Morioka

Last updated
Morioka
盛岡市
Morioka Montage.jpg
Morioka City Montage
Flag of Morioka, Iwate.svg
Emblem of Morioka, Iwate.svg
Morioka
Map of Iwate Prefecture with Morioka highlighted in pink
Morioka in Iwate Prefecture Ja.svg
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Morioka
 
Coordinates: 39°42′7.5″N141°09′16.2″E / 39.702083°N 141.154500°E / 39.702083; 141.154500 Coordinates: 39°42′7.5″N141°09′16.2″E / 39.702083°N 141.154500°E / 39.702083; 141.154500
Country Japan
Region Tōhoku
Prefecture Iwate
First official recorded4th century AD
City SettledApril 1, 1889
Government
  -MayorHiroaki Tanifuji
Area
  Total886.47 km2 (342.27 sq mi)
Population
 (February 1, 2021)
  Total290,700
  Density330/km2 (850/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• Tree Katsura
• Flower Rabbit-ear iris
• Bird Wagtail
Phone number019-651-4111
Address12-2 Uchimaru, Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken 020-8530
Website Official website

Morioka (盛岡市, Morioka-shi) is the capital city of Iwate Prefecture located in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan. On 1 February 2021, the city had an estimated population of 290,700 in 132,719 households, [1] and a population density of 328 per square kilometre (850/sq mi). The total area of the city is 886.47 square kilometres (342.27 sq mi).

Contents

Geography

Morioka is located in the Kitakami Basin  [ ja ] in central Iwate Prefecture, at the confluence of three rivers, the Kitakami, the Shizukuishi and the Nakatsu. The Kitakami River is the second largest river on the Pacific side of Japan (after the Tone River) and the longest in the Tōhoku region. It runs through the city from north to south and has a number of dams within the city boundaries, including the Shijūshida Dam and Gandō Dam. An active volcano, Mount Iwate, dominates the view to the northwest of the city. Mount Himekami is to the north and Mount Hayachine can sometimes be seen to the southeast.[ citation needed ]

Surrounding municipalities

Iwate Prefecture

Demographics

Per Japanese census data, [2] the population of Morioka peaked at around the year 2000, but has slightly declined since.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 155,575    
1970 226,868+45.8%
1980 272,814+20.3%
1990 292,632+7.3%
2000 302,857+3.5%
2010 298,572−1.4%

Climate

Morioka has a cold, humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) characterized by warm, short summers and long, cold winters with heavy snowfall. The average annual temperature in Morioka is 10.2 °C (50.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is 1,314 millimetres (51.7 in) with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are at their highest on average in August, at around 23.7 °C (74.7 °F), and lowest on average in January, at around −2.4 °C (27.7 °F). [3]

Climate data for Morioka (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1923−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
21.0
(69.8)
29.0
(84.2)
33.6
(92.5)
33.7
(92.7)
37.2
(99.0)
36.6
(97.9)
34.7
(94.5)
29.2
(84.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.9
(64.2)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
3.2
(37.8)
7.5
(45.5)
14.4
(57.9)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.1
(80.8)
28.4
(83.1)
24.3
(75.7)
17.9
(64.2)
10.9
(51.6)
4.5
(40.1)
15.4
(59.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.6
(29.1)
−0.9
(30.4)
2.6
(36.7)
8.7
(47.7)
14.5
(58.1)
18.8
(65.8)
22.4
(72.3)
23.5
(74.3)
19.3
(66.7)
12.6
(54.7)
6.2
(43.2)
0.8
(33.4)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F)−5.2
(22.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
3.2
(37.8)
9.1
(48.4)
14.2
(57.6)
18.8
(65.8)
19.8
(67.6)
15.2
(59.4)
7.9
(46.2)
1.8
(35.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
6.3
(43.3)
Record low °C (°F)−20.6
(−5.1)
−17.7
(0.1)
−17.1
(1.2)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.3
(34.3)
4.3
(39.7)
7.4
(45.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−3.4
(25.9)
−8.6
(16.5)
−17.7
(0.1)
−20.6
(−5.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)49.4
(1.94)
48.0
(1.89)
82.1
(3.23)
85.4
(3.36)
106.5
(4.19)
109.4
(4.31)
197.5
(7.78)
185.4
(7.30)
151.7
(5.97)
108.7
(4.28)
85.6
(3.37)
70.2
(2.76)
1,279.9
(50.39)
Average snowfall cm (inches)63
(25)
55
(22)
39
(15)
3
(1.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
6
(2.4)
44
(17)
209
(82)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)11.910.513.212.212.310.514.612.512.512.413.812.6149.0
Average relative humidity (%)73716765687480798078767574
Mean monthly sunshine hours 115.6124.8157.8171.4188.0161.3130.5145.3128.8141.3117.7103.71,686.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [4]

History

Morioka Castle 171103 Morioka Castle Morioka Iwate pref Japan20s3.jpg
Morioka Castle

The area of present-day Morioka has been continuously inhabited since the Japanese Paleolithic period. Numerous Jōmon, Yayoi and Kofun period tombs and remains have been found. The Emishi inhabited the area into the Heian period. During the Enryaku era of the Heian period, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, was ordered north to Shiwa Castle in 803 AD, as a military center to extend the domination of the Yamato dynasty over Mutsu Province. The area was later ruled by the Abe clan until their destruction during the Former Nine Years War at the hands of the Minamoto and Kiyohara clans. The Kiyohara were in turn defeated in the Gosannen War and the area came under the control of the Ōshū Fujiwara Clan based in Hiraizumi, to the south of Morioka. After the Ōshū Fujiwara were destroyed by Minamoto no Yoritomo at the start of the Kamakura period, the area was disputed by several samurai clans until the Nanbu clan, based in Sannohe to the north, expanded their territory during the Sengoku period and built Kozukata Castle in 1592.

Following the Battle of Sekigahara and the formal recognition of Morioka Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate, Kozukata Castle was renamed Morioka Castle. [5] Its name was changed from 森岡 to 盛岡 (both read as "Morioka") [6] During the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration, Morioka Domain was a key member of the pro-Tokugawa Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei.

After the start of the Meiji period, former Morioka Domain became Morioka Prefecture in 1870, and part of Iwate Prefecture from 1872. With the establishment of the modern municipality system on April 1, 1889, the city of Morioka was established as the capital of Iwate Prefecture. The city was connected by train to Tokyo in 1890. The city emerged from World War II with very little damage, having been subject to only two minor air raids during the war. [7]

On January 10, 2006, the village of Tamayama was merged into Morioka. Morioka was proclaimed a core city in 2008, with increased local autonomy.

During the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Morioka was hit by a 6.1 earthquake, and numerous aftershocks, but with little damage other than extensive power outages. [8]

Government

Morioka City Hall Morioka City Hall.jpg
Morioka City Hall

Morioka has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 38 members. Morioka contributes ten seats to the Iwate Prefectural legislature. In terms of national politics, the town is part of Iwate 1st district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Education

Colleges and university

High schools

Morioka has eight public high schools operated by the Iwate Prefectural Board of Education.

There is also one public high school operated by the city government and ten private high schools

Transportation

Railway

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Tōhoku Shinkansen

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Tōhoku Main Line

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Tazawako Line (Akita Shinkansen)

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Yamada Line

JR logo (east).svg East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Hanawa Line

Igrail.svg Iwate Ginga Railway Line

Highway

Local attractions

Sports

Sports venues

Sports teams

Religion

Temples and shrines

Sansa Odori festival Sansa Odori 3.JPG
Sansa Odori festival

Cuisine

Morioka attracts tourists with local noodles such as jajamen, reimen, and wanko soba. Brewing is also a thriving industry of the city. Nambu Senbei, a type of rice cracker, is considered a local specialty.

Media

International relations

Notable persons

Related Research Articles

Iwate Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

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Shizukuishi Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Shizukuishi is a town located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2020, the town had an estimated population of 16,263 in 6354 households, and a population density of 27 persons per km². The total area of the town is 608.82 square kilometres (235.07 sq mi).

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Iwate District, Iwate

Iwate is a rural district located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

Shiwa, Iwate Town in Tōhoku, Japan

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Yahaba, Iwate Town in Tōhoku, Japan

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Kanegasaki, Iwate Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Kanegasaki is a town located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 April 2020, the town had an estimated population of 15,580, and a population density of 87 persons per km² in 6,155 households. The total area of the town is 179.76 square kilometres (69.41 sq mi). In June 2001, the 34.8 hectare old centre of town was protected as an Important Preservation District by the national government for its traditional samurai residences.

Nanbu, Aomori Town in Tōhoku, Japan

Nanbu is a town located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2020, the town had an estimated population of 17,754, and a population density of 120 persons per km2 in 7433 households. The total area of the town is 153.12 square kilometres (59.12 sq mi).

Hachimantai, Iwate City in Tōhoku, Japan

Hachimantai is a city located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 April 2020, the city had an estimated population of 25,076, and a population density of 29 persons per km² in 10,531 households. The total area of the city is 862.30 square kilometres (332.94 sq mi).

Ōshū, Iwate City in Tōhoku, Japan

Ōshū is a city located in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 April 2020, the city had an estimated population of 114,620 and a population density of 120 persons per km² in 45,728 households. The total area of the city is 993.30 square kilometres (383.52 sq mi). Ōshū is famous for its Maesawa Beef, numerous festivals, historic temples and shrines and Fujiwara no Sato, a theme park and movie lot based on the exploits of the Northern Fujiwaras in the 12th century. Many famous people claim Ōshū as their home, including Ichiro Ozawa, the long-time leader of the Democratic Party of Japan.

Morioka Castle

Morioka Castle is a hirayama-style Japanese castle constructed in 1611. It was the seat of the Nanbu clan, a tozama daimyō clan who ruled over Morioka Domain, Mutsu Province in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan during the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. The castle is located in what is now the center of the city of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. It was also referred to as Kozukata Castle, but strictly speaking this name pertains to the predecessor of Morioka Castle on the same site.

Kitakami River

The Kitakami River is the fourth largest river in Japan and the largest in the Tōhoku region. It is 249 kilometres (155 mi) long and drains an area of 10,150 square kilometres (3,920 sq mi). It flows through mostly rural areas of Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures. The source of the river is the Mount Nanashiruge in northern Iwate, from which it flows to the south between the Kitakami Mountains and the Ōu Mountains. The river is unusual in that it has two mouths, one flowing south into Ishinomaki Bay and the other flowing east into the Pacific Ocean, both in Ishinomaki City.

The Matsumaedō (松前道) was the continuation of the Ōshū Kaidō, one of the Edo Five Routes of Japan. It connected the Sendaidō's terminus at Sendai Castle with the northern tip of modern-day Aomori Prefecture. It was established by Tokugawa Ieyasu for government officials traveling through the area. The route is named after the Matsumae Domain, the only Edo period feudal domain to have been located in Ezo ; Matsumae was accessible by boat from the northern terminus of the Matsumaedō.

Japan National Route 106 National highway in Iwate Prefecture, Japan

National Route 106 is a national highway of Japan that connects the cities of Miyako and Morioka in Iwate Prefecture. As of June 2020, it has a total length of 92.4 kilometers (57.4 mi), though the highway is in the process of being upgraded to the Miyako–Morioka Connector, which will follow a shorter route than the older highway. It is paralleled for most of its length by JR East's Yamada Line.

Tokutan Castle

Tokutan Castle was an early Heian period jōsaku-style Japanese castle located in what is now the town of Yahaba in Shiwa District, Iwate Prefecture in the Tōhoku region of far northern Honshū, Japan. The site was proclaimed a National Historic Site of Japan on 5 August 1969.

Tonomi Palisade

Tonomi Palisade was an early Heian period jōsaku-style Japanese castle located in what is now the town of Kanegasaki in Isawa District, Iwate Prefecture in far northern Honshū, Japan. The site was proclaimed a National Historic Site of Japan in October 2013.

Hōon-ji (Morioka) Sōtō Zen Buddhist temple located in Morioka

Hōon-ji (報恩寺) is a Sōtō Zen Buddhist temple located in the city of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Its main image is a statue of Shaka Nyōrai, although the temple is more famous for its statues of the 500 Rakan.

References

  1. Morioka City official statistics (in Japanese)
  2. Morioka population statistics
  3. Morioka climate data
  4. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  5. "Archived copy" 不来方 [Kozukata]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2013. OCLC   56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2013-09-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. Ministry of Home Affairs of Japan (in Japanese)
  8. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/new-61-magnitude-quake-hits-near-morioka-japan-2011-03-11 - retrieved March 14, 2011
  9. Morioka Castle Ruins Agency for Cultural Affairs (in Japanese)
  10. "志波城跡 しわじょうあと". Cultural Heritage Online (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 25 December 2016.(in Japanese)
  11. "岩手銀行(旧盛岡銀行)旧本店本館". Cultural Heritage Online (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 25 April 2020.(in Japanese)
  12. "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  13. Tucker, Spencer (2005). World War I: Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 539. ISBN   978-1851094202.
  14. ミラノコレクションA.T. [Milano Collection A.T.]. New Japan Pro-Wrestling (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2010-06-18. Retrieved 2014-02-03.