Mstislav I of Kiev

Last updated
Mstislav I of Kiev
Radzivillivs'kii litopis Zakladennia tserkvi Bogoroditsi Pirogoshchi na Podil's'komu torzhishchi (1131).jpg
Grand Prince Mstislav I Vladimirovich built the Pyrohoshcha Church of the Mother of God in Kiev
Predecessor Vladimir II Monomakh
Successor Yaropolk II of Kiev
Born1 June 1076
Turov
Died14 April 1132(1132-04-14) (aged 55)
Kiev
Noble family Rurik
Spouse(s) Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Liubava Dmitrievna Zavidich
Issue

Ingeborg of Kiev
Malmfred
Eupraxia
Vsevolod of Novgorod and Pskov
Maria Mstislavna of Kiev
Iziaslav II of Kiev
Rostislav of Kiev
Sviatopolk of Pskov
Rogneda
Xenia
Vladimir III Mstislavich
Euphrosyne of Kiev

Contents

Christine died on January 18, 1122; later that year Mstislav married again, to Ljubava Saviditsch, the daughter of Dmitry Saviditsch, a nobleman of Novgorod. Their children were:

  1. Vladimir III Mstislavich (1132–1171)
  2. Euphrosyne of Kiev
Father Vladimir II Monomakh
Mother Gytha of Wessex

Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great or Mstislav the Great (Russian: Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Ukrainian : Мстислав Володимирович Великий; June 1, 1076 April 14, 1132) was the Grand Prince of Kiev (1125–1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. [1] He is figured prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England. Mstislav's Christian name was Theodore.

Biography

Mstislav was born in Turov. As his father's future successor, he reigned in Novgorod the Great from 1088 to 1093 and (after a brief stint at Rostov) from 1095–1117. Thereafter he was Monomakh's co-ruler in Belgorod Kievsky, and inherited the Kievan throne after his death. He built numerous churches in Novgorod, of which St. Nicholas Cathedral (1113) [2] and the cathedral of St Anthony Cloister (1117) survive to the present day. Later, he would also erect important churches in Kiev, notably his family sepulchre at Berestovo and the church of Our Lady at Podil.

St Nicholas Cathedral, built by Mstislav I near his palace at Yaroslav's Court, Novgorod, contains 12th-century frescoes depicting his illustrious family St. Nicholas Cathedral, Novgorod.JPG
St Nicholas Cathedral, built by Mstislav I near his palace at Yaroslav's Court, Novgorod, contains 12th-century frescoes depicting his illustrious family

Mstislav's life was spent in constant warfare with Cumans (1093, 1107, 1111, 1129), Estonians (1111, 1113, 1116, 1130), Lithuanians (1131), and the princedom of Polotsk (1127, 1129). In 1096, he defeated his uncle Oleg of Chernigov on the Koloksha River, thereby laying foundation for the centuries of enmity between his and Oleg's descendants. Mstislav was the last ruler of united Rus, and upon his death, as the chronicler put it, "the land of Rus was torn apart". He died in Kiev, aged 55.

In 1095, Mstislav married Princess Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden, daughter of King Inge I of Sweden. [3] They had many children:

  1. Ingeborg of Kiev, married Canute Lavard of Jutland, and was mother to Valdemar I of Denmark
  2. Malmfred, married (1) Sigurd I of Norway; (2) Eric II of Denmark
  3. Eupraxia, married Alexius Comnenus, son of John II Comnenus
  4. Vsevolod of Novgorod and Pskov
  5. Maria Mstislavna of Kiev, married Vsevolod II of Kiev
  6. Iziaslav II of Kiev
  7. Rostislav of Kiev
  8. Sviatopolk of Pskov
  9. Rogneda, married Yaroslav of Volinya
  10. Xenia, married Briachislav of Izyaslawl

Christine died on January 18, 1122; later that year Mstislav married again, to Ljubava Saviditsch, the daughter of Dmitry Saviditsch, a nobleman of Novgorod. Their children were:

  1. Vladimir III Mstislavich (1132–1171)
  2. Euphrosyne of Kiev, (c. 1130 – c. 1193) married King Géza II of Hungary in 1146.

Through Euphrosyne, Mstislav is an ancestor of both Philippa of Hainault and King Edward III of England, hence of all subsequent English and British monarchs. Through his mother Gytha, he is part of a link between Harold II of England and the modern line of English kings founded by William the Conqueror, who deposed him.

Mstislav is referenced in the puppet show scene from The Simpsons (Episode "Hardly Kirk-ing" Season 24 Episode 13).

Ancestry

See also

Related Research Articles

Vladimir II Monomakh Grand Prince of Rus

Vladimir II Monomakh reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125. He is considered a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church and is celebrated on May 6.

Yuri Dolgorukiy Grand Prince of Kiev

Yuri I Vladimirovich, known under his soubriquet Yuri Dolgorukiy, was a Rurikid prince. He reigned as Velikiy Kniaz of Kiev from September 1149 to April 1151 and then again from March 1155 to May 1157. Yuri played a key role in the transition of political power from Kiev to Suzdal following the death of his elder brother Mstislav the Great in 1132.

Sviatopolk II of Kiev Grand Prince of Kiev

Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich was supreme ruler of the Kievan Rus for 20 years, from 1093 to 1113. He was not a popular prince, and his reign was marked by incessant rivalry with his cousin Vladimir Monomakh.

Yaropolk II of Kiev Grand Prince of Kiev (1082-1139)

Yaropolk II Vladimirovich, Prince of Pereyaslav (1114–1132), Velikiy Kniaz of Kiev (1132–1139), son of Vladimir II Monomakh and Gytha of Wessex. He fought in several campaigns against the Polovtsy (Cumans), once in 1103 and again in 1116.

Viacheslav Vladimirovich was a Prince of Smolensk (1113–1125), Turov, Pereyaslavl, Peresopnytsia (1146–1149), Vyshgorod (1149–1151) and Grand Prince of Kiev.

Gytha of Wessex was one of several daughters of Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England, by his consort, Edyth Swannesha. Through marriage to Vladimir II Monomakh Gytha became a Grand Princess consort of Kievan Rus'.

Mstislav Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod, Galich and Torchesk

Mstislav Mstislavich the Daring prince of Tmutarakan and Chernigov, was one of the most popular and active princes of Kievan Rus' in the decades preceding the Mongol invasion of Rus'. He was the maternal grandfather of Prince Alexander Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir. He also was the maternal grandfather of prince Leo of Galicia, who became Grand Prince of Kiev.

Roman the Great Prince of Novgorod

Roman Mstislavich, known as Roman the Great was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Vsevolod of Pskov Russian prince and saint

Vsevolod Mstislavich, the patron saint of the city of Pskov, ruled as Prince of Novgorod in 1117–32, Prince of Pereslavl (1132) and Prince of Pskov in 1137–38.

The Prince of Turov was the kniaz, the ruler or sub-ruler, of the Rus' Principality of Turov, a lordship based on the city of Turov, now Turaŭ in Homiel Voblast, Belarus.

Rurik dynasty ruling dynasty in Kievan Rus

The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids, was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862. The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus', as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia, Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Rus. They ruled until 1610 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs. They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches.

Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden Princess consort of Veliky Novgorod, Rostov and Belgorod

Princess Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden was a Swedish princess and a princess consort of Veliky Novgorod, Rostov and Belgorod, by marriage to Grand Prince Mstislav I of Kiev.

References

  1. Philip Line, Kingship and State Formation in Sweden 1130-1290, (Brill, 2007), 597.
  2. George Heard Hamilton, The Art and Architecture of Russia, (Yale University Press, 1983), 43.
  3. The Kiev State and Its Relations with Western Europe, F. Dvornik, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol. 29 (1947), 41.
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great
Born: 1 June 1076 Died: 14 April 1132
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sviatopolk Iziaslavich
Prince of Novgorod
1088–1093, 1095-1117
Succeeded by
Davyd Sviatoslavich
Prince of Rostov
1093–1095
Preceded by
Vladimir II Monomakh
Grand Prince of Kiev
1125–1132
Succeeded by
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich