Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education

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Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM)
Logo Tecnologico de Monterrey.svg
Type Private
Established6 September 1943;75 years ago (1943-09-06) [1]
President Salvador Alva Gómez
Rector David Garza Salazar
Academic staff
10,117 (2017) [2]
Students89,641 (2017) [2]
Undergraduates 55,565 (2017) [2]
Postgraduates 7,962 (2017) [2]
Location, ,
Campus31 across Mexico; [3]
Colors White and blue         
Athletics Borregos Salvajes (Rams)
Affiliations SACS, APRU, Universitas 21, ECIU, ANUIES, CUDI, FIMPES, CGU
Website http://www.tec.mx
ITESM logo ITESM wordmark, 2014.png
ITESM logo
High school students account for the difference between its total number of students and the sum of graduate and undergraduate students.

Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) (in English: Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education), also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or simply as Tec, is a private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico. Founded in 1943 by industrialists in the city of Monterrey, ITESM has since grown to include 31 campuses in 25 cities throughout the country, [3] becoming the most recognized [4] in Latin America. [5] [6] [7] [8] [6] [7] [8]

Private universities are typically not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. This is in contrast to public universities and national universities. Many private universities are non-profit organizations.

Nonsectarian institutions are secular institutions or other organizations not affiliated with or restricted to a particular religious group.

Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures, particularly in Western countries. Single-sex education, however, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries. The relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate.

Contents

ITESM was the first university to be connected to the Internet in Latin America [9] and the Spanish-speaking world, [10] [nb 1] having the top-ranked business school in the region according to the Economist [11] and being one of the leaders in patent applications among Mexican universities. [12] The medical school offers the only MD-PhD program available in Mexico, in partnership with the Houston Methodist Hospital. [13]

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet".

Latin America Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. The term was used also by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish, Portuguese and French are predominant are typically not included in definitions of Latin America.

A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. According to Kaplan business schools are "educational institutions that specialize in teaching courses and programs related to business and/or management". Such a school can also be known as school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, administration, strategy, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, logistics, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others.

History

Early years

The Institute was founded on 6 September 1943 by a group of local businessmen led by Eugenio Garza Sada, a moneyed heir of a brewing conglomerate who was interested in creating an institution that could provide highly skilled personnel — both university graduates and technicians— to the booming Monterrey corporations of the 1940s. [14] The group was structured into a non-profit organization called Enseñanza e Investigación Superior A.C. (EISAC) and recruited several academicians led by León Ávalos y Vez, an MIT alumnus and then director-general of the School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute, who designed its first academic programs and served as its first director-general. [15]

Eugenio Garza Sada Mexican businessman

Eugenio Garza Sada was an industrialist in the city of Monterrey, Mexico best known for founding the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education school system in the country. Garza was born into a business family, with his father founding the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in Monterrey in 1890. After Garza graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he began to work at the brewery, working his way up in the company to eventually take over as director after his father died. Garza and his brother Roberto grew the company into a conglomerate and instituted various innovations including benefits and social services for employees. Garza’s inspiration for founding ITESM came from his experience at MIT, as well as the desire to decrease Mexico’s dependence on foreign expert help. He remained the head of ITESM’s board until his death in 1973, as a result of a failed kidnapping attempt.

Brewery business that makes and sells beer

A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant. The commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC; in ancient Mesopotamia, brewers derived social sanction and divine protection from the goddess Ninkasi. Brewing was initially a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; by the ninth century monasteries and farms would produce beer on a larger scale, selling the excess; and by the eleventh and twelfth centuries larger, dedicated breweries with eight to ten workers were being built.

León Ávalos y Vez was a Mexican mechanical engineer who served as the founding director-general of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and as director-general of the National School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute.

In its early years the Institute operated at Abasolo 858 Oriente in a large, two-story house located a block and a half away from Zaragoza Square, behind the city's Metropolitan Cathedral. [15] As these facilities soon proved to be insufficient, it started renting out adjacent buildings and by 1945 it became apparent that a university campus was necessary. For that reason, a master plan was commissioned to Enrique de la Mora and on 3 February 1947 what would later be known as its Monterrey Campus was inaugurated by Mexican President Miguel Alemán Valdés. [1]

Enrique de la Mora y Palomar was a Mexican architect who designed prominent university buildings and Roman Catholic churches in which he experimented with hyperbolic-paraboloid roofs. He is generally regarded, along with the Spaniard Félix Candela, as one of the most famous structural expressionists in Mexico.

President of Mexico Head of state of the country of Mexico

The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.

Miguel Alemán Valdés President of Mexico

Miguel Alemán Valdés was a Mexican politician who served a full term as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952, the first civilian president after a string of revolutionary generals. His administration was characterized by Mexico's rapid industrialization, often called the Mexican Miracle, but also for a high level of personal enrichment for himself and his associates. His presidency was the first of a new generation of Mexican leaders, who had not directly participated in the Mexican Revolution, and many in his cabinet were also young, university-educated civilians, close friends from his days at university.

Because the operations of the local companies were highly reliant on U.S. markets, investments, and technology; internationalization became one of its earliest priorities. In 1950 it became the first foreign university in history to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), [16] one of the six regional accreditation agencies recognized by the United States Department of Education. Its foreign accreditation would end up being a decisive influence in its development, as it was forced to submit itself to external evaluation earlier than most Mexican universities (1967) [16] and unlocked additional sources of revenue, such as tuition funds from foreign students interested in taking summer courses in Mexico for full-academic credit. [16]

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools university accreditation organization in the U.S.A.

The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) is one of the six regional accreditation organizations recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. This agency accredits over 13,000 public and private educational institutions ranging from preschool to college level in the Southern United States. Its headquarters are in North Druid Hills, Georgia, near Decatur and in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

United States Department of Education United States government department

The United States Department of Education, also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979.

Expansion

The Eugenio Garza Sada Memorial honors the Institute's chief founder and promoter at the Monterrey Campus Eugenio Garza Sada Memorial.jpg
The Eugenio Garza Sada Memorial honors the Institute's chief founder and promoter at the Monterrey Campus

Its growth outside the city of Monterrey began in the late-1960s, when both its rector and head of academics lobbied for expansion. A first attempt, funded a few years earlier by several businessmen from Mexicali, Baja California, was staffed and organized by the Institute but faced opposition from the Board of Trustees once the federal government refused any additional subsidy [17] and members of the Board cast doubt on its ability to get funds as an out-of-state university. At the end the project was renamed Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior (CETYS) and grew into a fully independent institution. [15] [18]

Rector (academia) Academic official

A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is often the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is often referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used widely in universities in Europe. and is very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Brunei, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Israel and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, and is usually responsible for chairing the University Court.

Mexicali Place in Baja California, Mexico

Mexicali is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali. The City of Mexicali has a population of 689,775, according to the 2010 census, while the population of the entire metropolitan area reaches 996,826; making the city and metropolitan area the second most populous in Baja California.

Baja California Federal entity in Mexico

Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

Aside from the CETYS experiment and the 150 hectares bought in 1951 for the agricultural program's experimental facilities in nearby Apodaca, Nuevo León, no other expansion outside Monterrey was attempted until 1967, when a school of maritime studies was built in the port of Guaymas, Sonora. Shortly thereafter, premises were built in Obregón and courses began to be offered in Mexico City. Those premises and the ones that followed, then called external units, were fully dependent on the Monterrey Campus until 1984, when they were restructured as semi-independent campuses and reorganized in regional rectorates (see Organization).

In 1987, when the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools demanded faculty members with master's degrees to lecture 100% of its undergraduate courses, [19] the Institute invested considerably in both distance learning and computer network technologies and training, effectively becoming, on 1 February 1989, the first university ever connected to the Internet in both Latin America [9] and the Spanish-speaking world. [10] Such efforts contributed to the creation of its former Virtual University a few years later and allowed it to become the first country-code top level domain registry in Mexico; first by itself from 1989 to 1995, and then as a major shareholder of NIC Mexico, the current national registry. [20]

Campuses

The Institute has campuses in twenty-five Mexican cities (see: Campuses by region ) Map ITESM campuses by city.svg
The Institute has campuses in twenty-five Mexican cities (see: Campuses by region )

There are thirty-one campuses of the Institute distributed in twenty-five Mexican cities. Each campus is relatively independent but shares a national academic curriculum (see Academics ). The flagship campus is located in Monterrey, where the national, system-wide rectorate is located. Most of them deliver both high school and undergraduate education, some offer postgraduate programs and only five (Cumbres, Eugenio Garza Sada, Eugenio Garza Lagüera, Santa Catarina and Valle Alto) deliver high school courses exclusively. Nevertheless, curricular and extension courses and seminars are usually available at most facilities.

Campuses by region

As of September 2017, campuses were divided into the following Mexican regions: [21]

Former campuses include Guaymas (transferred to TecMilenio University in the early 2000s) and Mazatlán (transferred to TecMilenio University in 2009). [22]

The Innovation and Technical and Technology Transfer Park (PIT3) at Chihuahua Campus. PIT3-ITESM-Chihuahua.jpg
The Innovation and Technical and Technology Transfer Park (PIT3) at Chihuahua Campus.

Other infrastructure

The Rectorate (left) and the CETEC towers at the Monterrey Campus ITESM Monterrey Rectoria CETEC.jpg
The Rectorate (left) and the CETEC towers at the Monterrey Campus

In addition to the campuses, the Institute manages:

Organization

The Old Library Building, current Rectorate, was designed by Enrique de la Mora, displays a bas relief by Jorge Gonzalez Camarena and holds one of the largest collections of Don Quixote incunabula, an original edition of L'Encyclopedie and other bibliographical treasures ITESM Monterrey Rectoria.jpg
The Old Library Building, current Rectorate, was designed by Enrique de la Mora, displays a bas relief by Jorge González Camarena and holds one of the largest collections of Don Quixote incunabula, an original edition of L'Encyclopédie and other bibliographical treasures

All campuses are sponsored by non-profit organizations composed primarily of local businesspeople. The Monterrey Campus is sponsored by Enseñanza e Investigación Superior, A.C. (EISAC), which co-sponsored the system as a whole until a newly built organization, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, A.C. (ITESM AC) overtook those responsibilities. [18] Such organizations (effectively serving as boards of trustees) are responsible for electing the rectors or directors of a particular campus. Since February 2012, the president of ITESMAC is José Antonio Fernández, a class of 1976 alumnus and current chairman and CEO of FEMSA. [25] [26] Former presidents include the founder, Eugenio Garza Sada (1943–73) and his son, Eugenio Garza Lagüera (1973–97), and Lorenzo Zambrano (1997-2012), a class of 1966 alumnus and until his passing. [27]

Former heads of the Institute include:

The Tecnológico de Monterrey President is Salvador Alva Gómez, former president of PepsiCo Foods & Beverages Latin America. [30]

And the rector for the Tecnológico de Monterrey is David Garza Salazar.

High schools

Following the historical trend of Mexico's largest universities, [31] the Institute sponsors several high schools that share one or more national curricula: bilingual, bicultural, multicultural and/or International Baccalaureate, which is administered from Geneva, Switzerland. [32] As of December 2017, over 26,000 students in several campuses were registered as high school students within the system. [2]

Academics

The oldest academic building in the Monterrey Campus, Aulas I, and the towers of the Center of Advanced Production Technology (CETEC), which house several research centers ITESM Campus Monterrey Aulas I.jpg
The oldest academic building in the Monterrey Campus, Aulas I, and the towers of the Center of Advanced Production Technology (CETEC), which house several research centers

Academically, the university is organized into several departments and divisions —as opposed to the traditional faculty school scheme used by most Mexican public universities— and it was the first Mexican university in history to divide the academic year in semesters. Current academic calendar for both high school and undergraduate students is composed of two semesters running from August to December and from January to May (each lasting 16 weeks) and an optional summer session from June to July, where at most two courses can be taken in an intensive basis.

As of 2010, the Institute offers 57 undergraduate degrees, of which 37 are taught in English and are generally awarded after nine semesters of study (except for Medicine and Architecture); [2] 33 master's degrees, generally lasting three to five semesters (and can also be structured in three-months terms), [2] and 11 doctorate degrees varying in length according to their academic field. [2]

Admissions

Since 1969 the Institute requires every college applicant to achieve a minimum pass mark at an academic aptitude test ( Prueba de Aptitud Académica, PAA) delivered by The College Board, a not-for-profit examination board in the United States. [33] However, each campus is free to request additional requirements; such as a grade average of 80 or 90 in high school (on a 100-point scale) for those willing to transfer or apply to the Monterrey Campus. [34] As for the graduate schools, the requirements may vary according to the discipline, such as a grade average of 80/100 and 550-points in both the GMAT and the TOEFL for some programs at its Graduate Business School (EGADE). [35]

Accreditations

The International Center for Advanced Learning (CIAP) CIAP Building ITESM.jpg
The International Center for Advanced Learning (CIAP)

Studies at the Tech are officially accredited by the Secretariat of Public Education of Mexico (Secretaría de Educación Pública, SEP) and by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) [36] of the United States. On November 2008, its graduate business school (EGADE) became one of the 34 business schools in the world to hold simultaneous accreditation of its programs by the AACSB of the United States, the Association of MBAs of the United Kingdom and the European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) [37] while the Institute became the first Latin American university in history to receive full-accreditation on some of its engineering programs by ABET (as opposed to the traditional substantially-equivalent designation given to most schools outside the United States). [38]

The quality of its programs is also audited by the Institute of Food Technologists, the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management and by the national accrediting councils of Mexico, such as the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (Consejo para la Acreditación de la Educación Superior, COPAES) and the Inter-Institutional Committees for Higher Education Evaluation (Comités Interinstitucionales de Evaluación de la Educación Superior, CIEES). [39]

As of 2017, 169 undergraduate degrees were accredited by national accrediting councils and 36 were accredited by international accrediting agencies. [2] As for graduate degrees, 11 were accredited by international accrediting agencies and 58 were listed in the National Census of High-Quality Postgraduate Studies (Padrón Nacional de Posgrados de Calidad, PNPC) by the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT). [2]

Academic memberships

Its 1,600 square metres (17,000 sq ft) Center for Advanced Design at the Guadalajara Campus ITESM Campus Guadalajara Centro Diseno Avanzado.jpg
Its 1,600 square metres (17,000 sq ft) Center for Advanced Design at the Guadalajara Campus

The Institute is the only Latin American institution at the European Consortium of Innovative Universities (ECIU) —an organization committed to innovations in both teaching and learning [41] — and at Universitas 21; an international network of research-intensive universities established as an "international reference point and resource for strategic thinking on issues of global significance." [42] It is also the only Mexican university, along the National Autonomous University of Mexico, to be enrolled at the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, an international consortium of leading research universities including Stanford University, University of California, Berkeley and Caltech. [43] The Institute was also the first private university to become a member of the National Association of Universities and Institutions of Higher Education of Mexico (ANUIES) back when it was composed entirely by public universities (1958) [16] and is a full member of the Mexican Federation of Private Institutions of Higher Education (Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior, FIMPES).

Faculty

The Institute has over 10,000 professors at high school, undergraduate and postgraduate levels: 2,207 tenured and 7,900 associated professors, and all of them have the appropriate academic credentials to lecture at their corresponding academic level according to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. [2] As of 2017 some 470 professors taught courses, worked in international projects or attended seminars or congresses at foreign universities while some 590 foreign professors taught courses at the Tech. [2] As for their academic development, its faculty training program was bestowed with the 2004 Andrew Heiskell Award for Innovation in International Education by the Institute of International Education. [44]

Libraries

The Institute has at least thirty-three libraries in twenty-five Mexican cities holding over 2.4 million books, publications, and 46 types of electronic databases with at least 51,000 specialized magazines and academic journals and over 9000 e-books. [45] Its Cervantean Library, named after Miguel de Cervantes and located in the current rectorate, holds one of the largest collections of Don Quixote incunabula, an original edition of L'Encyclopédie , and the Mario Pani Archives, and other bibliographical treasures while the main library of the Monterrey Campus holds the personal collections of archaeologist Ignacio Bernal. [46]

Rankings

Its graduate business school, EGADE, in Monterrey, Mexico. EGADE Business School at Monterrey from Rufino Tamayo Park.JPG
Its graduate business school, EGADE, in Monterrey, Mexico.

Overall, the Institute is the only Mexican university besides the National Autonomous University of Mexico to be ranked at the 2010 QS World University Rankings, in which it was classified #65 worldwide at its Employer's Review, #269 in Engineering and Information Technology, #232 in Social Sciences and #387 at its overall ranking. [47] In the 2010 International Professional Ranking of World Universities, developed by the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris , it ranked 224 out of 390 worldwide. [48]

Among its graduate schools, EGADE has been ranked 7th among the best business schools outside the United States according to the Wall Street Journal (2006), [49] 4th in the world in business ethics and social-responsibility programs according to BusinessWeek magazine (2005), [50] among the 100 best graduate business schools in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit (2009) [51] and its OneMBA program, delivered in partnership with four different institutions (see Joint programs and international partnerships below) was ranked 27 worldwide by the Financial Times in its 2009 Executive Master in Business Administration rankings. [52]

Joint programs and international partnerships

Student-created video documenting Tec's collaboration with Wikipedia

Some of its academic programs are offered as joint degrees or in partnership with foreign universities:

Ricardo Legorreta designed the EGAP CEMEX building, which houses the Graduate School of Public Administration and Public Policy, at San Pedro Garza Garcia, a suburb of Monterrey ITESM EGAP Monterrey.jpg
Ricardo Legorreta designed the EGAP CEMEX building, which houses the Graduate School of Public Administration and Public Policy, at San Pedro Garza García, a suburb of Monterrey

Medical school

Ignacio A. Santos School of Medicine, in the Guadalajara Campus Medical and Health School (Escuela de Medicina y Salud).jpg
Ignacio A. Santos School of Medicine, in the Guadalajara Campus

The Ignacio A. Santos School of Medicine (Escuela de Medicina Ignacio A. Santos, aka: EMIS) is the medical school division of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESM). Established in 1978 in Monterrey, Mexico. [61]

The School of Medicine was founded to satisfy the country's need for high quality medical training and innovation in biomedical research. Currently, there are approximately 500 students enrolled in the M.D. program and about 105 postgraduate students. Aside from the medical doctor program, the School of Medicine also offers a joint M.D.-Ph.D. program with Houston Methodist Hospital, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas A&M Health Science Center, and other Bachelors in Nursing, Nutrition Sciences and Biomedical Engineering. The graduate medical education department offers several medical residency and fellowship programs. [13] The general director of the TecSalud organization is Guillermo Torre M.D. PhD, a cardiologist who trained under Michael E. DeBakey MD at Baylor College of Medicine. [62] [63]

Research

Its Femsa Biotechnology Center (left) is the leading source of patent applications among its research centers In 2008 the Tech was the leading patent applicant among Mexican universities and generated three times as many international patents as its closest competitors. ITESM Femsa Biotechnology Center Aulas I.jpg
Its Femsa Biotechnology Center (left) is the leading source of patent applications among its research centers In 2008 the Tech was the leading patent applicant among Mexican universities and generated three times as many international patents as its closest competitors.

Although some of the founding members of its faculty were prominent researchers (first rector León Ávalos y Vez had formed a National Commission on Science and served as director-general of the School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute) formal research activities at the Tech did not start until 1951, when its Institute of Industrial Research was founded in close collaboration with the Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas —one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development organizations in the United States. [67]

Notwithstanding some reputable achievements, throughout most of the 20th century its research activities —normally financed independently or under private sponsorship— were rather scarce in comparison to public universities such as the National Autonomous University of Mexico or the National Polytechnic Institute, whose budgets make up to 30% of the federal spending in higher education and, as such, are heavily financed by the government through the federal budget. [68]

Despite its inherent difficulties to secure research funds in a developing country where private sponsorship barely accounts for 1.1% of the national spending on science, [69] a new institutional mission in 2005 made social and scientific research in Mexico's strategic areas one of its top priorities for the next decade. As a result, new corporate endowments and funds were committed, new research programs were created (including the first research program financed by Google in Latin America) [70] and important labs and infrastructure have been built, such as the US$ 43 million Femsa Biotechnology Center, [71] the Water Center for Latin America and the Caribbean (financed by the Inter-American Development Bank and the Femsa Foundation), [72] the Motorola Research and Development Center on Home & Networks Mobility, [73] its MXN $24 million Center for Advanced Design at the Guadalajara Campus [40] and, in association with the Mainz Institute of Microtechnology of Germany (IMM), the first center of chemical micro process engineering in Latin America. [74]

Additionally, the Institute developed a researcher-friendly patent scheme that aims to attract talented researchers and reduce the national brain drain. The scheme, in which the researcher may receive up to 30% of the patent licensing income, [75] works in combination with its internal MXN$ 100,000Rómulo Garza Prize and its national MXN$ 200,000Luis Elizondo Prize and has allowed it to become the leading patent applicant among Mexican universities since 2006. [12]

Student life

An American football player from the State of Mexico Campus overlooks the playing field. Teams from the Institute won every single American Football Collegiate Championship in Mexico from 1998 to 2008 Borregos Salvajes ITESM CEM.jpg
An American football player from the State of Mexico Campus overlooks the playing field. Teams from the Institute won every single American Football Collegiate Championship in Mexico from 1998 to 2008

Student life, traditions and activities vary notably among campuses. Generally speaking, student involvement is encouraged by the local campus through an office of student affairs, which supervises most of the student clubs, regional associations and its student federation.

The Institute goes great lengths to provide scholarships to those in need, awarding partial financial assistance to 49% of its student population. [2] However, with tuition fees of almost MXN $200,000 per academic year [77] (among the highest in Latin America according to Forbes magazine) [78] most of its student community comes from upper and upper-middle class and the overall atmosphere is arguably politically and socially conservative. For example, opposite-sex visits are forbidden in dormitories; attendance is taken daily at 10:00 p.m. in women's dormitories [79] and some high school staff in the Mexico City Campus has publicly admonished students for questioning conservative politicians during school visits [80] (although no disciplinary action was ever taken). [81]

The number of international students vary notably among campuses. As of December 2017, 4,714 foreign students were studying in one of its campuses while 10,618 Tech students were taking courses in a foreign university. [2]

Athletics

The Estadio Tecnologico , aside from hosting athletic and cultural events, hosts professional football matches since 1952 and served as an official venue for the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship and the 1986 FIFA World Cup. ITESM Estadio Tecnologico.jpg
The Estadio Tecnológico , aside from hosting athletic and cultural events, hosts professional football matches since 1952 and served as an official venue for the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship and the 1986 FIFA World Cup.

Tec has a good record in college athletics, picking up over 18% of the medals at the 2007 national collegiate competition (Universiada) [85] and one of its campuses won every American Football Collegiate Championship in Mexico (ONEFA) from 1998 to 2008. [76] Such accomplishments were possible through the Institute's investments in sports facilities and personnel and a well-funded and comprehensive athletic scholarships program, which attracted a significant number of promising athletes but prompted allegations of talent drain by some of its rivals. [86] Before the 2009 season the Institute decided to part ways with the organization and create a new league; [87] however, the league didn't materialize after other breakaway universities decided to remain in the ONEFA. [88] The Institute asked to return to the organization, but the ONEFA Board decided that the request should be formally presented in its next ordinary meeting, after the 2009 season, [89] which its four teams ended up playing between themselves in a Tech-only championship. [90] For the 2010 season, the Institute decided not to participate in the ONEFA championship and, instead, asked the CONADEIP, a national athletic association of private educational institutions, to create an American football championship. [91]

Although there are local adaptations, since 1945 the system-wide sports mascot is the ram ( borrego salvaje ), traditionally embodied in a male bighorn sheep. A somewhat popular urban legend states that the mascot was chosen by the American football team on its way to a match, after spotting a male sheep on the road. According to the official sources, however, the mascot was chosen during an official contest held by students in the mid-1940s. [16]

Notable people

From December 2006 to January 2009 both the U.S. Secretary of Commerce and the Mexican Secretary of Economy (former Kelloggs' CEO Carlos Gutiérrez [92] and Gerardo Ruiz Mateos [93] ) were Tech alumni. Other businesspeople include Cemex' CEO Lorenzo Zambrano, [94] FEMSA's CEO José Antonio Fernández, [95] Grupo Salinas' CEO Ricardo Salinas Pliego [96] Max Appedole film producer, activist and Casa Cuervo's CEO Juan Beckman. [97]

In science and technology, Alexander Balankin, former lecturer at the Mexico City Campus, [98] has received the 2005 UNESCO Science Prize for his works on Fractal Mechanics; Ernesto Enkerlin received UNESCO's 2005 Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation for his involvement in sustainability [99] and two alumni have been members of the United States President's Information Technology Advisory Committee: Pedro Celis (Distinguished Engineer at Microsoft) and Héctor García Molina, former Director of Stanford University's Computer Science Department, 1999 ACM SIGMOD Innovations Award [100] and highest h-index in Computer Science. [101]

At least two late presidential candidates and democracy activists, Luis Donaldo Colosio and Manuel Clouthier, were former graduates. Over a dozen Mexican governors and cabinet members have attended classes at the Tech, including former Secretary of Commerce and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) negotiator Herminio Blanco. In cultural affairs, Gabriel Zaid has distinguished himself as one of the leading Mexican intellectuals of the 20th century and in sports Fernando Platas and Víctor Estrada have both won Olympics medals, while former coach of Mexico's national football team, Miguel Mejía Barón, is in charge of the Football Department at Puebla. [102]

As for staff and faculty, at least two rectors or directors of different universities have been lecturers or members of the staff at the Tech. Luis Ernesto Derbez, a former Foreign Minister, is currently the Rector of the University of the Americas, Puebla. Enrique Cabrero Mendoza is the current head of The National Council for Science and Technology and a former rector of CIDE. In addition, the Ex-Rector Rafael Rangel Sostmann is member of the External Advisory Council of the World Bank Institute.

Jose Luis Oliveros Quiñones is also part of this elusive group, his 3 year career as a pro wrestler has gained him immense popularity all around El Salvador and Honduras. Oliveros stage name is "El Kalakas", which means The Skeleton. Oliveros claims that this name is an homage to his father and mentor, Diego Ponce (another pro wrestler from Celaya, Guanajuato), who tragically died to a dog attack on the day of Oliveros' debut at Freedom Lucha Libre.

See also

Notes

  1. The first connection from Spain was completed in mid-1990 (see Sanz) while the Institute was connected in February 1989 (see Islas).

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