Location of Mudanjiang City (yellow) in Heilongjiang (light gray)
|Coordinates(Mudanjiang municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Dong'an District|
|• Type||Prefecture-level city|
|• CPC Mudanjiang Secretary||Zhang Jingchuan (张晶川)|
|• Mayor||Lin Kuanhai (林宽海)|
|• Prefecture-level city||40,233 km2 (15,534 sq mi)|
|• Urban||2,495 km2 (963 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,495 km2 (963 sq mi)|
|Elevation||233 m (764 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,798,723|
|• Density||70/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HL-10|
"Mudanjiang", as written in Chinese
|Manchu script||ᠮᡠᡩ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡵᠠ ᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ|
Mudanjiang (Chinese :牡丹江; Manchu: Mudan bira), alternately romanized as Mutankiang, is a prefecture-level city in the southeast part of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It was called Botankou under Japanese occupation. It serves as a regional transport hub with a railway junction and an international airport connecting with several major Chinese cities as well as Incheon International Airport serving Seoul. Mudanjiang is located 248 km (154 mi) from Vladivostok, Russia. In 2011 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 93.48 billion with a 15.1% growth rate. In 2015 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 118.63 billion.
Its population is 2,798,723 at the 2010 census whom 965,154 live in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts.In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Aimin District||爱民区||Àimín Qū||230,000||359||641|
|2||Dong'an District||东安区||Dōng'ān Qū||180,000||566||318|
|3||Yangming District||阳明区||Yángmíng Qū||160,000||358||447|
|4||Xi'an District||西安区||Xī'ān Qū||210,000||325||646|
|5||Muling City||穆棱市||Mùlíng Shì||330,000||6,094||54|
|6||Suifenhe City||绥芬河市||Suífēnhé Shi||60,000||427||141|
|7||Hailin City||海林市||Hǎilín Shì||440,000||9,877||45|
|8||Ning'an City||宁安市||Níng'ān Shì||440,000||7,870||56|
|9||Dongning City||东宁市||Dōngníng Shì||210,000||7,368||29|
|10||Linkou County||林口县||Línkǒu Xiàn||450,000||7,191||63|
Mudanjiang was originally populated by the Sushen 2,300 years ago. They lived in the valley of the Mudan River, and established the State of Mo (貊國). During the Tang dynasty, Balhae established their Upper capital Longquan Fu (Yongcheon bu) near Lake Jingpo south of Mudanjiang around 755 AD. On January 14, 926, Yongcheon fell while Balhae was defeated by the Khitans.
Mudanjiang is named after the eponymous Mudan River (literally, "Peony River") flowing through it. Imperial Russia built a train station for the Chinese Eastern Railway in Mudanjiang in 1903, after which local development started boosting. Both Chinese and Russian settlers established themselves here. Mudanjiang was little more than a large village until the 1920s. By that time, Mudanjiang was strongly overshadowed by the nearby county town of Ningan (Former Ninguta).However, merchants from several countries including France, Russia, Britain and Denmark set up sub-agencies in Mudanjiang during this period, which led the trade area of the city to a rapid expansion.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, the whole Manchuria was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident. Mudanjiang experienced a substantial growth in the 1930s under the Japanese occupation. Mudanjiang also became a military and administrative center going by the name Botankou, particularly after the railway from Tumen to Jiamusi was constructed in 1933. By that time several light industries including light engineering, lumbering, and food processing was established in the town. On December 1, 1937, Botankou City was established by the Manchukuo government, administering five counties. On October 15, 1938, Japanese Government set up a consulate in Botankou and promoted Botankou as a municipality directly under the Manchukuo Government. As Manchukuo collapsed, Mudanjiang was captured by the Soviet Army on August 16, 1945.
Mudanjiang was controlled by the Communist forces and became the capital of Songjiang Province in 1948. However, after Songjiang Province was merged into Heilongjiang Province on June 19, 1954, Mudanjiang was reduced to a prefecture-level city.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Mudanjiang, spanning from 128° 02' to 131° 18' E longitude and 43° 24' to 45° 59' N latitude, is located in southeastern Heilongjiang province. It is also the province's southernmost prefecture. Neighboring prefectures are:
It also borders Russia's Primorsky Krai to the east. The average elevation in the prefecture is 230 meters (755 ft), with the terrain primarily consisting of mountains and hills. The east of the prefecture begins to ascend to the Changbai Mountains, while the central parts belong to the Hegu Basin. The lowest part of the prefecture is Suifenhe City, bordering Russia, at a minimum elevation of 86.5 meters (283.8 ft), while the highest point is Zhangguangcai mountain, at 1,686.9 meters (5,534 ft).
Mudanjiang features a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) with hot, humid summers and very cold and dry winters; spring and autumn are brief. However, winter temperatures here are far warmer than much of the rest of the province, and the city's basin location helps protect it from biting winds. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 4.78 °C (40.6 °F). Close to three-fifths of the annual rainfall occurs from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 46% in July to 62% in February and March, the city receives 2,368 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −35.1 °C (−31 °F) to 38.4 °C (101 °F).
|Climate data for Mudanjiang (1981−2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−10.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−16.7|
|Average low °C (°F)||−21.7|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||6.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.0||5.5||6.5||8.5||12.9||15.9||14.8||13.9||11.0||8.5||6.8||5.8||115.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||68||63||56||53||58||67||75||77||73||65||64||69||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.4||180.2||228.4||218.2||237.3||221.1||215.8||208.3||206.6||195.6||156.8||136.8||2,367.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||57||62||62||54||52||48||46||48||55||58||55||50||53|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)|
In 2010, the city's GDP rose 18.5% to RMB 78.1 billion, ranked fourth in Heilongjiang Province after Harbin, Daqing and Qiqihar.Tourist industry and light manufacturing are the mainstays of Mudanjiang's economy. Mudanjiang's pillar industries include accessory industry for automobiles, paper making, forest industry, petrochemicals, new materials, pharmacy and energy industry. The foreign trade value increased 71.8% to US$9 billion in 2010, making up three-fourth of Heilongjiang Province's gross.
Mudanjiang is a railway hub in eastern Heilongjiang Province. Binsui(Harbin-Suifenhe) Railway and Tujia(Tumen-Jiamusi) Railway meet here. Trains from Mudanjiang Railway Station connect the city with Beijing, Jinan, Dalian, Harbin, Changchun and several other cities in China.
Mudanjiang Hailang Airport is the second largest international airport in Heilongjiang Province. It operates daily flights to Beijing, Dalian and several other major cities in China. In addition there are also scheduled international flights between Mudanjiang and Seoul and Incheon in South Korea.
Mudanjiang is linked to the national highway network through the G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway and G10 Suifenhe-Manzhouli Expressway.
Mudanjiang normal university is a provincial higher education institution in Heilongjiang Province. The predecessor of the college is the Nenjiang Branch of Northeast Agricultural College. It was founded in September 1958 and was closed in 1964. The Bei'an Teachers' College was established on the basis of the closed Nenjiang branch. The State Council approved in January 1965. In 1964, Bei'an Normal College moved to the original Ning'an County Breeding Farm, renamed Ning'an Teachers' College of Heilongjiang Province. It was approved by the Heilongjiang Provincial Revolutionary Committee in December 1970 and expanded into Mudanjiang Teachers College. The school has now developed into a master's degree. Full-time undergraduate students, international students, adult education, and other comprehensive teachers' colleges with more than 22,000 students. The school covers an area of 1.05 million square meters, and the school building area is nearly 390,000 square meters. It is a provincial-level garden-style unit. The school recruits students nationwide and now has 15 secondary colleges. In 2015, Mudanjiang Teachers College will be renamed Normal University. On February 26, 2018, Soft Science 2018 "China's Best University Ranking" was released, and Mudanjiang Teachers College ranked 551.
Mudanjiang University was founded in 1983 and is the first batch of 100 local universities in the country. The school consists of three parts: the school headquarters, the Hailin campus and the industrial park training base. It covers an area of 500,000 square meters and a building area of 186,000 square meters. The total value of fixed assets is 450 million yuan, the total value of teaching equipment is 90 million yuan, and the library has 644,800 books. At present, there are more than 10,000 students in the school, 10 secondary schools and 43 majors. Among them, there are 2 key construction majors supported by the central government and 6 key construction majors supported by the provincial finance. The school is well equipped and the school conditions are good. There are 104 on-campus laboratories and training bases, and 125 off-campus training bases. The major in mechatronics, animation design and production, and computer information security storage was identified by the Ministry of Education as a national backbone teacher training base.
Mudanjiang No. 1 High School, referred to as Mudanjiang Yizhong, is located in Mudanjiang City, southeast of Heilongjiang Province, and is the first demonstration high school in Heilongjiang Province. Founded in September 1945, it was originally named Mudanjiang Municipal High School; in 2001, it was renamed Mudanjiang No. 1 High School; in September 2007, the school moved to the new campus as a whole. The new campus covers an area of 218,000 square meters and the construction area is 9.3. 10,000 square meters, green area of 73,000 square meters, sports area of 70,000 square meters. In 2009, it was awarded the National 100 High School Construction Project Experimental School; in 2011, it was identified as a pilot school for provincial science projects. As of February 2015, there were 359 faculty members, 123 teachers with master's degree, 8 special teachers, 144 senior teachers, 107 national, provincial and municipal academic leaders and backbone teachers, and more than 5,200 students.
Mudanjiang is twinned with:
Harbin is a sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China, as well as the second largest city by urban population and largest city by metropolitan population in Northeast China. Harbin has direct jurisdiction over nine metropolitan districts, two county-level cities and seven counties, and is the eighth most populous Chinese city according to the 2010 census, the built-up area had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total metropolitan population was up to 10,635,971. Harbin serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.
Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.
Daqing is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The name literally means "Great Celebration". Daqing is known as the "Oil Capital of China" and has experienced a phenomenal boom since oil was discovered at the Daqing Oil Field in 1959.
Jiamusi is a prefecture-level city in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Located along the middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, it faces Russia's Khabarovsk Krai across the Ussuri River and the Heilongjiang. In 2018, Jiamusi had a GDP of RMB 101.2 billion with a 4.3% growth rate. Jiamusi had a total population of 2.333 million at the 2018 census, of which 1.24 million lived in the urban area and 1.09 million lived in the rural area.
Shuangyashan is a coal mining prefecture-level city located in the eastern part Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, bordering Russia's Khabarovsk and Primorsky krais to the east. The city's name means a pair-of-ducks mountains and refers to two peaks northeast of the city. In 2007 it had a GDP of RMB 20.6 billion with a 14.2% growth rate.
Heze, formerly known as Caozhou, is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province, China. It is home to 8,287,693 inhabitants, of whom 1,346,717 live in the built-up area around the seat of government in Mudan District. The westernmost prefecture-level city in Shandong, it borders Jining to the east and the provinces of Henan and Anhui to the west and south respectively.
Jixi is a city in southeastern Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, 1,862,165 people resided within its administrative area of 22,488.47 square kilometres (8,682.85 sq mi) and 757,647 in its built-up area made up of 3 out of 6 urban districts. Jixi is on the Muling River about 30 km (19 mi) from the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai and 120 km (75 mi) from Khanka Lake. The mayor of Jixi is Zhang Changrong (张常荣) since June 2015. The area is one of the important coal mining bases in China. A crater on asteroid 253 Mathilde was named after the city.
Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north. It has 5,418,453 inhabitants at the 2010 census, of whom 877,114 lived in the built-up area made of Beilin District.
Qitaihe is a prefecture-level city in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Covering an area 6,223 km2 (2,403 sq mi), it is geographically the smallest prefecture-level division of the province. Qitaihe also has the second smallest population of the cities in Heilongjiang. At the 2010 census, its total population was 920,419, while 620,935 live in the built up area made of 3 urban districts.
The Mudan River is a river in Heilongjiang province in China. It is a right tributary of the Sunggari River.
Suifenhe is a county-level city in southeastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, located where the former Chinese Eastern Railway crosses the border with Russia's town of Pogranichny, Primorsky Krai. In January 2014 Suifenhe became the only Chinese city in which trading with Russian Ruble is allowed. The city shares its name with the Suifen River, and is under the administration of Mudanjiang Prefecture-level City.
Mudanjiang Hailang International Airport is an airport serving the city of Mudanjiang in Heilongjiang Province, China.
Linkou County is a county in the southeast of Heilongjiang Province, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Mudanjiang.
Harbin–Mudanjiang intercity railway is a high-speed railway in Heilongjiang Province, China, between the cities Harbin and Mudanjiang. It is a Passenger Dedicated Line (PDL), with a design speed of 250 km/h and a total length 293.2 km. Starting in Harbin, it leads east to Acheng, into mountains at Maoershan, to Shangzhi, again through the mountains to the southeast, Weihe, Yabuli, Hengdaohezi, Hailin and on to the end at Mudanjiang station. Future proposals for this line could see it extended across the border into Russia and the Russian port city of Vladivostok.
The K7001/7002 Harbin-Mudanjiang Through Train is Chinese railway running between Harbin to Mudanjiang express passenger trains by the Harbin Railway Bureau, Harbin passenger segment responsible for passenger transport task, Habin originating on the Mudanjiang train. 25T Type Passenger trains running along the Binsui Railway across Heilongjiang provinces, the entire 355 km. Harbin Railway Station to Mudanjiang Railway Station running 4 hours and 13 minutes, use trips for K7001; Mudanjiang Railway Station to Harbin Railway Station to run 4 hours and 13 minutes, use trips for K7002.
The K7047/7048 Harbin-Mudanjiang Through Train is a Chinese passenger train service running between Harbin to Mudanjiang with express passenger trains by the Harbin Railway Bureau, Harbin passenger segment responsible for passenger transport task, Harbin originating on the Mudanjiang train. 25G Type Passenger trains run along the Binsui Railway across Heilongjiang provinces, the entire 364 km. Harbin East Railway Station to Mudanjiang Railway Station running 6 hours and 21 minutes, use trips for K7047; Mudanjiang Railway Station to Harbin East Railway Station to run 4 hours and 25 minutes, use trips for K7048.
The T17/18 Beijing-Mudanjiang Through Train (Chinese:T17/18次北京到牡丹江特快速列车) is a railway running between Beijing to Mudanjiang. It carries express passenger trains by the Harbin Railway Bureau, Mudanjiang passenger segment responsible for passenger transport task, Mudanjiang originating on the Beijing train. 25K Passenger trains running along the Jingha Railway and Binsui Railway cross Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing and other areas, covering 1552 km. Beijing railway station to Mudanjiang railway station require 16 hours and 50 minutes, while Mudanjiang railway station to Beijing railway station requires 17 hours and 36 minutes.
The T297/298 Beijing-Mudanjiang Through Train (Chinese:T297/298次北京到牡丹江特快速列车) is a railway running from Beijing to Mudanjiang. It carries express passenger trains for the Harbin Railway Bureau It hosts the Mudanjiang passenger segment responsible for passenger transport. Mudanjiang originates on the Beijing train. 25K Type Passenger trains run along the Jingqin Railway, Shenshan Railway, Hada Railway and Binsui Railway across Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Beijing and other areas. The line covers 1566 km. The Beijing railway station to Mudanjiang railway station route runs 19 hours and 39 minutes. Mudanjiang to Beijing runs 19 hours and 15 minutes.
The Suifenhe–Manzhouli passageway is a high-speed rail corridor located in the northeast of China running from Suifenhe in Heilongjiang to Manzhouli in Inner Mongolia. Announced as part of the "eight vertical and eight horizontal" high-speed railway network, the passage passes through Harbin and Qiqihar.
This article documents the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic in the province of Heilongjiang, China. The first confirmed COVID-19 case in the province occurred in Mudanjiang on 21 January 2020, and though confirmed COVID-19 cases had begun to plateau by early March, by late March, international arrivals, largely from the neighboring Russian Far East, had added hundreds of cases to the province's total, leading to measures such as closed community management (封闭管理) in Suifenhe on 8 April.
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