Mombacho

Last updated
Mombacho
Nicaragua relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Mombacho
Highest point
Elevation 1,344 m (4,409 ft) [1]
Listing List of volcanoes in Nicaragua
Coordinates 11°49′34″N85°58′03″W / 11.82611°N 85.96750°W / 11.82611; -85.96750 Coordinates: 11°49′34″N85°58′03″W / 11.82611°N 85.96750°W / 11.82611; -85.96750 [1]
Geography
Location Nicaragua
Geology
Age of rock Holocene
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 1570

Mombacho is a stratovolcano in Nicaragua, near the city of Granada. It is 1344 metres high. The Mombacho Volcano Nature Reserve is one of 78 protected areas of Nicaragua. Mombacho is not an extinct volcano but the last eruption occurred in 1570. There is no historical knowledge of earlier eruptions.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Nicaragua Country in Central America

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City. The multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European, African, and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages and English.

Granada, Nicaragua Municipality in Granada Department, Nicaragua

Granada is a city in western Nicaragua and the capital of the Granada Department. With an estimated population of 123,697 (2012), it is Nicaragua's sixth most populous city. Granada is historically one of Nicaragua's most important cities, economically and politically. It has a rich colonial heritage, seen in its architecture and structure.

Contents

The highest regions of the volcano are home to a cloud forest and dwarf forest, which contain flora and fauna endemic purely to the volcano. An increasingly popular tourist attraction, the volcano has views of Lake Nicaragua and the city of Granada. The volcano also has two hiking trails, a moderate one that circles the main crater, and another, more difficult trail (El Puma), which must be led by a guide. The more difficult trail is the only way to see some features such as the dwarf forest. The trail is almost completely 45° inclines and declines for about two miles.

Cloud forest rainforest

A cloud forest, also called a water forest and primas forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus. Cloud forests often exhibit an abundance of mosses covering the ground and vegetation, in which case they are also referred to as mossy forests. Mossy forests usually develop on the saddles of mountains, where moisture introduced by settling clouds is more effectively retained.

Dwarf forest

Dwarf forest, elfin forest, or pygmy forest is a rare ecosystem featuring miniature trees, inhabited by small species of fauna such as rodents and lizards. They are usually located at high elevations, under conditions of sufficient air humidity but poor soil. There are two main dwarf forest ecosystem types, involving different species and environmental characteristics: coastal temperate and montane tropical regions. Temperate coastal dwarf forest is common for parts of Southern California. Montane tropical forests are found across tropical highlands of Central America, northern South America and Southeast Asia. There are also other isolated examples of dwarf forests scattered across the world.

Endemism Ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location or habitat

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species that is endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area.

More than 700 different plants are registered around Mombacho, including many species of orchids.

Orchidaceae family of plants

The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

Images of Mombacho

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Mombacho". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2005-09-08.