|Born||12 December 1930|
|Died||23 October 1977 46) (aged|
|Parent(s)|| Ruhollah Khomeini |
Sayyid Mostafa Khomeini (12 December 1930 – 23 October 1977) was an Iranian cleric and the son of Ayatollah Khomeini. He died before the 1979 revolution.
Sayyid is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Imam Ali through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and Ali.
Khomeini was born in Qom on 12 December 1930.He was the eldest son of Ayatollah Khomeini and Khadijeh Saqafi, daughter of a respected cleric, Hajj Mirza Tehrani.
Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km (87 mi) to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census, its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.
Khadijeh Saqafi was the wife of Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
He graduated from the Qom Theological Center.
Khomeini participated in his father's movement.He was arrested and imprisoned after the 1963 events and also, after his father's exile. On 3 January 1965, he joined his father in Bursa, Turkey, where he was in exile. Then he lived with his family in Najaf, Iraq. He and his brother Ahmad became part of Khomeini's underground movement in Najaf. The group also included Mohammad Hussein Behesti and Morteza Motahhari.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
Najaf or Al-Najaf al-Ashraf also Baniqia is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2013 was 1,000,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shia Islam, the Shi'ite world's spiritual capital, and the center of Shi'ite political power in Iraq.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.
Khomeini died in Najaf on 23 October 1977.He was buried in Najaf within the shrine of Imam Ali.
His death has been regarded as suspicious by both the followers of Ayatollah Khomeini and common people of Iran due to his death being announced while he was in police custody and various reports that SAVAK agents were present at the scene.Hence, his death was attributed to the Shah's secret police, SAVAK. His father later described Mostafa's death as "martyrdom" and one of the "hidden favours" of God because it fueled the growing discontent with the Shah which finally produced Iranian Revolution just slightly over 1 year after Mostafa's death.
SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.
The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.
Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti was an Iranian jurist, philosopher, cleric and politician who was known as the second person in the political hierarchy of Iran after the revolution. Beheshti is considered to have been the primary architect of Iran's post-revolution constitution, as well as the administrative structure of the Islamic Republic. Beheshti is also known to have selected and trained several prominent politicians in the Islamic Republic, such as current President Hassan Rouhani, former President Mohammad Khatami, Ali Akbar Velayati, Mohammad Javad Larijani, Ali Fallahian, and Mostafa Pourmohammadi. Beheshti also served as the Secretary General of the Islamic Republic Party, and was the head of the Iranian judicial system. He further served as Chairman of the Council of Islamic Revolution, and the Assembly of Experts. Beheshti earned a Ph.D. in Philosophy, and was fluent in English, German and Arabic.
Sayyid Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei was an Iranian Shia cleric and one of the most influential Twelver Shia Islamic scholars (marja'), and the predecessor to Ali al-Sistani. He was the spiritual leader of much of the Shia world until his death in 1992. He was succeeded by Ali al-Sistani, his former student, whereby many of his followers became followers of Al Sistani and foundations headed by Khoei were handed to Al Sistani.
Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi March 1875 – 30 March 1961) was an Iranian Shia Marja' and the leading Marja in Iran from roughly 1947 to his death in 1961.
Musa al-Sadr is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shi'a religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad ibn Mahdi al-Hussaini al-Shirazi, commonly known as Mohammad Al-Shirazi, was a Twelver Shia Marja', politician and religious leader.
Mohammad Mofatteh was an Iranian philosopher, theologian, and political activist, born in Famenin, Hamadan, Iran. After he finished his primary education in Hamadan, he left for the Islamic Seminary in Qom, where he was taught by reputable teachers such as Ayatollah Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari, Ayatollah Sayyed Hossein Tabatabei Borujerdi, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Ayatollah Marashi, and Allameh Tabatabie. He continued his studies at seminary and at the same time studied philosophy at Tehran University, where he earned his PhD and became a professor and a dean of colleague.
Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Mohammad Sadeq Hussaini Rohani is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja currently residing in Qom, Iran. He received his Ijtihad authority at the age of 14, from Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei, which makes him one of the youngest to achieve this in history of Shia Islam. He became a Marja, after death of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi, at the age of 35. Ayatollah Sadeq Rouhani was one of the first senior clerics to be placed under house arrest under a direct order from Ayatollah Ruhullah Khomeini just a few years after the Iranian revolution. Rohani remains a critic of the Iranian government today.
Grand Ayatollah Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani is one of the most senior Twelver Shia Marja living in Iran after Ali Khamenei. He was born in Golpaygan, Iran. He has studied in seminaries of Qom, Iran under Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. He currently resides and teaches in the Seminary of Qom, Iran. He is a supporter of the Islamic revolution in Iran and is known for his fatwa calling for the death of rapper Shahin Najafi for apostasy.
Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini was the younger son of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and father of Hassan Khomeini. He was the "right-hand" of his father before, during and after the revolution of Iran. He was a link between Ruholah Khomeini and officials and people. He had several decision-making positions.
This article is a timeline of events relevant to the Islamic Revolution in Iran. For earlier events refer to Pahlavi dynasty and for later ones refer to History of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This article doesn't include the reasons of the events and further information is available in Islamic revolution of Iran.
Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi was a Twelver Shia Muslim scholar. He was the paternal grandfather of the Supreme leader of the Iranian Revolution, Ruhollah Khomeini.
Hojatoleslam Seyyed Ali Akbar Aboutorabi Fard was an Iranian revolutionary. During the Iran–Iraq War, he organized the militia, was captured, and spent 10 years in Iraqi prisons. On his release he became the Supreme Leader's representative to Azadegan Affairs Headquarters and Tehran representative in the 4th and 5th terms of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
The Mousavi Khomeini family is an Iranian Shi'a Muslim family that is prominent in politics and clergy. The family members are Sayyid and descendants of 7th Shi'ite Imam Musa al-Kadhim. Originally Persians from Nishapur, ancestors of the family migrated for a short stay to Awadh, towards the end of the 18th century. The family moved back and settled in Khomein in the first half of the 19th century.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. On 1 February 1979 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returned to Iran after 14 years in political exile. Khomeini had been a prominent opponent of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who had fled the country during the events of the Iranian Revolution. Upon his return, he was greeted by crowds of millions, and within 10 days the revolution would be successful. Khomeini's return and the 10 days following are now celebrated in Iran as the Fajr decade.
Kashf al-Asrar is a book written in 1943 by Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, to respond to the questions and criticisms raised in a 1943 pamphlet titled The Thousand-Year Secrets by Ali Akbar Hakimzadeh, who had abandoned clerical studies at Qom seminary and in the mid-1930s published a modernist journal titled Humayun that advocated reformation in Islam. Kashf al-Asrar is the first book that expresses Khomeini's political views.
Mahmoud Ansari Qomi (Persian: محمود انصاری قمی) Preachers and scholars in Tehran.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ, also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī, literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the prophets and imams, marājiʿ are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Shia Islam.
Ruhollah Khomeini's life in exile refers to the period that Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini spent from 1964 to 1979 in Turkey, Iraq and France, after Mohamed Reza Shah Pahlavi had arrested him twice for dissent from his “White Revolution” announced in 1963. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government,and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.
The Najaf Seminary, also known as the al-Hawza al-Ilmiyya, is the most important Shia seminaries (hawza) in the city of Najaf, Iraq. The school also operates a campus in Karbala.