|Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)|
|Central European Time (UTC+1)|
|Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)|
|Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)|
Moscow Time (Russian : моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.
Moscow Time is used to schedule trains, ships, etc. throughout Russia, but airplane travel is scheduled using local time. Times in Russia are often announced throughout the country on radio stations as Moscow Time, which is also registered in telegrams, etc. Descriptions of time zones in Russia are often based on Moscow Time rather than UTC. For example, Yakutsk (UTC+09:00) is said to be MSK+6 in Russia.
Until the October Revolution, the official time in Moscow corresponded to GMT+02:30:17 (according to the longitude of the Astronomical Observatory of Moscow State University). In 1919 the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR introduced the system of time zones in the country, while Moscow was assigned to the second administrative time zone, the time of which should correspond to GMT+02:00. Other zones east of the 37.5° meridian to Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Vladimir, Ryazan, Tula, Lipetsk, Voronezh and Rostov-on-Don were also included in the second belt.
In accordance with the 16 June 1930 Decree of the Council of People's Commissars, the Decree Time was introduced by adding one hour to the time in each time zone of the USSR, so that Moscow Time became three hours ahead of Universal Time.[ citation needed ]
Until 2011, during the winter, between the last Sunday of October and the last Sunday of March, Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК) was three hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+03:00; during the summer, Moscow Time shifted forward an additional hour ahead of Moscow Standard Time to become Moscow Summer Time (MSD), making it UTC+04:00.
In 2011, the Russian government proclaimed that daylight saving time would in future be observed all year round, thus effectively displacing standard time—an action which the government claimed emerged from health concerns attributed to the annual shift back-and-forth between standard time and daylight saving time.On 27 March 2011, Muscovites set their clocks forward for a final time, effectively observing MSD, or UTC+04:00, permanently.
On 29 March 2014, after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol—two federal subjects established by Russia on the Crimean Peninsula—switched their time to MSK on 30 March 2014 (from UTC+02:00 with DST to UTC+04:00 with permanent DST) and then when permanent DST in Russia was removed on 26 October 2014 the time became UTC+03:00 without DST all year.
On 1 July 2014, the State Duma passed a bill partially repealing the 2011 change, putting Moscow Time on permanent UTC+03:00 and thus back to standard time.
Most of the European part of Russia (west of the Ural Mountains) uses Moscow Time. In Kaliningrad Oblast, Kaliningrad time (UTC+02:00) is used. Samara Oblast and Udmurtia use Samara time (UTC+04:00) and Perm Krai, Bashkortostan and Orenburg Oblast use Yekaterinburg time (UTC+05:00). In the Crimean Federal District, the disputed region of Crimea between Russia and Ukraine, the Moscow Time is also observed, as well as in the separatist territories of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic, which since 2014 control part of the Ukrainian Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast.
Prior to 26 October 2014, Moscow Time was UTC+03:00. Daylight saving time was used in the summer, advancing it to UTC+04:00.
UTC+03:00 was also formerly used in European parts of what was then the USSR:
Moscow Summer Time (UTC+04:00), was first applied in 1981 and was used:
In 1922–1930 and 1991–1992, Moscow observed Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00). Daylight saving time (UTC+03:00) was observed in the summer of 1991, and the city and region reverted to UTC+03:00 by the summer of 1992.
The time in Moscow has been as follows (the following list of DST usage may not be accurate):
|From 1 January 1880||UTC+02:30:17|
|From 3 July 1916||UTC+02:31:19|
|From 1 July 1917||UTC+02:31:19 with DST|
|From 1 July 1919||UTC+03:00 with DST|
|From 16 August 1919||UTC+03:00|
|From 14 February 1921||UTC+03:00 with DST|
|From 1 October 1921||UTC+03:00|
|From 1 October 1922||UTC+02:00 (EET)|
|From 21 June 1930||UTC+03:00|
|From 1 April 1981||UTC+03:00 with DST|
|From 31 March 1991||UTC+02:00 (EET) with DST|
|From 19 January 1992||UTC+03:00 with DST|
|From 27 March 2011||UTC+04:00|
|From 26 October 2014||UTC+03:00|
Since political, in addition to purely geographical, criteria are used in the drawing of time zones, it follows that time zones do not precisely adhere to meridian lines. The MSK (UTC+03:00) time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of exactly the area between meridians 37°30' E and 52°30' E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+03:00 time, are in another time zone; likewise, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+03:00, even though their "physical" time zone is different from that. Following is a list of such anomalies:
Areas located outside UTC+03:00 longitudes using Moscow Time (UTC+03:00) time
Areas west of 37°30' E ("physical UTC+02:00) that use UTC+03:00
Areas between 52°30' E and 67°30' E ("physical" UTC+04:00) that use UTC+03:00
Areas east of 67°30' E ("physical" UTC+05:00) that use UTC+03:00
Areas located within UTC+03:00 longitudes (37°30' E – 52°30' E) using other time zones
Areas that use UTC+02:00
Areas that use UTC+04:00
Areas that use UTC+05:00
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time, Paris Time or Rome Time.
Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of the UTC+03:00 time zone, which is 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time, and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02:00. In ISO 8601, the associated time would be written as 2020-11-08T23:41:45+02:00. This time is used.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03:00. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2019-02-08T23:36:06+03:00.
UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2019-02-07T23:28:34+04:00. This time is used in:
There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time (DST) is not used in Russia since 26 October 2014. From 27 March 2011 to 26 October 2014, permanent DST was used.
Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time, the zone immediately higher than the Eastern European Time. The time zone used in Belarus between 2011-2014.
Yekaterinburg Time (YEKT) is the time zone five hours ahead of UTC (UTC+05:00) and 2 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+2).
Krasnoyarsk Time (KRAT) is the time zone seven hours ahead of UTC (UTC+07:00) and 4 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+4). KRAT is the official time zone for central and east Siberian regions of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Kemerovo Oblast, Khakassia and Tuva.
Samara Time (SAMT) is the time zone 4 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+04:00) and 1 hour ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+1). Samara Time is used in Samara Oblast, Udmurtia, Astrakhan Oblast, Ulyanovsk Oblast and Saratov Oblast.
Irkutsk Time (IRKT) is the time zone eight hours ahead of UTC (UTC+08:00) and 5 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+5).
Europe spans seven primary time zones, excluding summer time offsets. Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.
Yakutsk Time (YAKT) is a time zone in Russia which is nine hours ahead of UTC, and six hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK).
Vladivostok Time (VLAT), is a time zone in Russia, named after the city of Vladivostok. It is ten hours ahead of UTC (UTC+10:00) and seven hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+7).
Kaliningrad Time is the time zone two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and 1 hour behind Moscow Time (MSK−1). It is used in Kaliningrad Oblast.
Time in Ukraine is defined as UTC+02:00 and in summer as UTC+03:00. Part of Eastern European Time, it is locally referred to as Kyiv Time. The change for the summer time takes place in the last week of March at 03:00, when the time is changed by an hour ahead, and the last week of October at 04:00, when the time changes an hour back. In this way, the clocks in Ukraine are always one hour ahead of those in central Europe.
As of 2017, daylight saving time is used in the following Asian countries: