|Predecessor||Sheikh Haidar (as Khan of the Uzbeks)|
|Successor||Jan Wafa Mirza|
|Died||2 December 1510 (aged 58–59)|
Merv, present-day Turkmenistan
|Spouse|| Mihr Nigar Khanum |
Aisha Sultan Khanum
Zuhra Begi Agha
|Issue||Muhammad Temur Sultan|
Khurram Shah Sultan
Muhammad Rahim Sultan
|Mother||Aq Quzi Begum|
Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Uzbek : Muhammad Shayboniy , also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan, originally named "Shibägh", which means "wormwood" or "obsidian") (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban (or Shayban), the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. He was the son of Shah-Budag, thus a grandson of the Uzbek conqueror Abu'l-Khayr Khan.
The ruler of the Uzbek ulus Abu'l-Khayr Khan (1428-1468) had eleven sons, one of whom was Budaq Sultan, the father of Shaybani Khan. Shaybani Khan's mother's name was Aq Quzi Begum. Through his mother, Muhammad Shaybani was therefore the cousin of Janibek's son Kasym Khan, the latter of whom ultimately conquered most of Shaybani's territory to expand the Kazakh Khanate.
According to the historian Kamal ad-Din Binai, Budaq Sultan named his eldest son as Sultan Muhammad Shaybani, and gave him a nickname - "Shibag".
According to sources, the genealogy of Shaybani Khan is as follows: Abu'l-Fath Muhammad Khan Shaybani, known under the name of Shakhibek Khan, son of Sultan Budaq, son of Abu'l-Khayr Khan, son of Daulat Shaikh-oglan, son of Ibrahim-oglan, son of Fulad-oglan, son of Munk Timur Khan, son of Abdal-oglan, son of Jochi-Buk Khan, son of Yis-Buk, son of Baniyal-Bahadur, son of Shayban, son of Jochi Khan, son of Genghis Khan.
It is interesting that in "Tavarikh-i guzida-yi nusrat-namah" (Chagatai:تواریخ گزیده نصرتنامه, "Selected stories from the Book of Victories"), it is noted that the wife of the ancestor of Shaybani Khan, Munk Timur was the daughter of Jandibek, who was a descendant of Ismail Samani.
Shaybani's father Budaq Sultan was an educated person, on whose order extensive translations of Persian works into the Turkic languages were accomplished.
Shaybani was initially an Uzbek warrior leading a contingent of 3,000 men in the army of the Timurid ruler of Samarkand, Sultan Ahmed Mirza under the Amir, Abdul Ali Tarkhan. However, when Ahmed Mirza went to war against Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Khan of Moghulistan, to reclaim Tashkent from him, Shaybani secretly met the Moghul Khan and agreed to betray and plunder Ahmed's army. This happened in the Battle of the Chirciq River in 1488 CE, resulting in a decisive victory for Moghulistan. Sultan Mahmud Khan gave Turkistanto Shaybani as a reward. Here, however, Shaybani oppressed the local Kazakhs, resulting in a war between Moghulistan and the Kazakh Khanate. Moghulistan was defeated in this war, but Shaybani gained power among the Uzbeks. He decided to conquer Samarkand and Bukhara from Ahmed Mirza. Sultan Mahmud's subordinate emirs convinced him to aid Shaybani in doing so, and together they marched on Samarkand.
Continuing the policies of his grandfather, Abul-Khayr Khan, Shaybani ousted the Timurids from their capital Samarkand by 1500. He fought successful campaigns against the Timurid leader Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire.In 1505 he recaptured Samarkand and in 1507 also took Herat, the southern capital of the Timurids. Shaybani conquered Bukhara in 1506 and established the Shaybanid Dynasty of the Khanate of Bukhara. In 1508–09, he carried out many raids northward, pillaging the land of the Kazakh Khanate. However he suffered a major defeat from Kazakhs under Kasim Khan in 1510.
One day Shaybani visited Sheikh Mansour and he (Mansour) said to him : "I look at you, Uzbek, and I see that you desire to become a sovereign!". And then he ordered food to be served. When everything was eaten and the tablecloth was removed , Sheikh Mansour said: "As a tablecloth is collected from the edges, so you should start from the periphery of the state (kingdom) ." Shaybani took this very unambiguous advice from his new mentor into account and eventually conquered the Timurid state.
Sultanov T. I., Genghis Khan and genghisids. - Moscow, 2006. p.139
Shaybani Khan maintained ties with Ottoman Empire and China. In 1503, his ambassadors arrived at the court of the Ming Empire Emperor.In Alliance with the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), Shaybani Khan opposed the Safavid Shah Ismail I.
Shaybani Khan did not make any distinction between Iranians and Turks on the basis of ethnicity, but followed the hadith of the Islamic prophet Muhammad: "All Muslims are brothers".In the state of Shaybani Khan, shiites peacefully coexisted with the sunni majority, and some even reached high positions at the Khan's court.
One of the authoritative religious figures, a native of Yemen, Emir Sayyid Shams ad-Din Abdallah al-Arabi al-Yamani al Khadramauti (known as Mir-i Arab), enjoyed the patronage of Shaybani Khan, and constantly took part in the meetings of the diwan (court) and accompanied the Khan in his campaigns.
The last years of Shaybani Khan were not easy. In the spring of 1509, his mother died. After her funeral in Samarkand, he went to Qarshi, where he held a meeting with relatives and allowed them to disperse to their uluses (beyliks or small countries). Ubaydulla's nephew went to Bukhara, Muhammad Temur to Samarkand, and Hamza Sultan to Gissar. Shaybani Khan himself with a small detachment went to Merv (Mary, present-day Turkmenistan).
Shah Ismail I was alarmed by Shaybani's success and moved against the Uzbeks.
In 1510, Shaybani Khan was in Herat. At this time, Ismail I, having learned about the failures of Shaybani Khan in the battle against the Hazaras, invaded Western Khorasan and began to rapidly advance towards Herat. Shaybani Khan did not have a strong army at his disposal. During the military campaign against the Hazaras, he lost most of his cavalry.The main army was stationed in Mawarannahr, so he, having consulted with his emirs, hastened to hide behind the walls of Merv. Safavid troops captured Astrabad, Mashhad, and also Sarakhs. All Shaybani's emirs who were in Khorasan, including Jan Wafa, fled from the Safavid-Qizilbash army and arrived to Merv. Shaybani Khan sent a messenger to Ubaydulla Khan and Muhammad Timur Sultan for help. Meanwhile, Shah Ismail surrounded Merv and besieged the city for a whole month, but to no avail. Therefore, in order to lure the Khan out of the city, he resorted to a feigned retreat.
According to some sources, one of the wives of Muhammad Shaybani Khan, Aisha Sultan Khanum, better known as Moghul Khanum, enjoyed great influence on her husband and his court. The sources say that at the Kengesh (council of the Khan), question arouse whether or not to come out of Merv and fight the retreating troops of Shah Ismail. The emirs of Shaybani Khan suggested waiting two or three days until the auxiliary forces arrive from Mawarannahr. But the beloved wife of Muhammad Shaybani, Mogul Khanum, who took part in the military council, said to the Khan: “And you are afraid of the Qizilbash! If you are afraid, I will take the troops myself and lead them. Now is the right moment, there will be no such moment again." After these words of Mogul Khanum, everyone seemed to be ashamed, and the Khan's troops went into battle, which resulted in their complete defeat and the death of Shaybani Khan.
In the Battle of Marv (1510), Muhammad Shaybani was defeated and killed when trying to escape. Shaybani Khan's army was surrounded by Ismail's 17,000-strong army and was defeated after fierce resistance. The remnants of the army ended up dying under enemy arrows.At the time of Shaybani's death, the Uzbeks controlled all of Transoxiana, that is, the area between the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. After capturing Samarkand from Babur, Shaybani married Babur's sister, Khanzada Begum. Babur's liberty to leave Samarkand was made contingent upon his assent to this alliance. After Shaybani's death, Ismail I gave liberty to Khanzada Begum with her son and, at Babur's request, sent them to his court. For this reason Shaybani was succeeded not by a son but by an uncle, a cousin and a brother whose descendants would rule Bukhara until 1598 and Khwarizm (later named Khiva) until 1687.
From the accounts of Babur, i.e. the Baburnama, we came to know that the Shah of Persia Ismail beheaded Shaybani and had his skull turned into a bejeweled drinking gobletwhich was drunk from when entertaining; he later sent the cup to Babur as a goodwill gesture. The rest of Shaybani's body parts were either sent to various areas of the empire for display or put on a spike at the main gate of Samarkand.
Shaybani Khan was very fond of history in his youth. In 1475, he was specially presented with a book about the life of Alexander the Great — Iskandarnamah, written in the distant Ottoman Empire.
Medieval author Nisari recognized Shaybani Khan as a scholar of the holy Koran.
The manuscript of his philosophical and religious work "Bahru’l-huda", written in the Central Asian Turkic literary language in 1508, is in London.Shaybani Khan used various works on theology when writing his essay. It contains his own views on religious issues. The author presents his own idea of the basics of Islam: repentance for sins, showing mercy, and others. Shaybani Khan shows excellent knowledge of Muslim rituals and daily duties of devout Muslims.
Shaybani had five consorts:
He had three sons:
Babur, born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan through his father and mother respectively. He was also given the posthumous name of Firdaws Makani.
Kasim bin Janibek Khan, morr commonly known as Kasim Khan, was a son of Janibek Khan and the fourth Khan of Kazakh Khanate from about 1511 to 1521. He is viewed as the first leader who united the Kazakh tribes. Although, Burunduk Khan was the Khan of the Kazakhs, the control of the government was in the hands of Kasym Khan. Eventually, he sent Burunduk Khan into exile who died in Samarkand. Kasym Khan had a brother named Adik Khan who was married to Sultana Nigar Khanim, daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan. When Adik Khan died, Kasym Khan took her as his wife.
Sultan Husayn Bayqara Mirza was the Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 until May 4, 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470.
The Uzbek Khanate, also known as the Abulkhair Khanate was a Shaybanid state preceding the Khanate of Bukhara. During the few years it existed, the Uzbek Khanate was the preeminent state in Central Asia, ruling over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and parts of southern Russia. This is the first state of the Abulkhairids, a branch of the Shaybanids.
Ahmad Alaq was the Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (Uyghurstan) from 1487 to 1503. He was the second son of Yunus Khan. His mother was Shah Begum, fourth daughter of Badakhshan prince Lali.
Yunus Khan, was Khan of Moghulistan from 1462 until his death in 1487. He is identified by many historians with Ḥājjī `Ali, of the contemporary Chinese records. He was the maternal grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire.
Sultan Mahmud Khan, was Khan of Tashkent and of the Moghuls of western Moghulistan (1487–1508). He was the eldest son of Yunus Khan. He was born in 1462, his mother was Shah Begum, daughter of Badakhshan prince Lali, who claimed his descent from Alexander the Great and gave one of his six daughters to Yunus Khan in marriage, pleasing his request.
Sultan Said Khan ruled the Yarkent Khanate from September, 1514, to July, 1533. He was born in 1487 in Moghulistan and was a direct descendant of the first Moghul Khan, Tughlugh Timur, who had founded the state of Moghulistan in 1348 and ruled until 1363. The Moghuls were turkicized Mongols who had converted to Islam.
In the early 16th century, Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Western Moghulistan, and Sultan Ahmad Alaq Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Eastern Moghulistan, decided to counter the growing power of the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani. Sultan Ahmed Tambol had rebelled against his Timurid master Babur and declared his independence. But when Babur tried to reconquer his territory with the help of his uncles, Ahmed Tambol sought the assistance of the Uzbeks. The two Moghul brothers united their forces and launched a campaign against Tambol, but Muhammad Shaybani surprised the Khans and proved victorious in battle of Akhsi and took them both prisoner.
Battle of Ab Darrah Pass was the battle that took place in 1511 in the place called Ab Darrah between Uzbeks and Babur of Timurids. The battle ended with the decisive Timurid victory which enabled Babur to regain Transoxiana and briefly reunite the whole of the ancestral part of the Timurid Empire.
Umar Shaikh Mirza II was the ruler of the Fergana Valley. He was the fourth son of Abu Sa'id Mirza, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
Badi' al-Zaman Mirza was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1506 to 1507. He was the son of Husayn Bayqarah, who was a great-great-grandson of Timur.
Sultan Ahmed Mirza was the eldest son of Abu Sa'id Mirza on whose death he became the Timurid ruler of Samarkand and Bukhara from 1469 until 1494. During his rule, he successfully repelled at least one invasion attempt by the Kara Koyunlu, and failed in an attempt to conquer Khurasan from its ruler Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara. He was embroiled in the Timurid Civil Wars with his brothers Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Sultan Mahmud Mirza. He died while returning from his Ferghana expedition against Babur, the twelve-year-old son and successor of Umar Shaikh Mirza II. As he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his brother, Sultan Mahmud Mirza.
The Battle of the Chirciq River was fought between Sultan Mahmud Khan of Moghulistan and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the Timurid ruler of Samarkand & Bukhara in 1488 CE over the city of Tashkent. The Moghuls decisively defeated the Timurids as a result of the defection of 3,000 Uzbeks under the command of Muhammad Shaybani Khan.
Khanzada Begum was a Timurid princess and the eldest daughter of Umar Shaikh Mirza II, the amir of Ferghana. She was also the elder sister of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. She and her brother remained deeply attached to each other all their lives, a period during which the family progressed from ruling a tiny and obscure principality in Central Asia to ruling a large portion of the Indian subcontinent. Babur conferred on his sister, the honorable title of Padshah Begum and she was really the first lady of his Empire after his death.
Shah Begum was the Queen consort of Moghulistan as the second wife of Yunus Khan, a descendant of Chaghatai Khan, the second son of Genghis Khan. She was the mother of Mahmud Khan and Ahmad Alaq, the next Moghul Khans of Moghulistan.
Sultan Mahmud Mirza was a prince of Timurid branch of Transoxiana, son of Abu Sa'id Mirza.
Mihr Nigar Khanum was the first wife of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the King of Samarkand and Bukhara. She was a princess of Moghulistan by birth and was the eldest daughter of Yunus Khan, the Great Khan of Moghulistan and his chief consort Aisan Daulat Begum. She was also the aunt of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire of India as well as its first Emperor.
Sultan Nigar Khanum was the consort of Samarkand as the fourth wife of Sultan Mahmud Mirza, the King of Ferghana Valley. She was born a princess of the Chagatai Khanate as a daughter of Yunus Khan, the Great Khan of Moghulistan and his second wife Shah Begum.
The Kazakh War of Independence (1468–1500) was a conflict fought in Central Asia between the Kazakh Khanate and the Uzbek Khanate which attempted to maintain its control over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, which at the time was under Uzbek rule. The war started after Abu'l-Khayr, Khan of the Uzbek Khanate, attacked Zhetysu in 1468 which was controlled by a small band of rebel Kazakhs who had split from the original Uzbek Khanate. Abu’l Khayr did so in an attempt to prevent the growing Kazakh influence among the steppe. However, he unknowingly died, making it easier for the Kazakhs to expand their influence. After Abu'l-Khayr Khan's death, the Uzbeks continued to be ruled by the Shaybanids who fought against the Kazakhs in the cities that were on the Syr Darya until both sides agreed to peace in 1500 with the Kazakh Khanate gaining its sovereignty from the Uzbek control. At the end of the war, the Uzbek Khanate transferred most of Kazakhstan to the Kazakh Khanate.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad Shaybani .|