The Free Fare Movement (Portuguese : Movimento Passe Livre, Brazilian Portuguese: [mo.viˈmẽ.tu ˈpa.si ˈli.vɾi] ) is a Brazilian social movement that advocates the adoption of free fares in mass transit. The movement was founded in a session during the Worldwide Social Forum in 2005, in Porto Alegre, and gained prominence for its participation in the planning of the 2013 Brazilian protests.
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. Reintegrationists maintain that Galician is not a separate language, but a dialect of Portuguese. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.
A social movement is a type of group action. There is no single consensus definition of a social movement. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues. In other words, they carry out, resist, or undo a social change. They provide a way of social change from the bottom within nations.
The major demand of the movement is the migration of the private transport system to a public system, an event which would guarantee universal access by free fares. For the movement, this would bring about a system free of social exclusion. The actions of the movement include dissemination, studies and analysis of local transport systems, and then taking this information to various groups within the cities. The movement also participates in protests, manifestations, interventions, and popular-initiative pushes for legislation. The movement uses such tactics to pressure the government, believing it to be the best way of doing politics within the current socio-political context.
Social exclusion or marginalization , or social marginalisation, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in Europe and was first used in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.
The movement is organized on basic principles, approved in a session on free fares during the Fifth World Social Forum, inside the Espaço Caracol Intergalactika. From then, it was officially known as the Free Fare Movement. Its principles at the time were autonomy, independence, non-partisanship, horizontality, anti-capitalism and decisions by consensus. During the 3rd National Free Pass Movement Meeting (ENMPL), in July 2006, federalism was added as a principle. These principles can be modified by way of consensus.
The World Social Forum is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization. The World Social Forum can be considered a visible manifestation of global civil society, bringing together non governmental organizations, advocacy campaigns, and formal and informal social movements seeking international solidarity. The World Social Forum prefers to define itself as "an opened space – plural, diverse, non-governmental and non-partisan – that stimulates the decentralized debate, reflection, proposals building, experiences exchange and alliances among movements and organizations engaged in concrete actions towards a more solidarity, democratic and fair world....a permanent space and process to build alternatives to neoliberalism." It is held by members of the alter-globalization movement who come together to coordinate global campaigns, share and refine organizing strategies, and inform each other about movements from around the world and their particular issues. The World Social Forum is explicit about not being a representative of all of those who attend and thus does not publish any formal statements on behalf of participants. It tends to meet in January at the same time as its "great capitalist rival", the World Economic Forum's Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. This date is consciously picked to promote alternative answers to world economic problems in opposition to the World Economic Forum.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism. Anti-capitalists, in the strict sense of the word, are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic system.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole group or common goal. Consensus may be defined professionally as an acceptable resolution, one that can be supported, even if not the "favourite" of each individual. It has its origin in the Latin word cōnsēnsus (agreement), which is from cōnsentiō meaning literally feel together. It is used to describe both the decision and the process of reaching a decision. Consensus decision-making is thus concerned with the process of deliberating and finalizing a decision, and the social, economic, legal, environmental and political effects of applying this process.
The popular revolt which started the Free Fare Movement happened in Salvador, capital of the state of Bahia. In 2003, thousands of Brazilian young people, students, and workers closed the public roads, protesting against a raise in transport fares. Over the course of 10 days, the city was effectively paralyzed. The event was so significant that it became a documentary, called "A Revolta do Buzu". The demonstrations came to an end when traditional student groups (such as the UNE and the UJS) set themselves up as leaders of the revolt they had not started, and went to negotiate with the government behind closed doors. These groups presented 10 demands, of which 9 were met, including half-price fares for postgraduate students and the right to half-price fare for all students during the weekends. The main complaint of the street demonstrations was not met: the demonstrations increased in force. However, after the negotiations, the population was demobilized and street actions lost their force.
Salvador, also known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people (2017), it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília.
Bahia is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast. It is the 4th-largest Brazilian state by population and the 5th-largest by area. Bahia's capital is the city of Salvador, located on a spit of land separating the Bay of All Saints from the Atlantic. Once a monarchial stronghold dominated by agricultural, slaving, and ranching interests, Bahia is now a major manufacturing center whose last three elections have been dominated by the Workers' Party.
Youth in Brazil includes Brazilians aged 15 to 24 or 29, depending on the definition of youth. Youth account for 16.5% of the population in Brazil which is, 202,656,788 people. There are 16,993,708 male youth and 16,521,057 female youth in Brazil.
In 2004, a group in Florianópolis, inspired by the events of Salvador, articulated a position different from that of the traditional student organizations. After a week of intense mobilizations and protests, the city came to halt in the famous "Revolta da Catraca" or "Tomorrow will be greater." The demand was once again the reduction of bus fares, and had the participation of other groups, such as neighborhood associations, teachers, and the population in general. The protests were quite successful, and that year the increase in fares was repealed. In 2005, a further increase was announced, however, after a month of protesting, the city announced the cancellation of that increase.
Florianópolis is the capital and second largest city of the state of Santa Catarina, in the South region of Brazil. The city encompasses Santa Catarina Island and surrounding small islands, as well as part of the mainland. It has a population of 477,798, according to the 2016 IBGE population estimate, the second most populous city in the state, and the 47th in Brazil. The metropolitan area has an estimated population of 1,111,702, the 21st largest in the country. The city is known for having the country's third highest Human Development Index score among all Brazilian cities (0.847). The city is considered safe by Brazilian standards. In 2014, Florianópolis had the second-lowest incidence of murders of Brazilian capitals.
In the following years, protests against fare increases and against the current transport system occurred in several regions of Brazil, such as São Paulo, Itu, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Cuiabá, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Joinville, Blumenau, Fortaleza, Recife, Aracaju, Rio Branco, among others. In 2006, the bus fare rate was reduced after public protests in Vitória.
In early 2011, increases in ticket prices for public transportation provoked massive demonstrations in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, where the fight against rising prices met weekly for three months; with almost 2,000 students in the downtown streets. The period was also marked by achievements in the North: in Belém, organized protestors succeeded in reversing a price hike, and, in Porto Velho, the increase was suspended for two weeks.
The movement’s national articulation is done through National Working Groups (GTN, Portuguese: Grupos de Trabalho Nacional), where the movement organizes joint actions, national announcements (such as the national newspaper of the movement) and the National Meeting of the Free Pass Movement (ENMPL). In the last ENMPL, the creation of Working Groups in communication, organization, and legal support was decided.
The 26 October is considered the National Day of the Struggle for Free Passage. Its first "edition" took place in 2005, where a ratchet in flames symbolized the union of the events that took place in 14 cities. The date was chosen because it was the day that the bill by petition (with some 20,000 signatures) was voted on in the City Council of Florianópolis. The project was approved on November 4.
Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Founded in 1769 by Manuel Sepúlveda, its population of 1,481,019 inhabitants (2016) makes it the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fifth largest metropolitan area, with 4,405,760 inhabitants (2010). The city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian state.
The Carnival of Brazil is an annual Brazilian festival held between the Friday afternoon before Ash Wednesday and Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter. During Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstained from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival", from carnelevare, "to remove meat."
TransBrasil was a Brazilian airline which ceased operations on 3 December 2001. During most of its history, Transbrasil was owned by local entrepreneur Omar Fontana. Its aircraft usually featured a colorful livery, remarkably with a rainbow on the tail fin. Transbrasil base was Brasilia International Airport in Brasilia. From the 1970s and until its demise in 2002, Transbrasil was usually the third largest Brazilian airline after Varig and VASP, serving both domestic and international routes.
Salvador-Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport, formerly called Dois de Julho International Airport is the airport serving Salvador, Brazil. Since 16 June 1998 the airport is named after Luís Eduardo Maron Magalhães (1955–1998), an influential politician of the state of Bahia.
BRA Transportes Aéreos was a short-lived Brazilian low-fare airline based in São Paulo, Brazil, which used to operate both domestic and international scheduled services, as well as charter flights. Its main base was São Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport. BRA was the third largest airline in Brazil with 4.19% of the domestic Brazilian market as of August 2006.
Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of Brazil. The country had 6.36 million visitors in 2015, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the main destination in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico. Revenues from international tourists reached US$5.8 billion in 2015, continuing a recovery trend from the 2008-2009 economic crisis.
RBS TV is a Southern Brazilian television network owned by Grupo RBS, and one of the oldest affiliates to Rede Globo. The acronym originally stands for Rede Brasil Sul de Televisão, but currently the network never uses its full name on-air.
The coastline of Brazil measures 7,491 km, which makes it the 16th longest national coastline of the world. All the coast lies adjacent to geographical features can be found all through the coastal areas, like islands, reefs and bays. The beaches of Brazil are famous in the world and receive a great number of tourists.
Condor Syndikat was a German trade company, with headquarters in Berlin, that operated airline services in Brazil while also providing aircraft, maintenance and aviation information. It is also the parent company of the Brazilian airlines Varig and Syndicato Condor, which later became Serviços Aéreos Cruzeiro do Sul. They were the two oldest airlines in Brazil.
TAC – Empresa de Transportes Aéreos Catarinense S/A was a Brazilian airline founded in 1947 that operated mainly in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. It was absorbed by Cruzeiro do Sul in 1966.
Boa Vista is a neighbourhood of the city of Porto Alegre, the state capital of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It was created by Law 2022 from December 7, 1959.
The Tietê Bus Terminal is the largest bus terminal in Latin America, and the second largest in the world, after the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City. The terminal is located in the Santana district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The official name in Portuguese is Terminal Rodoviário Governador Carvalho Pinto, named after Carlos Alberto Alves de Carvalho Pinto, a former Governor of the State of São Paulo.
Grupo RBS is a Brazilian media conglomerate founded on August 31, 1957 by Maurício Sirotsky Sobrinho. One of Brazil’s largest communication groups, it is also the largest one affiliated with Rede Globo. The media group is made up by radio and television stations as well as newspapers and online news portals, which deliver journalistic and entertainment content. Along with its more than 6,000 employees, Grupo RBS constitutes the second largest company in Brazil when it comes to the number of journalists employed.
The 2013 protests in Brazil, or 2013 Confederations Cup riots, also known as the V for Vinegar Movement, Brazilian Spring, or June Journeys, were public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre, a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.
Cidade Baixa may refer to:
Fronteiras do Pensamento(Portuguese: Frontiers of Thought) is a Brazilian cultural project that promotes conferences featuring internationally known intellectuals in order to discuss issues of contemporaneity. Scientific discovery, social research, sustainable solutions, philosophical theses, influences on the ways of understanding and interpreting the world, social/political leadership and activism, are a few of the issues discussed during Frontiers of Thought’s annual conference seasons. The project’s online content is freely available worldwide, and offers hundreds of videos, subtitled in Portuguese, Spanish and English, as well as articles, news and interviews.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.