Mount Friesland

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Mount Friesland
Presian.jpg
Mount Friesland from the west slopes of Lyaskovets Peak, with Presian Ridge in the foreground and ‘The Synagogue’ in the left background
Highest point
Elevation 1,700.2 m (5,578 ft) [1] [2]
Prominence 1,700.2 m (5,578 ft) [3]
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 62°40′14.9″S60°11′10.7″W / 62.670806°S 60.186306°W / -62.670806; -60.186306 Coordinates: 62°40′14.9″S60°11′10.7″W / 62.670806°S 60.186306°W / -62.670806; -60.186306 [1]
Geography
Antarctica relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Mount Friesland
Antarctica
Location Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Parent range Tangra Mountains
Climbing
First ascent 30 December 1991 Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique

Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'. [4]

Friesland Ridge

Friesland Ridge is a ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, part of the Tangra Mountains. The summit, Mount Friesland, which rises to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), is the northwesternmost of the ridge’s six main peaks. Its elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995/96 Bulgarian survey; the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, and closely matched by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05.

Tangra Mountains mountain range

Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

Contents

History

The feature was known to American and British sealers as early as 1820–21, and variously referred to as "Peak of Frezeland", "Friezland Peak", and "Friesland Peak". In the early 1900s the name "Barnard", applied by James Weddell in 1825 to nearby Needle Peak, was transferred to this mountain. The original name has now been restored with the spelling "Friesland" that appears to have been more frequently used than any of the other versions. In order to preserve the historical memory of the area, the name Barnard Point has since been approved for the nearby point on the southeast side of the entrance to False Bay. [5] [6]

James Weddell British Antarctic explorer

James Weddell FRSE was a British sailor, navigator and seal hunter who in February 1823 sailed to latitude of 74°15′S and into a region of the Southern Ocean that later became known as the Weddell Sea. He is one of the very few human beings to have a sea named after him.

Needle Peak (Livingston Island) mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Needle Peak is a sharply pointed black peak, 370 m, standing at the west side of Brunow Bay on the south coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Situated in the southeast foothills of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Rozhen Peninsula, 1 km south-southeast of Ludogorie Peak, and surmounting Prespa Glacier to the west, Samuel Point to the east by south, and Brunow Bay to the northeast.

Barnard Point

Barnard Point is a headland which marks the south-east side of the entrance to False Bay on the south side of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated on Rozhen Peninsula, 1.5 km (1 mi) north-north-west of Botev Point and 6.6 km (4 mi) south-east of Miers Bluff.

The first ascent of Mount Friesland was made from Juan Carlos I Base on 30 December 1991 by the Catalan climbers Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique, after whom Sàbat Hill and Enrique Hill, respectively, were named. The peak was climbed and GPS surveyed by the Australian Damien Gildea and John Bath and the Chilean Rodrigo Fica on 20 December 2003, who produced a new map of the island in 2004, based on Spanish satellite imagery and their GPS data. The third ascent was made by the Bulgarians Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 15 December 2004. All these used the Sàbat–Enrique eastern route to the peak, from Camp Academia locality (541 m) via Catalunyan Saddle (1,260 m) and Presian Ridge (1,456 m).

Sàbat Hill hill on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Sàbat Hill is the ice-free hill rising to 151 m in Dospey Heights on the Ray Promontory of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Richards Cove to the west-northwest and Barclay Bay to the east.

Enrique Hill

Enrique Hill is the ice-free hill rising to 156 m in Dospey Heights on the Ray Promontory of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Barclay Bay to the east and northeast.

Damien Gildea is an Australian mountaineer and Antarctic explorer who has climbed extensively in Antarctica, Nepal, Tibet, Pakistan, Bolivia, Alaska, New Zealand and elsewhere.

Elevation

The summit elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995–96 Bulgarian survey; [7] the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, [8] [1] [2] and closely matched (as 1,702 metres (5,584 ft)) by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05. The local ice relief is subject to changes, causing variations in the feature's elevation. According to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 metres (5,554 ft) in December 2016, making the peak lower than the adjacent St. Boris Peak (the latter's northernmost ice formation ‘The Synagogue’ rising to 1,699 metres (5,574 ft)) at that time. [9] [10] [11] According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’. [12]

Tangra 2004/05 Bulgarian geographical expedition to Antarctica

The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).

Location

Mount Friesland is situated 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) northeast of Barnard Point, 9.7 kilometres (6.0 mi) east-southeast of St. Kliment Ohridski Base, 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) southeast of the summit of Pliska Ridge, 6.1 kilometres (3.8 mi) south by east of Mount Bowles, 2.9 kilometres (1.8 mi) south-southwest of Camp Academia, 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) west of Great Needle Peak, and 6.85 kilometres (4.26 mi) north by west of Samuel Point. British mapping in 1968, Chilean in 1971, Argentine in 1980, Spanish in 1991, US in 2004, and Bulgarian in 1996, 2005 and 2009. Bulgarian surveys 1995/96 (estimated elevation 1684 m) and 2004–05.

St. Kliment Ohridski Base Antarctic base

St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Pliska Ridge

Pliska Ridge is a three-peaked ridge rising to 667 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its central and highest summit, Pliska Peak, is located 2.48 km east-northeast of Willan Nunatak, 1.81 km southeast of Burdick Peak, 3.53 km south-southwest of Mount Bowles, 3.68 km west-southwest of Kuzman Knoll, and 3.61 km northwest of Mount Friesland. The feature is 1.6 km long and 500 m wide, its axis trending due east-west, with precipitous southern slopes. It is ice-covered except for segments of its easternmost peak and is bounded to the northwest by Orpheus Gate, to the north by the head of Perunika Glacier, to the east by Nesebar Gap, and to the south and west by the head of Huntress Glacier, the latter flowing 6 km southwestwards into False Bay.

Mount Bowles mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Mount Bowles is an ice-covered mountain 822 metres (2,697 ft) high, the summit of Bowles Ridge in the central part of eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated south of Vidin Heights and north of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains to which it is linked by Wörner Gap.

Maps

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 Gildea, Damien. "Omega Livingston Island GPS Expedition 2003". USA: The Omega Foundation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  2. 1 2 Gildea, Damien (2004). "Antarctica, Antarctic Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Second Ascent of Mt. Friesland and New Altitude". American Alpine Journal . 46 (78): 329–331. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  3. "Mount Friesland, Antarctica". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  4. D. Gildea. Omega Livingston Island GPS Expedition 2003. Dispatches, 17 December 2003
  5. "Friesland, Mount". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  6. "Mount Friesland". SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica . Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  7. L.L. Ivanov. Livingston Island: Central-Eastern Region. Scale 1:25000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 1996.
  8. AUSPOS Online GPS Processing Report: Job number #101306. Space Geodesy Analysis Centre, The National Mapping Division. Geoscience Australia, 22 December 2003. 5 pp.
  9. D. Boyanov. NSA third time in Antarctica. National Sports Academy, 2017. (in Bulgarian)
  10. D. Boyanov. This Saturday and this Sunday. BTV, 28 January 2017. (in Bulgarian)
  11. D. Boyanov and N. Petkov. The peaks of Tangra Mountains: Project report Part Two 2016/17. Sofia, February 2017 (in Bulgarian)
  12. I.M. Howat, C. Porter, B.E. Smith, M.-J. Noh and P. Morin. The Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica. The Cryosphere 13, 2019. pp. 665–674 (Antarctic REMA Exlorer)
Tangra-Mountains-View-1822.png
North view of Tangra Mountains depicting (left to right) Great Needle Peak, Levski Peak, Lyaskovets Peak, Mount Friesland, St. Boris Peak and Simeon Peak, with Desolation Island in the foreground; fragment of an illustration to George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands

Related Research Articles

Academia Peak

Academia Peak is a peak rising to 1,253 m in the Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on eastern Livingston Island in Antarctica. The peak has precipitous and ice-free north-western slopes and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and southwest. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier on 15 January 2017.

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Levski Ridge

Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.

Lyaskovets Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.

Presian Ridge

Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.

Simeon Peak

Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.

St. Boris Peak

St. Boris Peak is an ice-covered mountain rising to 1,698 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is the second highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland. The two are connected by a short saddle dominated by ‘The Synagogue’, a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting upon St. Boris Peak. The peak is also connected to Simeon Peak by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and west, and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The peak's central summit is rising to 1,685 m, while its highest point ‘The Synagogue’ rises to 1,699 m. The local ice relief is subject to change; according to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 m in December 2016, making St. Boris Peak the summit of both Tangra Mountains and the island in that season. According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’.

St. Cyril Peak

St. Cyril Peak rises to 1,505m in Friesland Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is linked to St. Methodius Peak to the southwest by Vladaya Saddle and surmounts Ruen Icefall to the west, Macy Glacier to the east and Prespa Glacier to the south.

St. Methodius Peak

St. Methodius Peak rises to approximately 1,180m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island, Antarctica and surmounts Ruen Icefall to the north-northwest, Prespa Glacier to the southeast and Charity Glacier to the southwest. Linked to St. Cyril Peak by Vladaya Saddle.

Veleka Ridge

Veleka Ridge is a predominantly ice-free ridge extending 3 km between Charity Glacier in the north and Botev Point in the south, and 1.3 km wide, in the southwest extremity of Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The ice-free surface area of the ridge and the adjacent Arkutino Beach is 468 hectares. Surmounting Tarnovo Ice Piedmont to the east, Charity Glacier to the north, Arkutino Beach to the west, and Barnard Point and Botev Point to the southwest and south respectively. The ridge's summit Veleka Peak rises to 538 m in its north extremity.

Zograf Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 metres at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Bowles Ridge

Bowles Ridge is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.

Paril Saddle

Paril Saddle is a saddle of elevation 1398 m in Friesland Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Bounded by St. Boris Peak to the northeast, and Simeon Peak to the southwest. Overlooking Macy Glacier to the east and southeast, and Huntress Glacier to the west and northwest. Bulgarian topographic survey in 1995/96, and mapping in 2005 and 2009. It was first visited and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov on 15 January 2017.

Great Needle Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Great Needle Peak is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.

Sofia Peak

Sofia Peak is the ice covered peak rising to 1655 m in Levski Ridge, central Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, 470 m northwest of the summit point of Great Needle Peak with which it forms a twin peak. The feature is named after the capital city of Bulgaria.

References


PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Friesland, Mount" (content from the Geographic Names Information System ).