Kreische, Henry L., Brewery and House
The ruins of the Kreische Brewery. Decks were added for the interpretive tours.
|Location||S of La Grange off US 77 on Monument Hill,|
La Grange, Texas
|Area||7 acres (2.8 ha)|
|Built by||Henry Ludwig Kreische|
|Architectural style||German Colonial|
|NRHP reference #||75001974|
|Added to NRHP||April 16, 1975|
|Designated TSAL||June 28, 1983|
Monument Hill and Kreische Brewery State Historic Sites is a historic state park located at 29.888° -96.876°, just off U.S. Route 77, south of La Grange, Texas. The park sits on a sandstone bluff above the Colorado River. Monument Hill is a crypt and memorial to the men who died in the Dawson Massacre and in the Black Bean Episode of the ill-fated Mier Expedition.
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are typically established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U.S. state, some of the Mexican states, and in Brazil. The term is also used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, Argentina, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies.
U.S. Route 77 is a major north–south United States highway which extends for 1305 miles in the central United States. As of 2005, the highway's northern terminus is in Sioux City, Iowa, at an interchange with Interstate 29. Its southern terminus is in Brownsville, Texas, at Veteran's International Bridge on the U.S.-Mexico border, where it connects with both Mexican Federal Highway 101 and Mexican Federal Highway 180.
La Grange is a city in Fayette County, Texas, United States, near the Colorado River. It is located between Houston and Austin on Texas State Highway 71. The population was 4,641 at the 2010 census, and in 2015 the estimated population was 4,712. La Grange is the county seat of Fayette County.
The Kreische Brewery site commemorates the contribution European immigrants made in Texas, specifically German immigrant, stonemason and brewer Heinrich Kreische, whose house and brewery ruins are in the park. The Kreische Brewery and house were listed in the National Register of Historic Places on April 16, 1975.
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations, including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies.
On September 18, 1848, the remains of Texans killed in the Dawson Massacre and the Black Bean Episode (death lottery), which had been retrieved from their original burial sites, were reinterred in a common tomb with a sandstone vault at the location now known as Monument Hill. Over 1,000 people came for the ceremony including U.S. Senator Sam Houston.
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U.S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and United States territories encompassing parts of the current U.S. states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians.
Burial or interment is a method of final disposition wherein a dead person or animal is placed into the ground, sometimes with objects. This is usually accomplished by excavating a pit or trench, placing the deceased and objects in it, and covering it over. A funeral is a ceremony that accompanies the final disposition. Humans have been burying their dead since shortly after the origin of the species. Burial is often seen as indicating respect for the dead. It has been used to prevent the odor of decay, to give family members closure and prevent them from witnessing the decomposition of their loved ones, and in many cultures it has been seen as a necessary step for the deceased to enter the afterlife or to give back to the cycle of life.
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called immurement, and is a method of final disposition, as an alternative to for example cremation or burial.
On January 17, 1849, Heinrich Ludwig Kreische, a recent German immigrant, purchased 172 acres (70 ha) of land, which included the tomb. He built a three-story house and, in 1860, began building a brewery. By 1879, it was the third largest brewing operation in Texas, with its flagship product being "Kreische's Bluff Beer." Kreische maintained the tomb for the rest of his life, but the tomb and Kreische Brewery began to deteriorate after his death in 1882. The brewery closed in 1884.
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans.
The Kreische family made several requests to have the tomb removed from their property, as it was frequently vandalized. On April 15, 1905, a new law passed by the Texas Legislature authorized acquisition, by purchase or condemnation, of 0.36 acres (0.15 ha) of land that the grave was on. The state acquired the land by condemnation on June 24, 1907. In 1933, the State Highway Commission fenced the 0.36 acres (1,500 m2) and agreed to maintain it as a state park. In the same year, the Daughters of the Republic of Texas purchased a new granite vault for the tomb. For the 1936 Texas Centennial, the Texas Centennial Commission erected a 48-foot (15 m) shellstone monument with an art deco mural to prominently mark the mass grave.
Vandalism is the action involving deliberate destruction of or damage to public or private property.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people.
The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of Texas. It is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives. The state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but also due to Texas's plural executive.
Authority for the site was transferred to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department in 1949. In 1956, The citizens of Fayette County purchased 3.54 acres (1.43 ha) around Monument Hill and deeded the land to the state for parkland. Another 36 acres (15 ha), including the Kreische Brewery and the Kreische Home were added in 1977. The complete site opened to the public in 1983, after archaeological studies were completed.
The Texas Parks & Wildlife Department (TPWD) is a Texas state agency that oversees and protects wildlife and their habitats. In addition, the agency is responsible for managing the state's parks and historical areas. Its mission is to manage and conserve the natural and cultural resources of Texas and to provide hunting, fishing, and outdoor recreation opportunities for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.
Fayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,554. Its county seat is La Grange. The county was created in 1837 and organized the next year.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines.
The bluff at Monument Hill is the northern limit of the Oakville Escarpment of Miocene era bearing sandstone. This escarpment or "cuesta" marks the boundary between the Upland Post Oak Woodlands and the Fayette Prairie environments. The erosion of this sandstone cap has created pockets of alkaline soil. This alkaline soil is favored by several species of plants and animals normally found in, or even endemic to the Texas Hill Country, 70 miles northwest. These species were transported to Monument Hill by the Colorado River, creating an isolated colony of western species that coexist with eastern woodland and prairie communities.
Fayette Historic State Park is the state park of the historic town of Fayette in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located on the Big Bay de Noc of Lake Michigan, between Snail Shell Harbor and Sand Bay, on the southern side of the Upper Peninsula, about 17 miles south of US 2. Fayette was the site of an industrial community that manufactured charcoal pig iron between 1867 and 1891. The town has been reconstructed into a living museum, showing what life was like in this town in the late 19th century. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970.
Friendship Hill was the home of early American politician and statesman Albert Gallatin (1761–1849). Gallatin was a U.S. Congressman, the longest-serving Secretary of the Treasury under two presidents, and ambassador to France and Great Britain. The house overlooks the Monongahela River near Point Marion, Pennsylvania, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Pittsburgh.
Bald Hill is a hill on the Illawarra Range, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. With an elevation of approximately 300 metres (980 ft) AMSL, Bald Hill is one of the best known and most popular lookouts in the Illawarra region providing panoramic vistas across the Illawarra escarpment and over the Illawarra plain and the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean.
Mushroom Rock State Park, located in the Smoky Hills region of north-central Kansas, is noted for its mushroom rock formations. These mushroom rocks are an example of hoodoos, formed through a process of nonuniform erosion and weathering in which a hard mass of Dakota Sandstone capstone resisted erosion while the underlying softer stone weathered away. There are two mushrooms and a giant shoe rock, as well as numerous other rock formations in the 5-acre (2.0 ha) park.
Pictograph Cave is an area of three caves located 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Billings, Montana, United States, preserved and protected in the 23-acre (9.3 ha) Pictograph Cave State Park.
Mother Neff State Park is a 259-acre (105 ha) state park located on the Leon River west of Moody, Texas in Coryell County. The park is part of Mother Neff State Park and F.A.S. 21-B(1) Historic District, which was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 2, 1992.
Cedar Bluff State Park is a public recreation area located 21 miles (34 km) southeast of WaKeeney and 23 miles (37 km) southwest of Ellis in Trego County, Kansas, United States.
The Fulton Mansion State Historic Site is located in Fulton on the Texas Gulf Coast, in the county of Aransas, in the U.S. state of Texas. It is one of the earliest Second Empire style buildings constructed in Texas and is one of the most important of the style in the Southwest United States still in existence. Colonel George Ware Fulton and Harriet Gillette Smith began building the 4 story structure overlooking Aransas Bay in 1874 and finished in 1877. The residence, dubbed "Oakhurst" by its owners George & Harriet, featured the most up-to-date conveniences for the time, such as indoor plumbing reaching sinks in every bedroom, gas lighting and central heating, along with three bathrooms and two built-in copper tubs.
Monument Hill may refer to:
The Mier expedition was an unsuccessful military operation launched in November 1842 by a Texian militia against Mexican border settlements; it was related to the Somervell expedition. It included a major battle at Ciudad Mier on December 26 and 27, 1842, which the Mexicans won. The Texian attack was launched partly in hopes of financial gain and partly in retaliation for the Dawson Massacre earlier that year, in which thirty-six Texas militia were killed by the Mexican Army. Both conflicts were part of continuing efforts by each side to control the land between the Rio Grande and Nueces River. The Republic of Texas believed that this territory had been ceded to it in the Treaties of Velasco, by which they gained independence; but Mexico did not agree.
The Dawson massacre, also called the Dawson expedition, was an incident in which 36 Texian militiamen were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842 near San Antonio de Bexar. The event occurred during the Battle of Salado Creek, which ended with a Texan victory. This was among numerous armed conflicts over the area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers, which the Republic of Texas tried to control after achieving independence in 1836.
The San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site includes the location of the Battle of San Jacinto and the museum ship USS Texas. It is located off the Houston Ship Channel in unincorporated Harris County, Texas near the city of Houston. The site was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960.
Fanthorp Inn State Historic Site is a historic hotel in Anderson, Texas. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department acquired the 6-acre (2.4 ha) site by purchase in 1977 from a Fanthorp descendant. Ten years were spent researching and restoring the Inn to its 1850 look. The site was opened to the public on October 4, 1987.
Raoul Jean Josset was a French-born American sculptor.
Seminole State Park and Historic Site is located on US Route 90, east of the Pecos River High Bridge, 9 miles (14 km) west of Comstock in Val Verde County in the U.S. state of Texas. The park is conducive to camping, biking, bird watching, back packing and archeological study. Cave art and archeological artifacts date back to the earliest human habitation in the area. The park is part of the larger Seminole Canyon Archeological District on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Val Verde County, Texas.
Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park is located at 2800 S. Bentsen Palm Drive south of the city of Mission in Hidalgo County in the U.S. state of Texas. It serves as the headquarters for the World Birding Center.
Goliad State Park and Historic Site is a 188.3 acres (76 ha) state park located along the San Antonio River on the southern edge of Goliad, Texas. In addition to recreational facilities the park property includes three historic sites - the reconstructed Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga, the ruins of Mission Nuestra Señora del Rosario and the reconstructed birthplace of Ignacio Zaragoza. The park itself and Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga are included in the Goliad State Park Historic District listed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 12, 2001.
Wapsipinicon State Park is located south of Anamosa, Iowa, United States. The 394-acre (159 ha) park is along the sandstone and limestone bluffs of the Wapsipinicon River, from which it derives its name. It is one of the oldest state parks in Iowa, and it was listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.
The Quitaque Railway Tunnel or Clarity Tunnel is a 582 feet (177 m) abandoned railway tunnel in Floyd County, Texas about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Quitaque. Construction started in 1927, and the tunnel and associated railway line were completed and opened for use in 1930. The tunnel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977, and was designated a Texas State Antiquities Landmark in 2003.
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