeast, lying on the Adriatic Sea looking out towards the Tremiti islands. The countryside of Molise is mostly mountainous, with 55% covered by mountains and most of the rest by hills that go down to the sea.

Main sights and monuments

Campobasso

Monforte Castle (Campobasso) Campobasso castello.jpg
Monforte Castle (Campobasso)

Isernia

Altilia (Sepino) Saepinum (66).JPG
Altilia (Sepino)

Termoli

Province of Campobasso

Isernia collage Collage Isernia.jpg
Isernia collage
Venafro castle Castello Pandone.jpg
Venafro castle

Province of Isernia

Economy

Castle of Termoli Torre Termoli.jpg
Castle of Termoli
Campobasso's Cathedral Cattedrale campobasso.jpg
Campobasso's Cathedral

Agriculture, involving small and micro holdings, is currently offering high-quality products. The agricultural holdings produce wine, cereals, olive oil, vegetables, fruits and dairy products. Traditional products are Grass Pea (cicerchia) and Farro. Molise's autochthonous grape is Tintilia which has been rediscovered during the last ten years, and many other PDO (DOP) wines, both red and white.

Though there is a large Fiat plant (Termoli), the industrial sector is dominated by the farming industry with small and medium-sized farms spread widely throughout the region. Another important industry is food processing: pasta, meat, milk products, oil and wine are the traditional products of the region. In the services sector the most important industries are distribution, hotels and catering, followed by transport and communications, banking and insurance. With few exceptions, in all sectors firms are small, and this explains the difficulties encountered when marketing products on a national scale. [8]

International tourism is growing largely as a result of the recent opening of international flights from other European countries to Pescara Airport, which is not far to the north in Abruzzo and connected to Molise by the A14 highway (the only highway passing through Molise, by Termoli).

The unemployment rate stood at 9.5% in 2020. [9]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 355,000    
1871 374,000+5.4%
1881 382,000+2.1%
1901 395,000+3.4%
1911 396,000+0.3%
1921 383,000−3.3%
1931 377,000−1.6%
1936 388,000+2.9%
1951 407,000+4.9%
1961 358,000−12.0%
1971 320,000−10.6%
1981 328,000+2.5%
1991 331,000+0.9%
2001 321,000−3.0%
2010 (Est.) 319,000−0.6%
2017 310,449−2.7%
Source: ISTAT 2001

The density of the population in Molise is well below the national average. In 2008, Molise registered 72.3 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national figure of 198.8. The region is subdivided into two provinces: Campobasso and Isernia, which together cover 1.5% of Italy's territory and less than 1% of its population. The larger province in terms of area is Campobasso at 2,909 km2, while the smaller is Isernia at 1,529 km2. The province of Campobasso is the more densely populated of the two provinces, with 79.4 inhabitants per km2, whereas Isernia registers 58.9 inhabitants per km2. [10] At the end of 2008 the most populous towns were Campobasso (51,247 inhabitants), Termoli (32,420) and Isernia (21,811).

In the period 1951–71, large-scale emigration to other countries of the European Union, to other parts of Italy and overseas led to a significant decline in the population of Molise. Negative net migration persisted until 1981. Large-scale emigration has caused many of the smaller towns and villages to lose over 60% of their population, while only a small number of larger towns have recorded significant gains. From 1982 to 1994, net migration has been positive, then followed by a negative trend until 2001. Between 1991 (330,900 inhabitants) and 2001 (320,601 inhabitants), the population of the region decreased by 3.1%; [10] since 2001 the population remained stable.

The region is home to two main ethnic minorities: the Molisan Croats (20,000 people who speak an old Dalmatian dialect of the Croatian language alongside Italian), and those who speak the "arbereshe" dialect of Albanian in five towns of "basso Molise" in the province of Campobasso.

Government and politics

Administrative divisions

Molise comprises two provinces:

Map of region of Molise, Italy, with provinces-it.svg

ProvinceArea (km2)PopulationDensity (inhabitants/km2)
Province of Campobasso 2,909231,92179.7
Province of Isernia 1,52988,93158.2

Culture

Molise has much tradition from the religious to the pagans, many museum, archeological sites, musical and food events.

Tradition

Arts, musical and food festivals

Museums

Cuisine

Pasta e fagioli Pasta E Fagioli (140490815).jpeg
Pasta e fagioli

The cuisine of Molise is similar to the cuisine of Abruzzo, though there are some differences in the dishes and ingredients. The flavors of Molise are dominated by the many aromatic herbs that grow there. Some of the characteristic foods include spicy salami, a variety of locally produced cheeses, dishes using lamb or goat, pasta dishes with hearty sauces, and vegetables that grow in the region.

In addition to bruschetta, a typical antipasto will consist of any of several meat dishes, such as the sausages capocollo, the fennel-seasoned salsiccie al finocchio, soppressata, ventricina, frascateglie or sanguinaccio. In addition to these sausages, a variety of ham is available, such as smoked prosciutto. Frequently, the sausages are enjoyed with polenta.

Main dishes of the region include:

Common second dishes (often meat and vegetable dishes) are:

Typical vegetable dishes may include:

Fish dishes include red mullet soup, and spaghetti with cuttlefish. Trout from the Biferno river is notable for its flavor, and is cooked with a simple but tasty sauce of aromatic herbs. Zuppa di pesce, a fish stew, is a specialty of Termoli.

The cheeses produced in Molise are not very different from those produced in Abruzzo. The more common ones are Burrino and Manteca, soft, buttery cow's-milk cheeses; Pecorino, sheep's-milk cheese, served young and soft or aged and hard, called also "Maciuocco" in Molise; Scamorza, bland cow's-milk cheese, often served grilled; and Caciocavallo, sheep's-milk cheese.

Sweets and desserts have an ancient tradition here and are linked to the history of the territory and to religious and family festivities. Most common are:

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Molise is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

Abruzzo Region in Italy

Abruzzo or Abruzzi is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.3 million. It is divided into four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo, Pescara, and Chieti. Its western border lies 80 km (50 mi) east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and north-west, Molise to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area in the west, which includes the Gran Sasso d'Italia, and a coastal area in the east with beaches on the Adriatic Sea.

Lasagne Dish in Italian cuisine

Lasagne are a type of wide, flat pasta, possibly one of the oldest types of pasta.

Ravioli Type of pasta

Ravioli are a type of pasta comprising a filling enveloped in thin pasta dough. Usually served in broth or with a sauce, they originated as a traditional food in Italian cuisine. Ravioli are commonly square, though other forms are also used, including circular and semi-circular (mezzelune).

Province of Campobasso Province of Italy

The province of Campobasso is a province in the Molise region of southern Italy. Its capital is the city of Campobasso.

Province of Isernia Province of Italy

The province of Isernia is a province in the region of Molise in Italy. The provincial capital is the city Isernia and the president of the province is Alfredo Ricci. The province of Isernia has an area of 1,535.24 square kilometres (592.76 sq mi) and a population of 86,405 inhabitants as of 2016. It contains 52 comunes in the province, listed at comunes of the Province of Isernia.

Cypriot cuisine

Cypriot cuisine is the culinary traditions and practices originating from Cyprus. It is heavily influenced by Arab, Greek and Turkish cuisines, whilst also sharing similarities with the cuisines of Italy and France

Italian-American cuisine

Italian-American cuisine is a style of Italian cuisine adapted throughout the United States. Italian-American food has been shaped throughout history by various waves of immigrants and their descendants, called Italian Americans.

Italian cuisine Cuisine originating from Italy

Italian cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine consisting of the ingredients, recipes and cooking techniques developed across the Italian Peninsula since antiquity, and later spread around the world together with waves of Italian diaspora.

Amatriciana sauce

Sugoall'amatriciana, or alla matriciana, also known as salsa all'amatriciana, is a traditional Italian pasta sauce based on guanciale, pecorino romano cheese, tomato, and, in some variations, onion. Originating from the town of Amatrice, the Amatriciana is one of the best known pasta sauces in present-day Roman and Italian cuisine. The Italian government has named it a traditional agro-alimentary product of Lazio.

Amendolara Comune in Calabria, Italy

Amendolara is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.

Baked ziti Baked Italian casserole dish made with ziti macaroni and sauce

Baked ziti is a popular casserole with ziti pasta and a Neapolitan-style tomato-based sauce characteristic of Italian-American cuisine. It is a form of pasta al forno.

Guardialfiera Comune in Molise, Italy

Guardialfiera is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Campobasso in the Italian region Molise, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northeast of Campobasso. It sits on a hilltop overlooking Lake Guardialfiera, which was created as a result of the damming of the Biferno river.

Pizzone, Molise Comune in Molise, Italy

Pizzone is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Isernia in the Italian region Molise, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of Campobasso and about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northwest of Isernia near the Monti della Meta chain.

Poggio Sannita municipality in Molise, Italy

Poggio Sannita is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Isernia in the Italian region Molise, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Campobasso and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of Isernia. Poggio Sannita is on a promontory surrounded by the Verrino and Sente rivers, both mostly torrential in character, especially the latter, which dries up completely during the summer.

Neapolitan cuisine has ancient historical roots that date back to the Greco-Roman period, which was enriched over the centuries by the influence of the different cultures that controlled Naples and its kingdoms, such as that of Aragon and France.

The cuisine of Sardinia is the traditional cuisine of the island of Sardinia, and the expression of its culinary art. It is characterised by its own variety, and by the fact of having been enriched through a number of interactions with the other Mediterranean cultures while retaining its own identity. Sardinia's food culture is strictly divided into food from the land and food from the sea, reflecting the island's historical vicissitudes and especially its geographic landscapes, spacing from the coastline to the ragged mountains of the interior. The Sardinian cuisine is considered part of the Mediterranean diet, a nutritional model that was proclaimed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage.

Roman cuisine comes from the Italian city of Rome. It features fresh, seasonal and simply-prepared ingredients from Roman Campagna. These include peas, globe artichokes and fava beans, shellfish, milk-fed lamb and goat, and cheeses such as Pecorino Romano and ricotta. Olive oil is used mostly to dress raw vegetables, while strutto and fat from prosciutto are preferred for frying. The most popular sweets in Rome are small individual pastries called pasticcini, gelato and handmade chocolates and candies. Special dishes are often reserved for different days of the week; for example, gnocchi is eaten on Thursdays, baccalà on Fridays, and trippa on Saturdays.

The traditional cuisine of Abruzzo is eclectic, drawing on pastoral, mountain, and coastal cuisine. Staples of Abruzzo cuisine include bread, pasta, meat, cheese, and wine. The isolation which has characterized the region for decades has ensured the independence of its culinary tradition from those of nearby regions. Local cuisine was widely appreciated in a 2013 survey among foreign tourists.

References

  1. "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". European Commission. 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  2. "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018" (Press release). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  3. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. "Molise". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  5. "Molise". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  6. "Molise". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  7. "Molise". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  8. "Eurostat". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  9. "Unemployment NUTS 2 regions Eurostat".
  10. 1 2 "Eurostat". Europa (web portal). 2001-01-01. Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  11. "Abruzzo and Molise Heritage Society". Abruzzomoliseheritagesociety.org. Archived from the original on 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  12. "Miasta partnerskie i zaprzyjaźnione Nowego Sącza". Urząd Miasta Nowego Sącza (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2013-08-01.