Murad V

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Murad V
مراد خامس
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Portrait of Murad V.jpg
33rd Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876
Predecessor Abdülaziz
Successor Abdul Hamid II
Born(1840-09-21)21 September 1840
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died29 August 1904(1904-08-29) (aged 63)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Burial30 August 1904
New Mosque, Istanbul
Consorts Mevhibe Kadın
Reftarıdil Kadın
Şayan Kadın
Meyliservet Kadın
Resan Hanım
Issue Şehzade Mehmed Selaheddin
Hatice Sultan
Fehime Sultan
Fatma Sultan
Aliye Sultan
Full name
Murad bin Abdul Mecid
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Abdulmejid I
Mother Şevkefza Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra Tughra of Murad V.JPG

Murad V (Ottoman Turkish : مراد خامس) (21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.

Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.

Sultan noble title with several historical meanings

Sultan is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms, albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic", and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Contents

He was born in Istanbul. [1] His father was Abdulmejid I. His mother, whom his father married in Constantinople on 1 August 1839, was Şevkefza Valide Sultan, an ethnic Circassian [2] [3] [4] from the Ubykh tribe, daughter of Mehmed Bey Zaurum and his wife Cemile Hanım. [5]

Istanbul Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey

Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is a bridge between the East and West.

Abdulmejid I Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Abdülmecid I or Tanzimatçı Sultan Abdülmecid due to the Tanzimat reforms he conducted, he is also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdulmejid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdulmejid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms which were prepared by his father and effectively started the modernization of the Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdulmejid, was named after him.

Circassians North Caucasian ethnic group

The Circassians, also known by their endonym Adyghe, are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russo-Circassian War in 1864.

Reign

Murad became the Sultan when his uncle Abdülaziz was deposed. He was highly influenced by French culture and was a liberal. [6] [7] [8] [9] He reigned for 93 days before being deposed on the grounds that he was mentally ill. [9] As a result, he was unable to deliver the Constitution that his supporters had sought. The ensuing political instability caused by his ousting moved the empire closer to the disastrous war with Russia, then ruled by Alexander II.

Abdülaziz Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Abdülaziz was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed, and equality before the law. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights, capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.

Alexander II of Russia Emperor of Russia

Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland.

Murad V was the first and only sultan member of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Turkey. [10] [11]

Freemasonry in Turkey

The history of Freemasonry in Turkey stretches back to the 18th century under Ottoman imperial rule.

An important primary source about his life comes from the memoirs of one of his consorts, Filizten Kalfa, written in the 1930s. [12]

Filizten Kalfa was a lady-in-waiting to Sultan Murad V of the Ottoman Empire.

He died at Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, and was buried in Istanbul on 30 August 1904. His brother, Abdul Hamid II, ascended the throne on 31 August 1876.

Çırağan Palace palace

Çırağan Palace, a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain. It is located on the European shore of the Bosporus, between Beşiktaş and Ortaköy in Istanbul, Turkey.

Ortaköy

Ortaköy in Greek known as Agios Fokas in the Byzantine period and Mesachorion later, is a neighbourhood, formerly a small village, within the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the middle of the European bank of the Bosphorus.

Abdul Hamid II 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Abdul Hamid II was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions particularly in the Balkans, and he had an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897. Hamid II ruled from August 31, 1876 until he was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, on April 27, 1909. In accordance with an agreement made with the Republican Young Ottomans, he promulgated the first Ottoman Constitution of 1876 on December 23, 1876, which was a sign of progressive thinking that marked his early rule. Later, however, he noticed Western influence on Ottoman affairs and citing disagreements with the Parliament, suspended both the short-lived constitution and Parliament in 1878 and accomplished highly effective power and control.

Family

Murad married five times and had five children. His marriages were:

See also

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References

  1. Britannica, Istanbul: Until the Turkish Post Office officially changed the name in 1930, however, the city continued to bear the millenary name of Constantinople.
  2. Açba, Harun (2007). "Bölüm 2: Sultan I. Abdülhamid Han Ailesi". Kadınefendiler: Son Dönem Osmanlı Padişah Eşleri (in Turkish) (1 ed.). Istanbul: Prolil Yayıncılık. p. 28.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. Turkish Historical Society XXXI. Türk Tarih Kurumu Osmanlı Tarihi Interaktif CD-ROM
  4. http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/kesitler/anneleri.html
  5. İbrahim Pazan (2007). Padişah anneleri. Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı. ISBN   978-9944-118-31-6.
  6. Howard, Douglas Arthur (2001). The History of Turkey. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 66. ISBN   0313307083 . Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  7. Smith, Jean Reeder; Smith, Lacey Baldwin (1980). Essentials of World History. Barron's Educational Series. ISBN   0812006372 . Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  8. Yapp, Malcolm (9 January 2014). The Making of the Modern Near East 1792-1923. Routledge. p. 118. ISBN   1317871073 . Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  9. 1 2 Palmer, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire, 1992. Page 141–143.
  10. http://162.243.49.51/web/03_turkiye.html#5 Archived 13 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  11. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/templars/knights_templars04.htm
  12. Brookes, Douglas Scott. The concubine, the princess, and the teacher: Voices from the Ottoman Harem. University of Texas Press, 2010. p13-14
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 Harun Açba (2007). Kadın efendiler: 1839 – 1924. Profil. ISBN   978-975-996-109-1.
Murad V
Born: 21 September 1840 Died: 29 August 1904
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdülaziz
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
30 May 1876 – 31 Aug 1876
Succeeded by
Abdul Hamid II
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abdülaziz
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
30 May 1876 – 31 Aug 1876
Succeeded by
Abdul Hamid II