Munich Secession

Last updated

Munich Secession
Internationale Kunstausstellung Muenchen 1897.jpg
Poster by Franz von Stuck for the Seventh International Art Exhibition in Munich, 1897.
Years active1892-1938 and 1946-present
Major figuresKey figures in the movement included Bernhard Buttersack, Ludwig Dill, Bruno Piglhein, Ludwig von Herterich, Paul Hoecker, Albert von Keller, Gotthardt Kuehl, Hugo von Habermann, Robert Poetzelberger, Franz von Stuck, Fritz von Uhde and Heinrich von Zügel.

The Munich Secession (German Münchener Secession) was an association of visual artists who broke away from the mainstream Munich Artists' Association in 1892, to promote and defend their art in the face of what they considered official paternalism and its conservative policies. They acted as a form of cooperative, using their influence to assure their economic survival and obtain commissions. In 1901, the association split again when some dissatisfied members formed the group Phalanx. Another split occurred in 1913, with the founding of the New Munich Secession.



Franz von Lenbach, the "Prince of Painters". From Die Gartenlaube, c. 1900 Franz von Lenbach.jpg
Franz von Lenbach, the "Prince of Painters". From Die Gartenlaube , c. 1900

By the end of the nineteenth century, more artists lived in Munich than lived in Vienna and Berlin put together. However, the art community there was dominated by the conservative attitudes of the Munich Artists' Association and its supporters in the government. These attitudes found expression in the official "mission statements", written by the so-called "Prince of Painters" (Malerfürst) Franz von Lenbach. Matters came to a head in 1891 when the Prince-Regent Luitpold of Bavaria founded the Prinzregent-Luitpold-Stiftung zur Förderung der Kunst, des Kunstgewerbes und des Handwerks in München, an art foundation devoted to promoting traditional history painting in the service of the state. This foundation created and maintained a high level of artistic quality and brought world attention to the Academy of Fine Arts, but was firmly opposed to impressionism, expressionism, symbolism and other contemporary trends in the art world.

Another factor was the complete financial failure of an exhibition in 1888 at the Glaspalast, organized by the Artists' Association. This led to a bitter debate about responsibility and the exhibition's content which grew so furious, it attracted the attention of the Ministry of State for Science and Art. [1]

To address this situation, a group of artists with a progressive outlook gathered together in 1892, announced their separation from the official Artists' Association and established the Munich Secession, with an eye toward exhibiting at the upcoming World's Columbian Exposition. They called for a transformation in the ideas of what constitutes art and promoted the idea of an artists' freedom to present works directly to the public.

Man soll auf unseren Ausstellungen Kunst sehen und jedes Talent, ob älterer oder neuerer Richtung, dessen Werke München zur Ehre gereichen, soll seine Blüte reich entfalten können. (One should see, in our exhibitions, every form of art, whether old or new, which will redound to the glory of Munich, whose art will be allowed to develop to its full flowering.)

In this statement of principles, the artists declared their intentions to move away from outmoded principles and a conservative conception of what art is. [2]


Bruno Piglhein, first president of the Munich Secession Bruno-piglhein.jpg
Bruno Piglhein, first president of the Munich Secession

On 4 April 1892, ninety-six artists who had resigned from the official association, established the Association of Visual Artists of Munich. Bruno Piglhein was elected the first president and Paul Hoecker became the first secretary. In a few months the original name gave way to the more popular name: Munich Secession.

Financial support initially came from three sources: Georg Hirth, a writer and journalist who coined the word "secession" to describe the spirit of the various art movements at that time. In 1896, he would establish the Art-Nouveau magazine Jugend ; Georg von Vollmar, editor of the Democratic Socialist party's official organ; and Hans Veit zu Toerring-Jettenbach  [ de ], a member of the liberal opposition to the government's policies.

That same year saw the creation of another breakaway association, the Luitpold-Gruppe  [ de ], composed of more moderate artists who wanted to maintain the high-quality standards of the academy. The Vienna Secession followed five years later, and the Berlin Secession was established in 1898.


The National Exhibition Building (ULAP), c. 1885 Ausstellungspalast, Berlin 1885.jpg
The National Exhibition Building (ULAP), c.1885

At first, the secession had some difficulty finding a building for their exhibitions. The city of Frankfurt offered to provide the necessary space and 500,000 gold marks, if the group would move there permanently. [3] Their first exhibition actually took place at Berlin's National Exhibition Building (now known as ULAP  [ de ]) early in 1893.

Baurat (city construction supervisor) Franz von Brandl provided the secession with some free land at the corner of Prinzregentenstraße and Pilotystraße. Construction began immediately and their debut exhibition took place on 16 July 1893, in the first portion of the building to be completed. Over 4,000 visitors came to see 876 works by 297 artists.

The success of this effort eventually allowed them to come to an agreement with Franz von Lenbach and the Artists' Association. As a result, the art exhibition building on the Königsplatz (now the Staatliche Antikensammlungen) was transferred to the secession in 1897.

Later history

In 1933, the National Socialist party began their crusade to bring all forms of artistic expression under their control: a process known as Gleichschaltung (bringing into line). Artists were eventually required to obtain state endorsement for all of their works. Those who were considered "degenerate" were not allowed to paint. [4] In 1938, the Munich Secession was dissolved as part of the Kulturellen Säuberung (cultural cleansing) process.

Following the end of World War II in 1946, the Neue Gruppe  [ de ] and the Neue Münchner Künstlergenossenschaft (New Munich Artists' Association) were founded and led to the establishment of the Bundesverband Bildender Künstlerinnen und Künstler (Federal Association of Visual Artists).

In 1992, the secession celebrated its centennial and, in March of the following year, the Society of Friends and Sponsors of the Munich Secession was created to support the secession's continuing goals, maintain the Secessionsgalerie and promote exhibitions.

Founding members of the secession's board

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albert von Keller</span> German painter

Albert von Keller was a German painter of Swiss ancestry. He specialized in portraits and indoor scenes. Female figures are a prominent feature of his work.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Secession (art)</span> German historical art movement

In art history, secession refers to a historic break between a group of avant-garde artists and conservative European standard-bearers of academic and official art in the late 19th and early 20th century. The name was first suggested by Georg Hirth (1841–1916), the editor and publisher of the influential German art magazine Jugend (Youth), which also went on to lend its name to the Jugendstil. His word choice emphasized the tumultuous rejection of legacy art while it was being reimagined.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Erwin Puchinger</span> Austrian artist

Erwin Puchinger was a Viennese painter, illustrator, industrial designer and graphic artist. He was an influential figure in Viennese art in the fin-de-siecle. Puchinger was a part of the Austrian Jugendstil and Gesamtkunstwerk movements, which sought to erase the boundaries between fine art and applied art. Puchinger worked in London, Prague and Paris as well as Vienna and collaborated with other major figures in Viennese art and design such as Ernst and Gustav Klimt and Otto Prutscher. He was a respected art professor at the Graphic Arts Institute, where he taught for more than thirty years. His work was also part of the painting event in the art competition at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gabriel von Hackl</span> German painter (1843–1926)

Gabriel (von) Hackl was a German historicist painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paul Hoecker</span> German painter

Paul Hoecker was a German painter of the Munich School and founding member of the Munich Secession

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rudolf Otto von Ottenfeld</span>

Rudolf Otto von Ottenfeld was an Austrian military painter, a founding member of the Vienna Secession and a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague.

Marcel René von Herrfeldt was a German painter and protagonist of the Munich School. Initially adhering to the movement of Art Nouveau sans phrase, Herrfeldt later integrates elements of New Objectivity. Fusing Art Nouveau and elements of New Objectivity, he develops a style referred to as expressive realism in respective literature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ignatius Taschner</span>

Ignatius Taschner, also known as Ignaz Taschner, was a German sculptor, medalist, graphic designer and illustrator.

Emmy Lischke (1860-1919) was a German painter known for her landscapes and still lifes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carl Frithjof Smith</span> Norwegian painter

Carl Frithjof Smith was a Norwegian portrait and genre painter who spent his career in Germany.

Franz Heckendorf was a German expressionist painter closely associated with the Berlin Secession. He contributed works to the painting event in the art competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics. His work was highly regarded during the Weimar Republic but from 1937 was classed as entartete Kunst. During World War II, he was incarcerated in various prisons and eventually in Mauthausen concentration camp for helping Jews escape over the Swiss border.

Hubert Haider (1879–1971) was a German landscape painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mathilde Block</span> German painter and embroiderer

Mathilde Block was a German painter and embroiderer. Her artworks and paintings range from pencil portraits to embroidered quilts and have been exhibited in numerous art expositions throughout the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hyacinth Holland</span> German art historian

Hyacinth Holland was a German art and literature historian.

Fred Kocks in Düsseldorf was a German landscape and figure painter, draughtsman and lithographer as well as curator, museum director and author.

Johanne-Catharina Tecklenborg was a German painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emanuel Hegenbarth</span> German painter

Emanuel Hegenbarth was a German painter and graphic artist. Most of his works feature animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paul Schroeter</span>

Paul Alfred Schroeter or Schröter was a German painter and etcher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adolf Höfer (painter)</span> German painter and illustrator (1869–1927)

Adolf Höfer was a German painter, illustrator, and graphic artist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Mertens</span> Belgian painter

Charles Mertens, Karel Jozef Mertens or Karel Mertens was a Belgian draughtsman, painter, muralist, etcher and illustrator. He is known for his portraits, landscapes and genre scenes. He painted many scenes with fishermen and fishing boats.


  1. Rita Hummel: Die Anfänge der Münchener Secession. Schriften aus dem Institut für Kunstgeschichte der Universität München, Vol. 46, ZDB-ID   57236-6. Tuduv-Verlags-Gesellschaft, München 1989, ISBN   3-88073-345-7. (based on a thesis for the University of Munich).
  2. Clelia Segieth: Memorandum des Vereins Bildender Künstler Münchens. In: Buhrs, Best: Secession 1892–1914, S. 20–24.
  3. Helmut Kästl: Historisches zur Münchener Secession. In:, retrieved 22 June 2012.
  4. Hermann Glaser: Wie Hitler den deutschen Geist zerstörte. Kulturpolitik im Dritten Reich. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2005, ISBN   3-8319-0227-5.

Further reading and documentary materials