Murmansk Oblast

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Murmansk Oblast
Мурманская область
Gerb Murmanskoi oblasti.svg
Coat of arms
Map of Russia - Murmansk Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 68°02′N34°34′E / 68.033°N 34.567°E / 68.033; 34.567 Coordinates: 68°02′N34°34′E / 68.033°N 34.567°E / 68.033; 34.567
CountryRussia
Federal district Northwestern [1]
Economic region Northern [2]
EstablishedMay 28, 1938 [3]
Administrative center Murmansk
Government
  Body Oblast Duma [4]
   Governor [5] Andrey Chibis [6]
Area
[7]
  Total144,900 km2 (55,900 sq mi)
Area rank 26th
Population
 (2010 Census) [8]
  Total795,409
  Estimate 
(2018) [9]
753,557 (−5.3%)
  Rank 62nd
  Density5.5/km2 (14/sq mi)
   Urban
92.8%
   Rural
7.2%
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [10] )
ISO 3166 code RU-MUR
License plates 51
OKTMO ID47000000
Official languagesRussian [11]
Website http://www.gov-murman.ru/

Murmansk Oblast (Russian:Му́рманская о́бласть, tr. Murmanskaya oblast,IPA:  [ˈmurmənskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ] ) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 795,409. [8]

Contents

Geography

Geographically, Murmansk Oblast is located mainly on the Kola Peninsula almost completely north of the Arctic Circle [12] and is a part of the larger Lapland region that spans over four countries. [13] The oblast borders with the Republic of Karelia in Russia in the south, Lapland Region in Finland in the west, Troms and Finnmark County in Norway in the northwest, and is bounded by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the south and east. [12] Arkhangelsk Oblast of Russia lies across the White Sea. [12]

Much of the oblast's relief is hilly, with the Khibiny and Lovozero ranges rising as high as 1,200 meters (3,900 ft) above sea level and stretching from west to east. [12] The north of the oblast is mostly covered by tundra; forest tundra prevails further south, while the southern regions are in the taiga zone. [12] There are over 100,000 lakes and 18,000 rivers in the oblast. [12] The coast contains the Rybachy Peninsula and the Cape Svyatoy Nos peninsulas.

The climate is harsh and unstable, due to the proximity of the Gulf Stream on one side and Arctic cold fronts on the other. [12] Sharp temperature changes, high winds, and abundant precipitation are common throughout the year, with the heating season lasting for ten straight months. [12] However, the waters of the Murman Coast in the south remain warm enough to remain ice-free even in winter. [14]

There is also a large number of islands belonging to the oblast, the main ones being (west to east) the Aynovy Islands, Bolshoy Oleny Island, Kildin Island Malyy Oleniy Island, Kharlov Island, Vesknyak Island, Litskiye Island, Nokuyev Island, Vitte Island, Lumbovskiy Island, Goryainov Island and Sosnovets Island.

Climate

Most areas of the Kola Peninsula are subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfc). The nearby islands usually belong to tundra (Köppen climate classification: ET).

Climate data for Murmansk (Climate ID:22113)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
17.6
(63.7)
29.4
(84.9)
30.8
(87.4)
32.9
(91.2)
30.2
(86.4)
24.2
(75.6)
15.0
(59.0)
9.6
(49.3)
7.2
(45.0)
32.9
(91.2)
Average high °C (°F)−7
(19)
−6.7
(19.9)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.6
(36.7)
7.6
(45.7)
13.6
(56.5)
17.3
(63.1)
14.9
(58.8)
10.0
(50.0)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
3.8
(38.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)−10.1
(13.8)
−9.7
(14.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.0
(39.2)
9.2
(48.6)
12.8
(55.0)
11.1
(52.0)
7.0
(44.6)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.8
(23.4)
−8.2
(17.2)
0.6
(33.1)
Average low °C (°F)−13.2
(8.2)
−12.8
(9.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−3.8
(25.2)
1.1
(34.0)
5.7
(42.3)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.5
(40.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
Record low °C (°F)−39.4
(−38.9)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−32.6
(−26.7)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
1.7
(35.1)
−2
(28)
−5.4
(22.3)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−35
(−31)
−39.4
(−38.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)30
(1.2)
22
(0.9)
23
(0.9)
24
(0.9)
36
(1.4)
53
(2.1)
70
(2.8)
61
(2.4)
52
(2.0)
51
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
34
(1.3)
494
(19.4)
Source: Roshydromet [15]
Climate data for Sosnovets Island (Climate ID:22355)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.2
(41.4)
4.4
(39.9)
5.1
(41.2)
11.2
(52.2)
20.0
(68.0)
22.0
(71.6)
26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
17.8
(64.0)
15.5
(59.9)
9.1
(48.4)
7.4
(45.3)
26.7
(80.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.0
(15.8)
−9.4
(15.1)
−6.3
(20.7)
−3.2
(26.2)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
8.8
(47.8)
9.1
(48.4)
7.0
(44.6)
2.7
(36.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.2
(31.7)
Record low °C (°F)−33.1
(−27.6)
−33.2
(−27.8)
−35.3
(−31.5)
−24.1
(−11.4)
−14.9
(5.2)
−6
(21)
−1.5
(29.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
−6
(21)
−13.7
(7.3)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)19
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
20
(0.8)
19
(0.7)
33
(1.3)
43
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
49
(1.9)
42
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
27
(1.1)
25
(1.0)
383
(15.1)
[ citation needed ]

History

The Saami, now a very small minority, are the indigenous people of the region. Russians started exploring the shores of the White Sea as early as in the 12th century, and in 1916 founded the Russian city of Murmansk, now home to nearly 40% of the oblast's population in the 307,257(2010 Census); [8] . Many Finns also immigrated to Murmansk during the Finnish famine, around the year 1860. [16]

The oblast was established on May 28, 1938 from Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast (comprising the city of Murmansk, Kirovsky, Kolsky, Lovozersky, Polyarny, Saamsky, Teribersky, and Tersky Districts) and Kandalakshsky District of the Karelian ASSR. [3]

The area of Pechengsky District (Petsamo in Finnish), which was ceded to Finland by the 1920 Treaty of Tartu and gave Finland access to the Barents Sea, was recaptured by the Soviet Union in 1940. After the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, the local Saami population was given the choice either of staying in Soviet Russia or resettling in Finland.[ citation needed ] Most of them chose the second option.[ citation needed ] On 30 October 1997, Murmansk, alongside Astrakhan, Kirov, Ulyanovsk, and Yaroslavl signed a power-sharing agreement with the government of Russia, granting it autonomy. [17] The agreement would be abolished on 31 May 2003. [18] Murmansk Region party taken by Whites and UK, 1917–1920, Poles were Massacred in The Murmansk Region to and from Katyn Forest. Murmansk Region was fought over in 1939–1944.

Politics

Oblast Administration (right) and City Administration (left) buildings on Lenina Avenue, Murmansk Zdanie gorodskoi i oblastnoi administratsii v Murmanske..JPG
Oblast Administration (right) and City Administration (left) buildings on Lenina Avenue, Murmansk

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Murmansk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Murmansk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Murmansk Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Governors of Murmansk Oblast

NamePeriod
Yury Yevdokimov December 1997 – March 21, 2009
Dmitry Dmitriyenko March 21, 2009 – April 4, 2012
Marina Kovtun April 4, 2012 – March 21, 2019
Andrey Chibis March 21, 2019 – incumbent

Chairmen of the Murmansk Oblast Duma

NamePeriod
Pavel Sazhinov 1994–2007
Yevgeny Nikora 2007–2011
Vasily Shambir 2011–2014
Mikhail Ilinykh 2014 – Incumbent

Source: [19]

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population: 795,409(2010 Census); [8] 892,534(2002 Census); [20] 1,146,757(1989 Census). [21]

The indigenous people of the area, the Saami, are only a tiny minority today. As of the 2002 Census, 92.2% of the oblast's population live in urban areas. [22] The most populous city is the Oblast's administrative center, Murmansk, with 336,137 inhabitants. [22] Other large cities and towns include Severomorsk, Apatity, Kandalaksha, Monchegorsk, and Kirovsk.

The Polar Alpine Botanical Garden (Poliarno-al'piiskii botanicheskii sad-institut) in Kirovsk Botanischer Garten in Kirovsk.jpg
The Polar Alpine Botanical Garden (Полярно-альпийский ботанический сад-институт) in Kirovsk

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows: [8]

In 2009, the urban areas were marked by natural population decline (−0.16% per year) and the rural areas were marked by natural population growth (+0.35% per year). [26]

Religion

Religion in Murmansk Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [27] [28]
Russian Orthodoxy
41.7%
Other Orthodox
1.1%
Other Christians
3.7%
Islam
1%
Spiritual but not religious
28.4%
Atheism and irreligion
11.7%
Other and undeclared
12.4%

According to a 2012 survey [27] 41.7% of the population of Murmansk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, 1% are adherents of Islam, 0.4% are adherents of Rodnovery (Slavic native faith) and other indigenous folk religions, and 1% are members of the Catholic Church. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, and 12.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [27]

Economy

The Murmansk Oblast is very rich in natural resources and has deposits of over 700 minerals. [29] The main industries of the region are in the sphere of raw material extraction and basic processing. [30] The largest industries are metallurgy (36,6%), electric power-production (22,9%) and food-industry, including fishing (13,7%). [31] [32] The icefree port of Murmansk plays an important role in marine transportation in Russia, and the oblast has a 41% share of the total Russian marine transport market. [33] [34] The fishing industry is among the most profitable in the region, supplying 16% of Russia's total fish production. Murmansk is a key base for three fishing fleets, including Russia's largest, the Murmansk Trawl Fleet. [30]

A Norilsk Nickel plant (formerly, Severonikel) in Monchegorsk Monchegorsk factories.jpg
A Norilsk Nickel plant (formerly, Severonikel) in Monchegorsk

The economy of the region is export-oriented. Main export items are nickel products, apatite concentrate, copper and copper products, aluminium and ferrous metals. [33] The Murmansk Region produces almost 100 percent of Russia's apatite concentrate (3.7 million tons in 1998), 43 percent of nickel, 15 percent of copper, 12 percent of iron ore and iron ore concentrate (17.7 million and 6.4 million tons in 1998), and 40 percent of cobalt. [29] [31]

The largest companies of the region – constituting 90% of the oblast's production – are Pechenganickel, Olcon, the Kola Nuclear Power Plant, Sevrybkholodflot, Murmanrybprom, Murmansk Trawl Fleet and Murmansk Shipping Company. [29]

Large oil and gas resources have been discovered on the shelf of the Barents sea, including the massive Shtokman field – one of the world's largest gas fields with estimated reserves of 3.8 trillion cubic meters. [29] [34] [35] Prospective oil fields could potentially yield up to 40 million tons in the next 10–15 years. [29] However, the development of the oil and gas resources will require considerable investment. [29]

In 2006, the Murmansk Oblast's gross regional product was 141.9 billion rubles, which amounts to about 0.4% of the Russian GDP. [33] Unemployment in 2006 was 3,4%. [33] GRP pro capita in 2007 was 225 044 rubles. [36] Regional automobile code is 51.

Transportation

Military

The Murmansk Oblast plays an important role for the Russian Navy, the Northern Fleet having its headquarters in Severomorsk, 25 km north of Murmansk. The Navy has several other bases and shipyards in the Murmansk Oblast.

The 200th Separate Motor Rifle Brigade is stationed at Pechenga.

See also

Related Research Articles

Polyarny, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Polyarny is a town and the administrative center of the closed administrative-territorial formation of Alexandrovsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, situated on the outermost western side of the Kola Bay. Population: 17,293 (2010 Census); 18,552 (2002 Census); 27,635 (1989 Census).

Vidyayevo Inhabited locality in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Vidyayevo is a closed rural inhabited locality in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Despite having a rural status, it is municipally incorporated as Vidyayevo Urban Okrug, as such status is the only one allowed by the federal law for closed inhabited localities. Population: 5,771 (2010 Census); 6,307.

Snezhnogorsk, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Snezhnogorsk is a town under the administrative jurisdiction of the closed administrative-territorial formation of Alexandrovsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 12,683 (2010 Census); 12,737 (2002 Census).

Apatity Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Apatity is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located along the Murman Railway between Lake Imandra and the Khibiny Mountains, 23 km (14 mi) west of Kirovsk and 185 km (115 mi) south of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. The town is named after one of its most abundant natural resources in the area, apatite, the raw mineral used in the production of phosphorus mineral fertilizers. Population: 59,672 (2010 Census).

Monchegorsk Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Monchegorsk is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula, 145 kilometers (90 mi) south of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 45,361 (2010 Census); 52,242 ; 68,652.

Zaozyorsk Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Zaozyorsk, formerly known as Zaozyorny (Заозёрный), Severomorsk-7 (Североморск-7), and Murmansk-150 (Му́рманск-150), is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 11,199; down from 12,687 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Gadzhiyevo Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Gadzhiyevo is a town under the administrative jurisdiction of the closed administrative-territorial formation of Alexandrovsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 11,068 (2010 Census); 12,180 (2002 Census).

Olenegorsk, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Olenegorsk is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located north of the Arctic Circle, 112 kilometers (70 mi) south of Murmansk. Population: 23,072 (2010 Census); 25,166 ; 35,584 (1989 Census).

Kirovsk, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kirovsk, known as Khibinogorsk (Хибиного́рск) until 1934, is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the spurs of the Khibiny Mountains on the shores of the Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr, 175 kilometers (109 mi) south of Murmansk. Population: 28,625 (2010 Census).

Ostrovnoy, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Ostrovnoy, previously known as Murmansk-140 (Му́рманск-140), is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 2,171; down from 5,032 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Polyarnye Zori Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Polyarnye Zori is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Niva River, Lake Imandra, and Lake Pinozero, 224 kilometers (139 mi) south of Murmansk. The nearest settlements to Polyarnye Zory are: Zasheek (3km), Pinozero, Nivskiy (8km) and Afrikanda-1,2. Population : 14,196, 15,096 (2010 Census); 15,910 (2002 Census); 19,428 (1989 Census).

Lovozero (rural locality) Selo in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Lovozero is a rural locality and the administrative center of Lovozersky District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on both banks of the Virma River, which is not far from Lake Lovozero, and 164 kilometers (102 mi) southeast of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 2,871 (2010 Census); 3,141 (2002 Census); 3,638 (1989 Census). It is the second largest locality in the district after Revda.

Lovozersky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Lovozersky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Lovozersky Municipal District. It occupies most of the central and northeastern parts of the Kola Peninsula. The area of the district is 53,800 square kilometers (20,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Lovozero. District's population: 11,820 (2010 Census); 14,311 (2002 Census); 18,263 (1989 Census). The population of Lovozero accounts for 24.3% of the district's total population.

Pechengsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Pechengsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Pechengsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast, on the coast of the Barents Sea and borders Finland in the south and southwest and Norway in the west, northwest, and north. The area of the district is 8,662.22 square kilometers (3,344.50 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Nikel. Population: 38,920 (2010 Census); 46,404 (2002 Census); 59,495 (1989 Census). The population of Nikel accounts for 32.8% of the district's total population.

Safonovo, Murmansk Oblast Urban-type settlement in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Safonovo is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the closed-administrative territorial formation of Severomorsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula on the Kola Bay, 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) west of Severomorsk proper. Population: 5,255 (2010 Census); 4,853 (2002 Census); 7,661 (1989 Census).

Kovdorsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kovdorsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located to the west of the Kola Peninsula. The area of the district is 4,066 square kilometers (1,570 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kovdor. Population: 21,297 (2010 Census); 24,404 (2002 Census); 36,786 (1989 Census). The population of Kovdor accounts for 88.4% of the district's total population.

Kolsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kolsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kolsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast, partially lies on the Kola Peninsula, and borders with the Barents Sea in the north and Finland in the west. The area of the district is 27,600 square kilometers (10,700 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kola. Population: 44,670 (2010 Census); 51,125 (2002 Census); 73,555 (1989 Census). The population of Kola accounts for 23.4% of the district's total population.

Kandalakshsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kandalakshsky District is an administrative district, one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kandalakshsky Municipal District. It is located in the southwest of the oblast, and borders with Kovdorsky District to the north, Loukhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, and with Finland to the west. The area of the district is 14,400 square kilometers (5,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kandalaksha. Population: 49,544 (2010 Census); 60,140 (2002 Census); 78,239 (1989 Census). The population of Kandalaksha accounts for 72.0% of the district's total population.

Oktyabrsky Administrative Okrug is a territorial division of the City of Murmansk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 95,569 (2010 Census); 104,831 (2002 Census); 144,431 (1989 Census).

Pervomaysky Administrative Okrug is a territorial division of the City of Murmansk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Population: 121,357 (2010 Census); 133,551 (2002 Census); 176,373 (1989 Census).

References

In Krasnoshchelye, a village on the Ponoy River Krasnoshchel'e.jpg
In Krasnoshchelye, a village on the Ponoy River

Notes

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. 1 2 Decree of May 28, 1938
  4. Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 13
  5. Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 14.1
  6. Официальный сайт Губернатора Мурманской области :: Биография [Official website of the Governor of Murmansk Oblast]. gubernator.gov-murman.ru (in Russian). April 8, 2014. Archived from the original on April 8, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  7. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2007 Atlas of Murmansk Oblast, p. 2
  13. Ratcliffe, p. 1
  14. Field
  15. "Climate of Murmansk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  16. https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/323421
  17. "Yeltsin Signs Power-Sharing Agreements With Five More Russian Regions". Jamestown. November 3, 1997. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
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