|• Mayor||Feyat Asya (AKP)|
|• District||2,604.14 km2 (1,005.46 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,350 m (4,430 ft)|
|• District density||69/km2 (180/sq mi)|
Muş (pronounced [muʃ] ; transliterated as Mush, also historically Moush or Moosh; Armenian : Մուշ, Kurdish : Mûş) is a city and the provincial capital of Muş Province in Turkey. The former Armenian Catholic eparchy (bishopric) is now a titular see.
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.
Muş Province, is a province in eastern Turkey. It is 8,196 km2 in area and has a population of 406,886 according to a 2010 estimate, down from 453,654 in 2000. The provincial capital is the city of Muş. Another town in Muş province, Malazgirt (Manzikert), is famous for the Battle of Manzikert of 1071. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
The date of foundation of Mush is unknown, although a settlement is believed to have been around by the time of Menua, the king of Urartu (c. 800 BC), whose cuneiform inscription was found in the city's vicinity.
Menua was the fifth known king of Urartu from c. 810 BC to approximately 786 BC. The name is sometimes written as Menuas or Minua.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the historic Armenian Highlands.
During the Middle Ages, Mush was the center of the Taron region of Armenia. Its is first mentioned as a city in Armenian manuscripts of the 9th and 10th centuries. In the late 8th century Mush, along with the Taron region, came under control of the Armenian Bagratid (Bagratuni) dynasty, who reconquered it from the Arabs. Mush and the Taron region was captured and annexed to the Byzantine Empire in 969.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.
Taron was a canton of the Turuberan province of Greater Armenia, roughly corresponding to the Muş Province of modern Turkey.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia, was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule. With the two contemporary powers in the region, the Abbasids and Byzantines, too preoccupied to concentrate their forces in subjugating the people of the region and the dissipation of several of the Armenian nakharar noble families, Ashot was able to assert himself as the leading figure of a movement to dislodge the Arabs from Armenia.
After the 11th century, the town was ruled by Islamic dynasties such as the Ahlatshahs, Ayyubids, Ilkhanids and Kara Koyunlu. In the 10th-13th centuries Mush developed into a major city with an estimated population of 20 to 25 thousand people.In 1387 the central Asian ruler Timur crossed the area and apparently captured Mush town without a battle.
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans, were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.
Timur, sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, he became the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an islamized and iranized society", and not steppe nomadic.
Later the Akkoyunlu ruled the area and in the 16th the Ottomans took control over the town and region in the 16th century from the Persian Safavids. Mush remained part of the Ottoman Empire till the early 20th century and during these times retained a large Armenian population. In 1821 a Persian invasion reached Mush.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the city had around 20,000 inhabitants, of which 11,000 were Muslims (mainly Turks and Kurds), while 9,000 were (Christian) Armenians.According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) the town had 27,000 inhabitants, of whom 13,300 were Muslims and 13,700 Armenians. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) the population was nearly equally divided between Kurds and Armenians.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.
During the Armenian Genocide of 1915 the indigenous Armenian population of the region was exterminated. Over 140,000 Armenians of the Mush sanjak (living in 234 villages and towns)were targeted in June and July 1915. Military-aged Armenian men were conscripted to serve in World War I. The Armenian population was largely defenseless to these threats The massacre of the Armenian population of the city of Mush came only after the surrounding villages were destroyed.
The town was occupied during World War I by the (Allied) Czarist Russia Empire in 1916 and retaken by Turkish (Central Powers) troops on 30 April 1917.
The area of Muş has several ruined castles. Under the rule of the medieval Armenian dynasties monasteries and churches were built in localities near Mush such as the Arakelots Monastery, Surp Marineh Church, Mush, Surb Karapet Monastery most of which are now ruins.
Under the rule of the Muslim dynasties, other type of buildings were built as well. There are mosques from the Ottoman and pre-Ottoman period which show influences of Seljuk architecture. Mosques like the Alaeddin Bey (18th century),Haci Seref (17th century), and Ulu Mosque (14th century). Caravanserais like the "Yıldızlı Han" (13th century) destroyed in 1916, the now almost completely ruined "Arslanli Han" and also bathhouse and fountain of Alaeddin Bey and tombs of Muslim saints.
Population of the municipality of Muş numbers 72,774 (2009 estimate).The province of Muş is one of the 13 provinces of Turkey with a Kurdish majority. Kurds make up the majority of the city's population as well. The rest are Turks (mostly native, some are Balkan or Caucasian muhajirs), Arabs, and Crypto-Armenians (2,000 to 3,000 according to estimates).
Muş has a hot summer Mediterranean continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa) with freezing, snowy winters and hot, very dry and very sunny summers.
|Climate data for Muş (1960-2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||−11.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||84.8|
|Average precipitation days||13.2||12.3||13.7||14.5||13.6||6.3||2.0||1.5||3.0||9.0||10.0||12.5||111.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||65.1||86.8||148.8||198||285.2||354||387.5||372||315||226.3||129||65.1||2,632.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||21||29||40||50||64||80||86||88||84||65||43||22||59|
|Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü|
The Kurds, are an Iranic ethnic group in the Middle East. They have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the South of Lake Van and Lake Urmia, a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. Most Kurds speak Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji) or Sorani, which both belong to the Kurdish languages.
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey and is often considered the unofficial capital of Northern Kurdistan.. Situated on the banks of the Tigris River, it is the administrative capital of the Diyarbakır Province. It is the third-largest city in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Region, after Şanlıurfa and Gaziantep.
Bitlis is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province. The city is located at an elevation of 1,545 metres, 15 km from Lake Van, in the steep-sided valley of the Bitlis River, a tributary of the Tigris. The local economy is mainly based on agricultural products which include fruits, grain and tobacco. Industry is fairly limited, and deals mainly with leatherworking, manufacture of tobacco products as well as weaving and dyeing of coarse cloth. Bitlis is connected to other urban centres by road, including Tatvan on Lake Van, 25 km to the northeast, and the cities of Muş (Mush), 100 km northwest, and Diyarbakır, 200 km to the west. The climate of Bitlis can be harsh, with long winters and heavy snowfalls. Summers are hot, and often humid.
Islam began to make inroads into the Armenian Plateau during the seventh century. Arab, and later Kurdish, tribes began to settle in Armenia following the first Arab invasions and played a considerable role in the political and social history of Armenia. With the Seljuk invasions of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Turkic element eventually superseded that of the Arab and Kurdish. With the establishment of the Persian Safavid Dynasty, Afsharid Dynasty, Zand Dynasty and Qajar Dynasty, Armenia became an integral part of the Shia Persian world, while still maintaining a relatively independent Christian identity. The pressures brought upon the imposition of foreign rule by a succession of Muslim states forced many lead Armenians in Anatolia and what is today Armenia to convert to Islam and assimilate into the Muslim community. Many Armenians were also forced to convert to Islam, on the penalty of death, during the years of the Armenian Genocide.
Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants, lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564,294 people. The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land culminating in high mountain ridges to the north and west. The city's Greek name was Kotyaion, Latinized in Roman times as Cotyaeum.
Siirt is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province). The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The majority of the city's population is Kurdish.
Viranşehir is a market town serving a cotton-growing area of Şanlıurfa Province, in southeastern Turkey, 93 km east of Şanlıurfa city and 53 km north-west of the Syrian border at Ceylanpınar. In Late Antiquity, it was known as Constantina or Constantia by the Romans and Byzantines, and Tella by the local Assyrian/Syriac population, but is today inhabited predominantly by ethnic Kurds and Arabs.
Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin. The Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, comprising between 7% and 10% of the country's population according to most sources.
Sason is a district in the Batman Province of Turkey. It was formerly part of the sanjak of Siirt, which was in Diyarbakır vilayet until 1880 and in Bitlis Vilayet in 1892. Later it became part of Muş sanjak in Bitlis vilayet, and remained part of Muş until 1927. It was one of the districts of Siirt province until 1993. The boundaries of the district varied considerably in time. The current borders are not the same as in the 19th century, when the district of Sasun was situated more to the north
Hınıs is a town and district of Erzurum Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The mayor is Hasan Basri Fırat (BDP). The population is 9,792. Historical monuments in the town include the castle and the mosque "Ulu Cami" said to be built in 1734 by Alaeddin, the bey of Muş.
The house of Baban (1649–1850) ruled a Kurdish principality which encompassed areas of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan and western Iran from the early 17th century until 1850. The Baban principality played an active role in Ottoman-Persian conflict. The founder of the princely Baban family is thought to be Ahmad Faqih or Faqi Ahmad from the district of Pijder. The Babans claimed descent from a Frankish woman, Keghan, who was taken prisoner in a battle by the Ottomans. According to the Sharafnama the clan's first chief was Pir Badak Babe, who is believed to have lived around 1500.
Silvan is a city and district in the Diyarbakır Province of Turkey. Its population is 41,451.
Ahlat, is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region. From 1929-1936, it had been included as a district of Van Province. The town of Ahlat is situated on the northwestern shore of Lake Van. The mayor is Abdulalim Mümtaz Çoban (AKP).
Armenian–Kurdish relations covers the historical relations between the Kurds and the Armenians.
Ulu Cami, is a 16th-century mosque in Adana, Turkey. It forms part of a complex (külliye) that includes a madrasah and a mausoleum (türbe). The buildings are on Kızılay street, next to the Ramazanoğlu Hall.
Surb Karapet Monastery was an Armenian Apostolic monastery in the historic province of Taron, about 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Mush (Muş), in present-day eastern Turkey.
The Six vilayets or Six provinces or the Six Armenian vilayets were the Armenian-populated vilayets (provinces) of the Ottoman Empire:
Massacres of Diyarbakır were massacres that took place in the Diyarbekir Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire between the years of 1894 and 1896. The events were part of the Hamidian massacres and targeted the vilayet's Christian population – Armenians and Assyrians.
Arakelots Monastery was an Armenian monastery in the historic province of Taron, 11 km south-east of Mush (Muş), in present-day eastern Turkey. According to tradition, Gregory the Illuminator founded the monastery to house relics of several apostles. The monastery was, however, most likely built in the 11th century. During the 12th-13th centuries it was a major center of learning. In the following centuries it was expanded, destroyed and renovated. It remained one of the prominent monasteries of Turkish (Western) Armenia until the Armenian Genocide of 1915, when it was attacked and subsequently abandoned. It remained standing until the 1960s when it was reportedly blown up. Today, ruins of the monastery are still visible.
Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds. The province was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4, 1936 by the "Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province", no. 2884 of 25 December 1935, but some still call the region by its original name. The name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name.