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|Died||30 December 2018 95) (aged|
(m. 1952;her death 2017)
|Awards|| Padma Bhushan (1983)|
Order of Friendship (2000)
Dadasaheb Phalke Award (2003)
Mrinal Sen (also spelled Mrinal Shen; 14 May 1923 – 30 December 2018) was an Indian Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata. He is considered to be one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.Like the works of Ray and Ghatak, his cinema was known for its artistic depiction of social reality. Although the three directors shared a healthy rivalry, they were ardent admirers of each other's work, and in so doing, they charted the independent trajectory of parallel cinema, as a counterpoint to the mainstream fare of Hindi cinema in India. Sen was an ardent follower of Marxist philosophy.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood and formerly known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Tamil film industry (Kollywood), Telugu film industry (Tollywood) and other industries, making up Indian Cinema – the world's largest.
Sen was born on 14 May 1923, in the town of Faridpur, now in Bangladesh in a Hindu family. After finishing high school there, he left home to come to Calcutta as a student. He studied physics at the well-known Scottish Church College, and subsequently earned a postgraduate degree at the University of Calcutta. As a student, he got involved with the cultural wing of the Communist Party of India. Although he never became a member of the party, his association with the socialist Indian People's Theatre Association brought him close to a number of like-minded culturally associated people.
Faridpur is a district in south-central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka Division. It is bounded by the Padma River to its northeast. The district is named after the municipality of Faridpur. Historically, the town was known as Fatehabad. It was also called Haveli Mahal Fatehabad.
Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar (Burma). The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country as well as its most densely-populated, to the exclusion of small island nations and city-states. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic groups and religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh.
Scottish Church College is the oldest continuously running Christian liberal arts and sciences college in India. It has been consistently highly rated (A) by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, an autonomous organization that evaluates academic institutions in India. It is affiliated with the University of Calcutta for degree courses for graduates and postgraduates. It is a selective coeducational institution, known for its high academic standards. Students and alumni call themselves "Caledonians" in the name of the college festival, "Caledonia".
Sen's interest in film making began after he stumbled upon a book on film aesthetics. However, his interest remained mostly intellectual, and he was forced to take up the job of a medical representative, which took him away from Calcutta. This did not last very long, and he came back to the city and eventually took a job as an audio technician in a Calcutta film studio, which launched his film career.
Mrinal Sen first feature film, Raat Bhore (1955) featured Uttam Kumar who was not yet the Major star of Bengali cinema that he became. The movie was a let-down. His next film, Neel Akasher Neechey (Under the Blue Sky, 1958)), earned him local recognition, while his third film, Baishey Shravan ("The Wedding Day", 1960), was the first film that gave him international exposure.
Raat Bhore is a 1955 Bengali film directed by Mrinal Sen. This was Sen's first film.
Uttam Kumar was an Indian film actor, director, producer and singer who predominantly worked in Indian Cinema. Kumar is widely regarded as one of the most popular and beloved actors ever in India. Through his career he earned commercial as well as critical success, and he remains as an Indian cultural icon.
Neel Akasher Neechey is a 1958 Bengali language film directed by Mrinal Sen and produced by Hemanta Mukherjee, starring Kali Bannerjee, Manju Dey, Bikash Roy and others.
After making five more films, he made a film with a shoestring budget provided by the Government of India. This film, Bhuvan Shome (Mr. Shome, 1969), finally launched him as a major filmmaker, both nationally and internationally. Bhuvan Shome also initiated the "New Cinema" film movement in India.
The Government of India, often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.
Bhuvan Shome is a 1969 Indian Hindi-language drama film directed by Mrinal Sen. The cast includes Utpal Dutt and Suhasini Mulay. Sen based his film on a Bengali story by Balai Chand Mukhopadhyay. The film is considered a landmark in modern Indian cinema.
The films that he made next were essentially political, and earned him the reputation as a Marxist artist.This was also the time of large-scale political unrest throughout India. Particularly in and around Calcutta, this period underwent what is now known as the Naxalite movement. This phase was immediately followed by a series of films where he shifted his focus, and instead of looking for enemies outside, he looked for the enemy within his own middle class society. This was arguably his most creative phase.
India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of any political organisation that claims the legacy of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), founded in Calcutta in 1969. Communist Party of India (Maoist) is the largest existing political group in that lineage today in India.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. The very definition of the term "middle class" is highly political and vigorously contested by various schools of political and economic philosophy. Modern social theorists - and especially economists - have defined and re-defined the term "middle class" in order to serve their particular political ends. The definitions of the term "middle class" therefore are the result of the more- or less-scientific methods used when delineating the parameters of what is and isn't "middle class".
In many Mrinal Sen movies from Punascha (1961) to Mahaprithivi (1992), Kolkata features prominently. He has shown Kolkata as a character, and as an inspiration. He has beautifully woven the people, value system, class difference and the roads of the city into his movies and coming of age for Kolkata, his El-Dorado.
During this period, he won a large number of international awards. It could be argued that although his films show the development of ideas from existentialism, surrealism, Marxism, German expressionism, Postmodernism, Nouvelle Vague and Italian neorealism. Sen's cinema for the most part does not provide a happy ending or a definitive conclusion (unlike many of the films of Sen's better known contemporary Satyajit Ray). In many of Sen's later films, the audience becomes a participant in the process of the development of the plot. The director invites and provokes the audience into a shared process of forming multiple conclusions, that are at the same time unique and different. The director does not play the role of god, his audience does. It is not really surprising that unlike Allen who has a steady niche audience in the Western literati and aficionados, Sen's experimentation with parallel cinema had significantly cost him much of a devoted audience composing of largely the Calcutta-based westernized intelligentsia.
In 1982 he was a member of the jury at the 32nd Berlin International Film Festival.In 1983 he was a member of the jury at the 13th Moscow International Film Festival. In 1997 Sen became the member of the jury at the 20th Moscow International Film Festival.
Mrinal Sen never stopped experimenting with his medium. In his later films, he tried to move away from the narrative structure and worked with very thin storylines. After a long gap of eight years, at the age of eighty, he made his last film, Aamaar Bhuvan ("My Land", 2002).
During his career, Mrinal Sen's films have received awards from almost all major film festivals, including Cannes, Berlin, Venice, Moscow, Karlovy Vary, Montreal, Chicago, and Cairo. Retrospectives of his films have been shown in almost all major cities of the world. He was also elected as the president of the International Federation of the Film Societies. He received the Taj Enlighten Tareef Award which is given for a lifetime contribution to the world of cinema in 2008. He also received the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 10th edition of the Osian's Cinefest Film Festival 2008.
Renowned Norwegian Actress & Director Liv Ullmann Once Said "Mrinal Sen's Films Convey a Cinematic Protest Against Tyranny So Effectively".
Oscar winner director Martin Scorsese took leading steps towards restoration of Mrinal Sen's films . He identified those films as forgotten classics .
Legendary director Satyajit Ray said 'I am feeling jealous , he probably overtakes us' ( Referring himself & Ritwik Ghatak ) when praising after watching Mrinal Sen's 'Oka Oori Katha' .
On 24 July 2012, Sen was not invited to the function organized by West Bengal government to felicitate film personalities from the State. As per reports, his political views are believed to be the reason for his omission from the function.
Sen had been suffering from age related ailments for many years. He died on 30 December 2018 at the age of 95 at his home in Bhawanipore, Kolkata.The cause was a heart attack.
National Film Award for Best Feature Film
National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Bengali
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu
National Film Award – Special Mention (feature film)
National Film Award for Best Direction
National Film Award for Best Screenplay
Dhritiman Chatterjee is an Indian actor. He began his acting career in 1970 as the protagonist of Satyajit Ray's Pratidwandi. Most of his acting work has been in India's "parallel", or independent, cinema with filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Aparna Sen, among others. He has also worked in English films with well-known filmmakers such as Deepa Mehta and Jane Campion. He has received several acting awards in India and has been on the Jury of the Indian National film Awards.
Aparna Sen is an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter and actress who is known for her work in Bengali cinema. A leading actress of the late 1960s and 1970s she has received eight BFJA Awards, five for best actress, two for best supporting actress and one for lifetime achievement. She is the winner of nine National Film Awards and nine international film festival awards for her direction in films. She was awarded the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, by the government of India in 1987.
Soumitra Chatterjee or Soumitra ChattopadhyayO.L.H. is an Indian film and stage actor and poet. He is best known for his collaborations with Oscar-winning film director Satyajit Ray, with whom he worked in fourteen films, and his constant comparison with the Bengali cinema screen idol Uttam Kumar, his contemporary leading man of the 1960s and 1970s. Soumitra Chatterjee is also the first Indian film personality to be conferred with the Commandeur de l’ Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France's highest award for artists. He is also the winner of the Dadasaheb Phalke Award which is India's highest award for cinema. In 2017 exactly thirty years after auteur Satyajit Ray was honoured with France's highest civilian award, the coveted Legion of Honor, thespian Soumitra Chatterjee, arguably, the most prominent face of Ray's films, also received the prestigious award.
Utpal Dutta was an Indian actor, director, and writer-playwright. He was primarily an actor in Bengali theatre, where he became a pioneering figure in Modern Indian theatre, when he founded the "Little Theatre Group" in 1949. This group enacted many English, Shakespearean and Brecht plays, in a period now known as the "Epic theatre" period, before it immersed itself completely in highly political and radical theatre. His plays became an apt vehicle for the expression of his Marxist ideologies, visible in socio-political plays such as Kallol (1965), Manusher Adhikar, Louha Manob (1964), Tiner Toloar and Maha-Bidroha. He also acted in over 100 Bengali and Hindi films in a career spanning 40 years, and remains most known for his roles in films such as Mrinal Sen’s Bhuvan Shome (1969), Satyajit Ray’s Agantuk (1991), Gautam Ghose’s Padma Nadir Majhi (1993) and Hrishikesh Mukherjee's breezy Hindi comedies such as Gol Maal (1979) and Rang Birangi (1983). He also did a small role of a sculptor in a detective show called Byomkesh Bakshi on Doordarshan in the early 90s, shortly before his death. The episode was called 'Seemant Heera'.
Mamata Shankar is an Indian actress. She is known for her work in Bengali cinema. She has acted in films by directors including Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Rituparno Ghosh, Buddhadev Dasgupta and Gautam Ghosh. In addition to being an actress, she is a dancer and choreographer.
Sreela Majumdar is an actress in the Bengali language film industry of India. She has done voice dubbing for Aishwarya Rai in the film Chokher Bali (2003).
Khandahar is a 1984 Bengali film in Hindi language directed by Mrinal Sen, based on a Bengali short story, Telenapota Abishkar by Premendra Mitra. The film stars Shabana Azmi, Naseeruddin Shah and Pankaj Kapur. It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival.
Kharij, sometimes translated as The Case is Closed, is a 1982 Bengali film by Mrinal Sen. It is based on a novel by Ramapada Chowdhury. It tells the story of a middle-class family whose child servant is found dead, and their efforts to pacify his grieving father.
Nitish Roy is an Indian film art director, production designer, and costume designer in Hindi cinema and a Bengali Film Director, who is also known for his work with art cinema directors, Shyam Benegal, Mrinal Sen and Govind Nihlani, Hindi mainstream cinema, directors like Rajkumar Santoshi, as well as international directors like Mira Nair and Gurinder Chadha. His work for Oscar winning Hollywood blockbuster Gladiator fetched international fame for him. Beside art direction, production design and film direction he is an internationally acclaimed architect who has created several film cities such has Ramoji Film City (Hyderabad) Innovative Film city (Bengaluru),Prayag Film City (Kolkata) and several theme parks, amusement parks, museum not only in India but also in countries like Singapore etc.
Kaushik Sen or Koushik Sen is an Indian actor of film, television and theatre based in Kolkata. He won the prestigious BFJA awards for best supporting actor for his performance in the Mrinal Sen directed film Aamar Bhuvan.
Oka Oori Katha is a 1977 Telugu film directed by Mrinal Sen. It is based on the story Kafan by Munshi Premchand. The film was one of the Indian entries at the 4th Hong Kong International Film Festival, won Special Awards at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, and Carthage Film Festival. The film has received the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu for that year, and was premiered at the International Film Festival of India.
N.Viswanathan, popularly known as Calcutta Viswanathan in the Tamil film industry, was an Indian actor and academic. A Tamilian by birth, he moved to Calcutta at a young age and taught English at St. Xavier's College, Calcutta for more than 40 years. Viswanathan was also a well-known public speaker. He made his acting debut in Mrinal Sen's Punascha and continued to act in Bengali films. In a career that spanned 40 years, Viswanathan appeared in nearly 100 films in Bengali, Tamil and English. He was a member several theatre groups and also formed the "Calcutta Players", an acting troupe.
K. K. Mahajan was an Indian cinematographer who was known for his work in Parallel Cinema. In a career that spanned over four decades, he won four National Film Awards. He was best known for his work with filmmakers such as Kumar Shahani, Mani Kaul, Basu Chatterjee and Mrinal Sen.
The 17th National Film Awards, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1969. Ceremony took place at University Centenary Auditorium, Madras on 21 November 1970.
Rajen Tarafdar was an Indian film director, actor, and screenwriter born in Rajsahi, British India. He graduated from the Government College of Art & Craft in Calcutta in 1940 with a degree in popular arts. He was initially a graphic designer in an advertising agency before devoting himself to cinema.
Shekhar Chatterjee is an Indian actor and film director.
Asit Bandopadhyay is a Bengali dramatist, screenwriter and actor. He is associated with the Nandikar theater group. He lives and works in Kolkata, India.
Siladitya Sen is an Indian film -critic, -analyst, -journalist, -jury member, based in Kolkata. He writes for the Bengali newspaper, Anandabazar Patrika.
Ramapada Chowdhury was a Bengali novelist and short story writer. For his novel Bari Badle Jay, he received the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1988. He was also a recipient of the Rabindra Puraskar and several other awards. He won the Rabindranath Tagore Memorial International Prize in its inaugural year. Many of his works have been adapted into films, including the multiple-award-winning Kharij, directed by Mrinal Sen.