|Domain of Japan|
Map of Nanbu and Tsugaru clan holdings in the late Edo period. Morioka Domain in orange, Hachinohe Domain in pink and Shichinohe Domain in yellow; lands of the rival Tsugaru Domain are in green
|Historical era||Edo period|
|Today part of|| Iwate Prefecture |
Morioka Domain (盛岡藩, Morioka-han) was a tozama feudal domain of Edo period Japan. It was ruled throughout its history by the Nanbu clan. It was called Nanbu Domain (南部藩, Nanbu han) during the early part of its history. It was located in northern Mutsu Province, Honshū, covering the eastern half of what is now Aomori Prefecture and the northern two-thirds of what is now Iwate Prefecture and the Kazuno District of what is now Akita Prefecture. The domain was centered at Morioka Castle in the city of Morioka. For most of its history, Morioka Domain had an official kokudaka of 100,000 koku , although its actual revenues were much higher. Towards the end of the Edo period, the domain’s status was raised to 200,000 koku.
The Nanbu clan was a branch of the Seiwa Genji originally from Kai Province, who settled in what is now the town of Nanbu, Aomori after the conquest of the Hiraizumi Fujiwara by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Along with the Shimazu clan of Satsuma Province, the Nanbu clan has the distinction of being one of the two clans which held onto their territories for over 700 years, from the Kamakura period to the Meiji Restoration.
In July 1590, the 26th chieftain of the Nanbu clan, Nanbu Nobunao, made an oath of fealty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Siege of Odawara, and was officially confirmed as daimyō of seven districts of northern Mutsu province (Nukanobu, Hei, Kazuno, Kuji, Iwate, Shiwa and Tōno). Hideyoshi assisted in the suppression of the Kunohe Rebellion of 1591 which secured Nobunao's position as head of all the branches of the Nanbu clan. However, Hideyoshi also recognised the independence of the Tsugaru clan, former Nanbu retainers, and their control over the three districts of Tsugaru Peninsula, but gave the Nanbu clan the additional districts of Hienuki and Waga as compensation. Nanbu Nobunao relocated his seat from Sannohe Castle to the more central location of Morioka, and began work on Morioka Castle and its surrounding castle town in 1592.
In 1600, following the Battle of Sekigahara, Nanbu Nobunao's son Nanbu Toshinao was confirmed by Tokugawa Ieyasu as daimyō with an assessed kokudaka of 100,000 koku. This marks the official start of Morioka Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate.
In 1627, in order to strengthen its southern border against the Date clan of Sendai Domain, a branch of the Nanbu clan from Ne Castle near Hachinohe was relocated to Tōno, forming a subsidiary line.
In 1634, Nukanobu District was divided into the four districts of Sannohe, Ninohe, Kunohe and Kita by order of the shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu, giving the Nanbu clan control over a total of 10 districts of Mutsu province.
In 1664, the 20,000 koku Hachinohe Domain was split from Morioka Domain as a nominally subsidiary domain.However, relations between Morioka and Hachinohe were often strained and Hachinohe was considered independent, rather than a subsidiary. Morioka Domain was thus reduced to 80,000 koku, but was able to develop new rice lands, and reverted to 100,000 koku status in 1683. The 5th daimyō, Nanbu Yukinobu, reduced the domain to 92,000 koku by setting up his two younger brothers as hatamoto with 5000 koku and 3000 koku each.
In 1808, the Tokugawa shogunate assigned the Nanbu clan responsibility for the defence of a portion of southern Ezo.The nominal kokudaka for Morioka clan was raised to 200,000 koku and their status from "castle-holding daimyō" to "province-holding daimyō". However, this increase in status came without any actual increase in territory, and the additional actual revenues from trading posts established in Ezo was small. The result was to plunge the domain’s finances, already suffering from repeated crop failures due to inclement weather and reduction in output from its copper mines, into the red.
In 1819, the subsidiary Shichinohe Domain was created out of 6000 koku of new rice land combined with a 5000-kokuhatamoto holding.
In 1821, the Sōma Daisaku incident, in which a retainer of the Nanbu clan attempted to assassinate the daimyō of Tsugaru Domain occurred. The Nanbu clan and the Tsugaru clan had been enemies for centuries. This was the same year during which the domain faced its most serious crisis. The 11th daimyō, Nanbu Toshimochi, died at the age of 13 before he could be formally received in audience by shōgun Tokugawa Ienari. Fearing that this could be used by the shogunate as a cause for attainder, the domain leaders substituted a cousin of similar age and appearance to take his place.
In 1840, a han school was established, and began promoting studies in rangaku (western science), especially western medicine.
During the Bakumatsu period, in 1857 the 14th daimyō of Morioka, Nanbu Toshihisa, married the third daughter of Tokugawa Nariaki of Mito Domain. With the start of the Boshin War, the domain initially attempted to remain neutral, but bowed to pressure from Sendai Domain and joined the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei.Morioka forces attacked the pro-Imperial Tsugaru Domain and Akita Domain. As a result, the new Meiji government treated Nanbu clan harshly at the end of the war by seizing the territory and expelling the Nanbu clan to the vacant Shiroishi Castle, where a new 130,000 koku domain was created out of former Sendai Domain lands in early 1868.
Six months later, the Nanbu petitioned to return to Morioka, to which the government agreed provided that they paid a penalty of 700,000 gold ryō . Although this sum proved impossible amount to raise, the Nanbu were allowed to return shortly before the abolition of the han system. The lands of former Morioka Domain became Morioka Prefecture, which subsequently became part of Iwate Prefecture in January 1872.
|Name||Tenure||Courtesy title||Court Rank||Kokudaka|
|1||Nanbu Toshinao (南部信直)||1599–1632||Shinano-no-kami (信濃守)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|2||Nanbu Shigenao (南部重直)||1632–1664||Yamashiro-no-kami (山城守)||Senior 5th Rank, Lower Grade (従五位下)||100,000 koku|
|3||Nanbu Shigenobu (南部重信)||1664–1692||Daizen-no-taifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||80,000 ->100,000 koku|
|4||Nanbu Yukinobu (南部行信)||1692–1702||Shinano-no-kami (信濃守)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|5||Nanbu Nobuoki (南部信恩)||1702–1705||Bingo-no-kami (備後守)||Senior 5th Rank, Lower Grade (従五位下)||100,000 koku|
|6||Nanbu Toshitomo (南部利幹)||1705–1725||Shinano-no-kami (信濃守)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|7||Nanbu Toshimi (南部利視)||1725–1752||Daizen-no-daifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|8||Nanbu Toshikatsu (南部利雄)||1752–1779||Daizen-no-taifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|9||Nanbu Toshimasa (南部利正)||1780–1784||Daizen-no-taifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 koku|
|10||Nanbu Toshitaka (南部利敬)||1784–1820||Daizen-no-taifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||100,000 ->200,000 koku|
|11||Nanbu Toshimochi (南部利用)||1820–1825||Daizen-no-taifu (大膳大夫)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||200,000 koku|
|12||Nanbu Toshitada (南部利済)||1825–1847||Shinano-no-kami (信濃守)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||200,000 koku|
|13||Nanbu Toshitomo (南部利義)||1847–1848||Kai-no-kami (甲斐守)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||200,000 koku|
|14||Nanbu Toshihisa (南部利剛)||1848–1868||Minō-no-kami (美濃守), Jijū (侍従)||Senior 4th Rank, Lower Grade (従四位下)||200,000 koku|
|15||Nanbu Toshiyuki (南部利恭)||1868–1871||Kai-no-kami (甲斐守)||Senior 5th Rank, Lower Grade (従五位下)||200,000 koku|
Like most domains in the han system, Morioka Domain consisted of discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka , based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields.At the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, the domain consisted of the following holdings:
In fiction, the Morioka domain is the setting for sections of the novel Mibugishiden , as well as the film The Twilight Samurai .[ citation needed ]
Tsugaru Tamenobu was a Sengoku period Japanese daimyō, and the first daimyō of Hirosaki Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. He was born as Ōura Tamenobu, and was a hereditary retainer of the Nanbu clan; however, he later rebelled against the Nanbu and established an independent domain, and renamed himself as Tsugaru Tamenobu.
The Kunohe rebellion was an insurrection of the Sengoku period of Japan that occurred in Mutsu Province from 13 March to 4 September 1591. The Kunohe Rebellion was the final battle in Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaigns during the Sengoku period and completed the unification of Japan.
Morioka Castle is a hirayama-style Japanese castle constructed in 1611. It was the seat of the Nanbu clan, a tozama daimyō clan who ruled over Morioka Domain, Mutsu Province in the Tōhoku region of northern Japan during the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. The castle is located in what is now the center of the city of Morioka, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. It was also referred to as Kozukata Castle, but strictly speaking this name pertains to the predecessor of Morioka Castle on the same site.
Yonezawa Domain was a feudal domain in Edo period Japan, located in Dewa Province, Japan. It was centered at Yonezawa castle in what is now the city of Yamagata, and its territory extended over the Okitama District of Dewa Province, in what is today southeastern Yamagata Prefecture. It was ruled throughout its history by the Uesugi clan, as tozama daimyō, with an initial income of 300,000 koku, which later fell to 150,000–180,000. The Uesugi were ranked as a province-holding daimyō, and as such, had the privilege of shogunal audiences in the Great Hall (Ōhiroma) of Edo Castle.
The Akita clan was a Japanese samurai clan of northern Honshū that claimed descent from Abe no Sadato of the Abe clan. The Akita clan was originally known as the Andō clan. In the Kamakura period, they were installed in the Tsugaru district of Mutsu Province to trade with Ainu people for the Hōjō clan, and to administer Ezo as a penal colony.
Kubota Domain was a feudal domain in Edo period Japan, located in Dewa Province, Japan. It was centered on Kubota Castle in what is now the city of Akita and was thus also known as the Akita Domain. It was governed for the whole of its history by the Satake clan. During its rule over Kubota, the Satake clan was ranked as a Province-holding daimyō family, and as such, had the privilege of shogunal audiences in the Great Hall (Ohiroma) of Edo Castle.
Hirosaki Domain, also known as Tsugaru Domain, was a tozama feudal domain of Edo period Japan It is located in Mutsu Province, in northern Honshū. The domain was centered at Hirosaki Castle, located in the center of what is now the city of Hirosaki in Aomori Prefecture. It was ruled by the Tsugaru clan. A branch of the family ruled the adjoining Kuroishi Domain.
Nanbu Nobunao was a Sengoku period Japanese samurai, and daimyō and the 26th hereditary chieftain of the Nanbu clan. His courtesy title was Daizen Daibu, and his Court rank was Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade.
Nanbu Toshinao was an early Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 1st daimyō of Morioka Domain in northern Japan. He was the 27th hereditary chieftain of the Nanbu clan
Nanbu Shigenao was an early Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 2nd daimyō of Morioka Domain in northern Japan. He was the 28th hereditary chieftain of the Nanbu clan. His courtesy title was Yamashiro-no-kami, and his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade.
The Nanbu clan was a Japanese samurai clan who ruled most of northeastern Honshū in the Tōhoku region of Japan for over 700 years, from the Kamakura period through the Meiji Restoration of 1868. the Nanbu claimed descent from the Seiwa Genji of Kai Province and were thus related to the Takeda clan. The clan moved its seat from Kai to Mutsu Province in the early Muromachi period, and were confirmed as daimyō of Morioka Domain under the Edo-period Tokugawa shogunate. The domain was in constant conflict with neighboring Hirosaki Domain, whose ruling Tsugaru clan were once Nanbu retainers.
The Tsugaru clan was a Japanese samurai clan who ruled the northwestern half of what is now Aomori Prefecture in the Tōhoku region of Japan under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. The Tsugaru were daimyō of Hirosaki Domain and its semi-subsidiary, Kuroishi Domain. The Tsugaru were in constant conflict with their former overlords, the Nanbu clan of adjoining Morioka Domain. During the Boshin War of 1868-69, the Tsugaru clan fought mostly on the pro-imperial side, although it did briefly join the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei. In the Meiji period, the former daimyō became part of the kazoku peerage, with Tsugaru Tsuguakira receiving the title of hakushaku (Count). The main Tsugaru line is now extinct.
Tsugaru Nobuhira was the second daimyō of Hirosaki Domain in northern Mutsu Province, Honshū, Japan. His courtesy title was Etchū-no-kami, and his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade.
Hachinohe Domain was a tozama feudal domain of Edo period Japan It is located in Mutsu Province, in northern Honshū. The domain was centered at Hachinohe Castle, located in the center of what is now the city of Hachinohe in Aomori Prefecture.
Kuroishi Domain was a tozama feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan. It is located in northwestern Mutsu Province, Honshū. Its territory included 2000 koku in the area around present-day city of Kuroishi, 1000 koku in present-day Hiranani, and 2000 koku in what is now part of Ōta, Gunma. The domain was centered at Kuroishi Jin'ya, located in the center of what is now the city of Kuroishi in Aomori Prefecture.
Tsugaru Yasuchika was the 9th daimyō of Hirosaki Domain in northern Mutsu Province, Honshū, Japan. His courtesy title, initially Dewa-no-kami, was later raised to Saikyo Daiyu and Jujū, and his Court rank was Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade.
Shichinohe Domain was a tozama feudal domain of Edo period Japan, located in Mutsu Province, Honshū. It was centered at Shichinohe Castle in what is now the modern town of Shichinohe, Aomori in the Kamikita District of Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan.
Sannohe Castle was a Muromachi period Japanese castle located in what is now the town of Sannohe, in Sannohe District of Aomori Prefecture, in the Tōhoku region of far northern Japan. It was located on a river terrace of the Mabechi River, which formed part of its natural defenses.
Nanbu Shigenobu was an early to mid-Edo period Japanese samurai, and the 3rd daimyō of Morioka Domain in northern Japan. He was the 29th hereditary chieftain of the Nanbu clan. His courtesy title was Daizen-daifu, and his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade, later raised to Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade.
Tozawa clan was a Japanese samurai kin group from Mutsu and Dewa Provinces who ruled as daimyō of Shinjō Domain under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. The Tozawa clan residence in Edo was located near the temple of Zōjō-ji.