Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari

Last updated

Akbar Hydari
Governor of Assam
In office
4 May 1947 28 December 1948
Preceded by Henry Foley Knight (acting)
Succeeded byRonald Francis Lodge (acting)
Personal details
Born(1894-10-12)12 October 1894
British India
Died28 December 1948(1948-12-28) (aged 54)
Waikhong, Manipur, India
NationalityIndian
Spouse(s)Sigrid Westling
Parents Akbar Hydari
Amina Hydari
Occupation Civil servant, politician

Sir Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari, KCIE, CSI (12 October 1894 – 28 December 1948) was an Indian civil servant and politician. He was the last British-appointed and the first Indian Governor of the province of Assam.

Order of the Indian Empire series of award in an order of chivalry of the British Empire

The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes:

  1. Knight Grand Commander (GCIE)
  2. Knight Commander (KCIE)
  3. Companion (CIE)
Order of the Star of India order of chivalry of the British Empire

The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes :

  1. Knight Grand Commander (GCSI)
  2. Knight Commander (KCSI)
  3. Companion (CSI)

Indian civil servants includes five principal sub-categories of officials:

Contents

Early life

Hydari was born to Amina [1] and Sir Akbar Hydari, a Sulaimani Bohra Muslim family, on 12 October 1894. He was one of seven children. [2] The lawyer and eminent Congressman Badruddin Tyabji was his granduncle. He completed his studies in Bombay and Oxford and entered the Indian civil service in 1919 beginning his career in the Madras Presidency.

Amina Hydari

Amina Hydari (1878–1939) was an Indian social worker. In 1908, she received the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal, the first woman recipient, for her work during the Great Musi Flood of 1908. The wife of former Prime Minister of Kingdom of Hyderabad Akbar Hydari, she founded the Lady Hydari Club in 1929 and Mahboobia Girls School, the first girls' school in the State. Her uncle was the lawyer and notable Congressman Badruddin Tyabji.

Indian National Congress Major political party in India

The Indian National Congress(pronunciation ) is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.

Badruddin Tyabji Indian politician

Badruddin Tyabji was a prominent lawyer, activist and politician from British India. Tyabji was the first Indian to practice as a barrister of the High Court of Bombay and served as the third President of the Indian National Congress. He was the first muslim president of Indian National congress

Career

In June 1924, Hydari was appointed the undersecretary in the Department of Education, Health and Lands of the imperial government. He then served as Agent to the Governor of Ceylon from October 1887 to June 1929 dealing with welfare and rights of the large Indian labour force in the plantations. [3] After the creation of Imperial Council of Agricultural Research in 1929, he became its secretary. [4]

Governors of British Ceylon colonial administrator

The Governor of Ceylon was the representative in Ceylon of the British Crown from 1795 to 1948. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in Ceylon. The governor was the head of the British colonial administration in Ceylon, reporting to the Colonial Office.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an autonomous body responsible for co-ordinating agricultural education and research in India. It reports to the Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of Agriculture. The Union Minister of Agriculture serves as its president. It is the largest network of agricultural research and education institutes in the world.

Hydari, in the position of joint secretary to the delegation from the Indian States first and later as Adviser to the delegation from Hyderabad State led by his father, visited London for the Round Table Conferences. [5] Speaking at the second Conference on the State's behalf, he called for "work[ing] in harmony ... for the Greater and United India". [6] On the discussions that followed the second Conference, he was a member of the Federal Finance Committee and the Consultative Committee. [7]

Hyderabad State princely state

Hyderabad State, also known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of peace conferences organized by the British Government and Indian national congress was participant to discuss constitutional reforms in India. These started in November 1930 and ended in December 1932. They were conducted as per the recommendation of Jinnah to Viceroy Lord Irwin and Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930. Demands for Swaraj, or self-rule, in India had been growing increasingly strong. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Mahatma Gandhi, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Srinivasa, Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan and Mirabehn are key participants from India. By the 1930s, many British politicians believed that India needed to move towards dominion status. However, there were significant disagreements between the Indian and the British political parties that the Conferences would not resolve. The key topic was about constitution and India which was mainly discussed in that conference.There were three Round Table Conferences,(1930-1932).

Subsequently, Hydari returned to the Department of Education, Health and Lands as its joint secretary and then served as secretary of the Labour Department. During the early stages of World War II, he represented India on the Eastern Group Supply Council, a body set up to co-ordinate the build-up of supplies in the British colonies and dominions east of Suez. He was then placed on special duty in the Foreign Affairs Department. In 1945, he was appointed a member of the Viceroy's Executive Council and was given the charge of Information and Broadcasting Department. [8] [9] [10]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

The Eastern Group Supply Council (EGSC) was a wartime body set up in British India in 1940 to co-ordinate the build-up of war materiel in the British colonies and dominions east of Suez, with the goal of reducing the amount of supplies shipped from the UK. The project was the brainchild of the Viceroy of India, Lord Linlithgow, who envisioned a largely self-sufficient eastern zone of the British Empire and Commonwealth based around co-operation between India and Australia. A central provisions office was set up in Delhi, and local offices were established in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, East Africa, Southern Rhodesia and the Middle East. Japan's declaration of war on Britain in 1941 and subsequent capture of many of the eastern territories associated with the group, including Burma, Hong Kong and Malaya, undermined the project's success.

The Viceroy's Executive Council was the cabinet of the government of British India headed by the Viceroy of India. It is also known as the Council of the Governor-General of India. It was transformed from an advisory council into a cabinet consisting of five members heading revenue, military, law, finance and home by the Indian Councils Act 1861 giving recognition to the portfolio system introduced by Lord Canning in 1859. In 1874, a sixth member was added to be in charge of public works.

Upon the formation of an interim government in 1946, Hydari was given the charge of labour, works, mines, power, information and arts, and health. In January 1947, his appointment as the Governor of Assam and was approved by King George VI, and was to take office in May after the completion of Sir Andrew Gourlay Clow's term. [11] He took office on 4 May and he continued to hold the post following independence. [4] With the Naga movement on during the time, in its demand for an independent State, Hydari signed a nine-point agreement with Naga National Convention in June. [12] [13]

Interim Government of India

The Interim Government of India, formed in 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the transition of British India to independence. It remained in place until 15 August 1947, the date of the independence of India, and the creation of Pakistan.

Independence Day (India) national holiday in India

Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for largely non-violent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to religious violence. On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the incumbent Prime Minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation.

Naga nationalism is an ideology that supports the self-determination of the Naga people in India and Myanmar, and the furtherance of Naga culture.

Personal life

Hydari married Sigrid Westling, [14] a Swedish woman, and they had three children together: son and namesake Akbar Hydari (1919–1998) [15] and two daughters. [8] His son Hydari served as the Chairman of Western India Match Company (WIMCO) Ltd. from 1964 till the 1980s, [16] later, the Director of Facit Asia and Honorary Swedish Consul in Madras. [17]

Hydari died from stroke at 6:30 p.m. (IST) on 28 December 1948 in a dak bungalow in Waikhong, a village 30 miles (48 km) away from Imphal in the princely state of Manipur. Serving as the Governor of Assam during the time, he was on a tour of Manipur with his wife and son; N. K. Rustomjee, the tribal adviser to the Governor; and Military Secretary Major Dhamija. [8] Starting 3 p.m. (IST) on 29 December, his body, in a coffin draped in the National and Governor's flag, was carried in a procession led by a contingent of Assam Rifles to the cemetery in the Imphal Cantonment and was buried at 4 p.m. (IST). The cemetery is housed in the Kangla Palace. [18] A three-day mourning was observed in Manipur. In an obituary, The Gazette of India wrote, "Sir Akbar will be remembered above all for the remarkable catholicity of his religious outlook and his genius for friendship. In this he maintained the distinguished record of his illustrious father." [5]

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References

  1. "Lady Hydari Club". Massachusetts Institute of Technology . dome.mit.edu. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  2. "Sir Mohammed Saleh Mohammed Akbar Hydari". meherbabatravels.com. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  3. Peebles, Patrick (2001). The Plantation Tamils of Ceylon. A&C Black. p. 148. ISBN   9780718501549.
  4. 1 2 "Hydari, Sir (Muhammad Saleh) Akbar". rulers.org. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  5. 1 2 ""Serious Loss to the Administration"". The Indian Express. 31 December 1948. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  6. Indian Round Table Conference Proceedings. Government of India. 1931. p. 16. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  7. "Round-Table Committee". Malaya tribune. 3 February 1932. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  8. 1 2 3 "Sir A. Hydari Passes Away". The Indian Express. 30 December 1948. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  9. "Information Department to be on Reduced Scale". The Straits Times . 16 March 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  10. M. Epstein (2016). The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1946 (83 ed.). Springer. p. 112. ISBN   9780230270756 . Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  11. "New Governor of Assam". The Straits Times. London. 28 January 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  12. "Naga-Akbar Hydari Accord (Nine Point Agreement)" (PDF). South Asia Terrorism Portal. peacemaker.un.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  13. Kashyap, Samudra Gupta; Swami, Praveen (4 August 2015). "Explained: Everything you need to know about Nagaland insurgency". The Indian Express. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  14. "Sir Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari,K.C.I.E., C.S.I., I.C.S" (PDF). Press Information Bureau . pib.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  15. "Biographical Data: Akbar Hydari". salaam.co.uk. Archived from the original on 5 January 2003. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  16. India Who's Who 1984. INFA Publications. p. 142a. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  17. "When the postman knocked…". The Hindu. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  18. Ahmed, Syed (18 November 2011). "Kangla Fort holds the historic graveyard of Akbar Hydari". twocircles.net. Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
Government offices
Preceded by
Henry Foley Knight, acting
Governor of Assam
1947–1948
Succeeded by
Ronald Francis Lodge, acting