Mostafa Khomeini

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Mostafa Khomeini
Seyyed-mostafa khomeini.jpg
Born12 December 1930
Died23 October 1977(1977-10-23) (aged 46)
Resting placeNajaf
Nationality Iranian
Parent(s) Ruhollah Khomeini
Khadijeh Saqafi

Sayyid Mostafa Khomeini (12 December 1930 23 October 1977) was an Iranian cleric and the son of Ayatollah Khomeini. He died before the 1979 revolution.

Sayyid honorific title

Sayyid is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Imam Ali through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and Ali.

Contents

Early life and education

Khomeini was born in Qom on 12 December 1930. [1] He was the eldest son of Ayatollah Khomeini and Khadijeh Saqafi, daughter of a respected cleric, Hajj Mirza Tehrani. [2]

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km (87 mi) to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census, its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Khadijeh Saqafi Iranian revolutionary

Khadijeh Saqafi was the wife of Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution.

He graduated from the Qom Theological Center. [1]

Activities

Khomeini participated in his father's movement. [1] He was arrested and imprisoned after the 1963 events and also, after his father's exile. [3] On 3 January 1965, he joined his father in Bursa, Turkey, where he was in exile. [3] Then he lived with his family in Najaf, Iraq. [1] He and his brother Ahmad became part of Khomeini's underground movement in Najaf. [4] The group also included Mohammad Hussein Behesti and Morteza Motahhari. [4]

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Najaf Place in Najaf Governorate, Iraq

Najaf or Al-Najaf al-Ashraf also Baniqia is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2013 was 1,000,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shia Islam, the Shi'ite world's spiritual capital, and the center of Shi'ite political power in Iraq.

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

Death

Khomeini died in Najaf on 23 October 1977. [5] He was buried in Najaf within the shrine of Imam Ali. [6]

His death has been regarded as suspicious by both the followers of Ayatollah Khomeini and common people of Iran due to his death being announced while he was in police custody and various reports that SAVAK agents were present at the scene. [7] Hence, his death was attributed to the Shah's secret police, SAVAK. [5] His father later described Mostafa's death as "martyrdom" and one of the "hidden favours" of God because it fueled the growing discontent with the Shah which finally produced Iranian Revolution just slightly over 1 year after Mostafa's death. [8]

SAVAK Secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Biography and Struggles of Ayatollah Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini". Imam Khomeini. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  2. H. Dabashi (1993). Theology of discont (PDF). New York: New York University Press.
  3. 1 2 Baqer Moin (1999). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. I.B.Tauris. p. 136. ISBN   978-1-85043-128-2 . Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  4. 1 2 Samii, Abbas William (1997). "The Shah's Lebanon policy: the role of SAVAK". Middle Eastern Studies. 33 (1): 66–91. doi:10.1080/00263209708701142.
  5. 1 2 Michael Axworthy (1 September 2013). Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic. Oxford University Press. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-19-932226-8 . Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  6. Ismail Zabeeh (4 January 2007). "Mustafa Khomeini's tomb reopens". Jafariya News. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  7. Imam Khomeini life, thought and legacy : essays from an Islamic movement perspective. Abdar Rahman Koya. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. 2009. ISBN   9789675062254. OCLC   434746901.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. Abdar Rahman Koya (2009). Imam Khomeini: Life, Thought and Legacy. The Other Press. p. 41. ISBN   978-967-5062-25-4 . Retrieved 9 August 2013.