Muğla Province

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Muğla Province

Muğla ili
Muglavalilik.jpg
Seal
Districts of Province Mugla.png
Political Map of Muğla Province
Mugla in Turkey.svg
Location of Muğla Province in Turkey
Coordinates: 37°01′49″N28°30′23″E / 37.03028°N 28.50639°E / 37.03028; 28.50639 Coordinates: 37°01′49″N28°30′23″E / 37.03028°N 28.50639°E / 37.03028; 28.50639
Country Turkey
Region Aegean
Provincial seat Muğla
Government
   Electoral district Muğla
  GovernorOrhan Tavlı
Area
  Total13,338 km2 (5,150 sq mi)
Population
 (2020) [1]
  Total1,000,773
  Density75/km2 (190/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0252
Vehicle registration 48
Website http://www.mugla.gov.tr/

Muğla Province (Turkish : Muğla ili, pronounced  [muːɫa iˈli] ) is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla , about 20 km (12 mi) inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marmaris and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla.

Contents

Etymology

The original name of Muğla is open for discussion. Various sources refer to the city as Mogola, Mobella or Mobolia.

Geography

At 1,100 km (680 mi), Muğla's coastline is the longest among the Provinces of Turkey and longer than many countries' coastlines, (even without taking any small islands into account). Important is the Datça Peninsula. As well as the sea, Muğla has two large lakes, Lake Bafa in the district of Milas and Lake Köyceğiz. The landscape consists of pot-shaped small plains surrounded by mountains, formed by depressions in the Neogene. These include the plain of the city of Muğla itself, Yeşilyurt, Ula, Gülağzı, Yerkesik, Akkaya, Çamköy  [ tr ] and Yenice). Until the recent building of highways, transport from these plains to either the coast or inland was quite arduous, and thus each locality remained an isolated culture of its own. Contact with the outside world was through one of the three difficult passes: northwest to Milas, north to the Menderes plain through Gökbel, or northeast to Tavas.

The economy of Muğla relies mainly on tourism (on the coast), and agriculture, forestry and marble quarries inland.

Butterfly Valley, Fethiye located in Mugla Province Kelebek muzesi in Fethiye.jpg
Butterfly Valley, Fethiye located in Muğla Province
Marmaris located in Mugla Province Marmaris harbor (aerial view), Mugla Province, southwest Turkey, Mediterranean.jpg
Marmaris located in Muğla Province
Fethiye located in Mugla Province Fethiye 2020-03-15-4.jpg
Fethiye located in Muğla Province

Agriculture in Muğla is rich and varied; the province is one of Turkey's largest producers of honey, pine-forest honey in particular and citrus fruits are grown in Ortaca, Fethiye, Dalaman and Dalyan.

The province is the second center of marble industry in Turkey after Afyonkarahisar in terms of quantity, variety and quality. Other mineral exploitation includes coal-mining in Yatağan and chrome in Fethiye. Other industry in the province includes the SEKA paper mill in Dalaman, However Muğla is by no means an industrialised province.

Environment

Despite court decisions upheld by the ECHR, [2] as of 2020 , Yatağan, Yeniköy and Kemerköy coal-fired power stations continue to pollute. [3]

Transportation

The following are aspects about transportation in Muğla province:

History

In ancient times in Anatolia, the region between the Menderes (Meander) and Dalaman (Indus) rivers in the south was called Caria. The inhabitants were Carians and Leleges. In his Iliad , Homer describes the Carians as natives of Anatolia, defending their country against Greeks in joint campaigns in collaboration with the Trojans.

A major city of ancient Caria, Muğla is known to have been occupied by raiding parties of Egyptians, Assyrians and Scythians, until eventually the area was settled by Ancient Greek colonists. The Greeks inhabited this coast for a long time building prominent cities, such as Knidos (at the end of the Datça Peninsula) and Bodrum (Halicarnassos), as well as many smaller towns along the coast, on the Bodrum Peninsula and inland, including in the district of Fethiye the cities of Telmessos, Xanthos, Patara and Tlos. Eventually the coast was conquered by Persians who were in turn removed by Alexander the Great, bringing an end to the satrapy of Caria.

In 1261, Menteshe Bey, founder of the Beylik (principality) that carried his name, with its capital in Milas and nearby Beçin, established his rule over the region of Muğla as well. The beys of Menteshe held the city until 1390 and this, the first Turkish state in the region, achieved a high level of cultural development, its buildings remaining to this day. The province also became a significant naval power, trading with the Aegean Islands, Crete and as far as Venice and Egypt. Turkish settlement during the Menteshe period usually took place through migrations along the Kütahya-Tavas axis.

In 1390, Muğla was taken over by the Ottoman Empire. However, just twelve years later, Tamerlane and his forces defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara, and returned control of the region to its former rulers, the Menteshe Beys, as he did for other Anatolian beyliks. Muğla was brought back under Ottoman control by Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, in 1451. One of the most important events in the area during the Ottoman period was the well-recorded campaign of Süleyman the Magnificent against Rhodes, which was launched from Marmaris.

Archaeology

With this long history Muğla is rich in ancient ruins, with over 100 excavated sites including the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Letoon, near Fethiye.

In 2018, archaeologists unearthed a 2,300-year-old rock sepulchre of an ancient Greek boxer called Diagoras of Rhodes on a hill in the Turgut village, Muğla province, Marmaris. This unusual pyramid tomb was considered to belong to a holy person by the local people. The shrine, used as a pilgrimage by locals until the 1970s, also has the potential to be the only pyramid grave in Turkey. Excavation team also discovered an inscription with these words: “I will be vigilant at the very top so as to ensure that no coward can come and destroy this grave". [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Notable people

The following are notable residents of Muğla province:

Districts

Districts of Province Mugla.png

Politics

The Republican People's Party (CHP), Turkey's principal center-left party has a traditionally strong presence across the political landscape of Muğla Province, closely followed by the traditional center-right represented by the Democrat Party (DP) in Turkey's politics, although the incumbent Justice and Development Party (AKP) obtained the first place in the ballots cast during the last national-scale elections that were the 2004 local elections, with 31,25% of the votes. The overall percentage for the province was 26,3% for the CHP, and 20,98% for the DP during the same elections. The rightist Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), campaigning on Turkish nationalism had obtained a further 9,5% (especially in the Fethiye district). The other parties registered less significant percentages.

Related Research Articles

Caria

Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.

Bodrum District of Muğla Province in Turkey

Bodrum is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova, and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus of Caria in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, Bodrum Castle overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle includes a museum of underwater archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 35,795 in 2012. It takes 50 minutes via boat to reach Kos from Bodrum, with services running multiple times a day by at least three operators.

Marmaris District of Muğla Province in Aegean, Turkey

Marmaris is a port city and tourist resort on the Mediterranean coast, located in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, along the shoreline of the Turkish Riviera.

Muğla City in Aegean, Turkey

Muğla is a city in south-western Turkey. Muğla is the center of the District of Menteşe and Muğla Province, which stretches along Turkey's Aegean coast. Muğla's center is situated inland at an altitude of 660 m and lies at a distance of about 30 km (19 mi) from the nearest seacoast in the Gulf of Gökova to its south-west. Muğla (Menteşe) district area neighbors the district areas of Milas, Yatağan and Kavaklıdere to its north by north-west and those of Ula and Köyceğiz, all of whom are dependent districts. Muğla is the administrative capital of a province that incorporates internationally well-known and popular tourist resorts such as Bodrum, Marmaris, Datça, Dalyan, Fethiye, Ölüdeniz and also the smaller resort of Sarigerme.

Gulf of Gökova

Gulf of Gökova or Gulf of Kerme, is a long (100 km), narrow gulf of the Aegean Sea between Bodrum Peninsula and Datça Peninsula in south-west Turkey.

Dalaman Town in Mediterranean, Turkey

Dalaman is a district, as well as the central town of that district, situated on the southwestern coast of Turkey, in the Muğla Province.

Stratonicea (Caria)

Stratonicea – also transliterated as Stratonikeia, Stratoniceia , Stratoniki, and Stratonike and Stratonice; a successor settlement to Chrysaoris; and for a time named Hadrianopolis – was one of the most important towns in the interior of ancient Caria, Anatolia, situated on the east-southeast of Mylasa, and on the south of the river Marsyas; its site is now located at the present village of Eskihisar, Muğla Province, Turkey. It is situated at a distance of 1 km (0.62 mi) from the intercity road D.330 that connects the district center of Yatağan with Bodrum and Milas, shortly before Yatağan Power Plant if one has taken departure from the latter towns.

Fethiye District in Mediterranean, Turkey

Fethiye is a city and district of Muğla Province in the Aegean Region of Turkey. It is one of the prominent tourist destinations in the Turkish Riviera. In 2019 its population was 162,686.

Ortaca Place in Muğla, Turkey

Ortaca is a town and district of Muğla Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. Formerly a township depending Köyceğiz administratively, it was made into a separate district in 1987. Apart from Ortaca district center, there is one depending township with own municipality, namely Dalyan.

Datça District in Aegean, Turkey

Datça is a district of Muğla Province in south-west Turkey, and the center town of the district. The center is situated midway through the peninsula which carries the same name as the district and the town. It was a nahiya of Marmaris district until 1928. Datça's first center in village of Reşadiye till 1947, when it was moved to present borough of İskele.

Turkish Riviera

The Turkish Riviera, also known popularly as the Turquoise Coast, is an area of southwest Turkey encompassing the provinces of Antalya and Muğla, and to a lesser extent Aydın, southern İzmir and western Mersin. The combination of a favorable climate, warm sea, mountainous scenery, fine beaches along more than a 1,000 km (620 mi) of shoreline along the Aegean and Mediterranean waters, and abundant natural and archaeological points of interest makes this stretch of Turkey's coastline a popular national and international tourist destination.

Menteshe

Mentese was the first of the Anatolian beyliks, the frontier principalities established by the Oghuz Turks after the decline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. Founded in 1260/1290, it was named for its founder, Menteshe Bey. Its capital city was Milas (Mylasa) in southwestern Anatolia.

Dalaman Airport International airport serving Dalaman, Turkey

Dalaman Airport is an international airport and one of three serving south-west Turkey, the others being Milas-Bodrum Airport and Antalya Airport. It has two terminals. The old terminal is used for domestic flights and the new terminal is for international flights. The airport serves the surrounding tourist areas and environs of Dalaman. Flights are available to and from over 120 destinations, across the rest of Turkey, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

Bozburun Place in Aegean, Turkey

Bozburun is a small seaside town with own municipality in Marmaris district, in southwestern Turkey. The permanent population is about 2000. It is situated on the coast of the peninsula of the same name which extends in parallel to Datça Peninsula in the south. The town faces across the sea the town of Datça and the Greek island of Symi

State road D.400 (Turkey) Road in Turkey

D.400 is an east–west state road in southern Turkey. The 2,057-kilometre (1,278 mi) road starts at Datça in the southwest corner of the Anatolian peninsula. The road ends at the Iranian border at Esendere.

Aidin Vilayet First-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire

The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia, Caria and western Lycia. It was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as the "richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey".

Milas District in Aegean, Turkey

Milas is an ancient city and the seat of the district of the same name in Muğla Province in southwestern Turkey. The city commands a region with an active economy and very rich in history and ancient remains, the territory of Milas containing a remarkable twenty-seven archaeological sites of note. The city was the first capital of ancient Caria and of the Anatolian beylik of Menteşe in mediaeval times. The nearby Mausoleum of Hecatomnus is classified as a tentative UNESCO World Heritage Site.

1957 Fethiye earthquakes

The first of the 1957 Fethiye earthquakes occurred on April 24, 1957, with the second and larger event about seven hours later on the following day. Both earthquakes had epicentres in the eastern Mediterranean between Rhodes and the coastal city of Fethiye in Muğla Province, southwestern Turkey.

References

  1. https://www.nufusu.com/il/mugla-nufusu
  2. "CASE OF OKYAY AND OTHERS v. TURKEY" (PDF).
  3. Başkanı, M. M. O.; ki, Termik Santraller İle İlgili Bir Basın Açıklaması Yaptı-Kararara Haber – Güncel Hukuk Haberleri dedi (2020-01-24). "MMO Başkanı, Termik Santraller İle İlgili Bir Basın Açıklaması Yaptı". Enerji Portalı (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  4. Smith, John. "Turkey 'Shrine' Turns Out to be Tomb of Ancient Greek Boxer | Greek Reporter Europe" . Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  5. "Yıllarca türbe sanıldı; mozole çıktı". www.trthaber.com. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  6. "Shrine in Turkey uncovered as tomb of ancient Greek boxer | Neos Kosmos". English Edition. 2018-05-22. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  7. TM. "Previous holy site in Turkey's Marmaris revealed to be tomb of Greek boxer - Turkish Minute" . Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  8. Team, G. C. T. "2,300 year old shrine in Turkey turns out to be tomb of ancient Greek Boxer Diagoras". Greek City Times. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  9. Whelan, Ed. "Mistaken Belief has Turkish Locals Seeking Blessings at Olympic Boxer's Tomb". www.ancient-origins.net. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  10. "Aegean villagers mistook Greek boxer's tomb for Islamic holy site, archaeologists discover". Ahval. Retrieved 2019-09-02.