Museum of Natural Sciences

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Museum of Natural Sciences of Belgium
Muséum des sciences naturelles de Belgique  (French)
Museum voor Natuurwetenschappen van België  (Dutch)
Museum des Sciences naturelles de Belgique (entree).JPG
The entrance of the new museum building
Map Bruxelles-Capitale.jpg
Reddot.svg
Location within Brussels
Established1846
LocationRue Vautier / Vautierstraat 29,
B-1000 City of Brussels, Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium
Coordinates 50°50′13″N4°22′34″E / 50.837056°N 4.376167°E / 50.837056; 4.376167
Type Natural history museum
Collection size37,000,000 [1]
Visitors300,000 [1]
DirectorCamille Pisani
Website Official website

The Museum of Natural Sciences of Belgium (French : Muséum des sciences naturelles de Belgique, Dutch : Museum voor Natuurwetenschappen van België) is a museum dedicated to natural history, located in Brussels, Belgium. [2] The museum is a part of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Its most important pieces are 30 fossilised Iguanodon skeletons, which were discovered in 1878 in Bernissart, Belgium. The dinosaur hall of the museum is the world's largest museum hall completely dedicated to dinosaurs. Another famous piece is the Ishango bone, which was discovered in 1960 by Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt in the Belgian Congo. The museum also houses a research department and a public exhibit department.

Contents

History

The Museum of Natural Sciences was founded on 31 March 1846, as a descendant of the Musée de Bruxelles of 1802. It was based on the collection established by Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, dating from the 18th century. Belgian scientist and politician Bernard du Bus de Gisignies became the first director of the museum in 1846, and on this occasion, he donated 2,474 birds from his own collection to the museum.

In 1860, during the construction of new fortifications around Antwerp, several fossils were found, mainly of whales, and they were acquired by the museum. The museum also obtained the skeletons of a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) and a young blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), which are still on display today. The same year, the skeleton of a mammoth was unearthed near Lier, and due to the prompt action of archaeologist François-Joseph Scohy, it was preserved and brought to the museum, where it has been exhibited since 1869. At that time, the only other skeleton of a mammoth on display was in the museum of Saint Petersburg in Russia.

Louis Dollo supervising the mounting of an Iguanodon skeleton, between 1882 and 1885 Louis De Pauw supervising the reconstruction of an iguanodon.jpg
Louis Dollo supervising the mounting of an Iguanodon skeleton, between 1882 and 1885

In 1878, the largest find of Iguanodon fossils to date occurred in a coal mine at Bernissart, in Hainaut, Belgium. At least 38 Iguanodon (Iguanodon bernissartensis) skeletons were uncovered, at a depth of 322 metres (1,056 ft), [3] of which 30 were brought back to the museum and put on display. They were mounted by Louis Dollo and set the standard that was followed for over a century. Found alongside the Iguanodon skeletons were the remains of plants, fish, and other reptiles, [3] including the crocodyliform Bernissartia . [4]

Between 1889 and 1891, the museum moved from its original home at the Palace of Charles of Lorraine into a former convent located on the heights of the park. The building quickly became too narrow and the director of the time, Edward Dupont, entrusted the architect Charles-Emile Janlet the construction of a new southern wing. Work began in 1898 and ended in October 1905. The new rooms were specially designed to accommodate the new collections.

In 1950, several modern buildings were added to house new exhibition and storage rooms, as well as premises for the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, the research centre of which the museum is now part.

Since 2007, the completely renovated and enlarged dinosaur hall (the Janlet wing) of 4,580 m2 (49,300 sq ft) has been the largest dinosaur hall in the world.

Permanent exhibitions

Mounted Iguanodon skeletons in the Dinosaur hall Iguanodon3 28-12-2007 14-20-18.jpg
Mounted Iguanodon skeletons in the Dinosaur hall

In addition to these permanent exhibitions, there are also temporary exhibitions which are always highly interactive.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 https://www.naturalsciences.be/sites/default/files/annual-report_2015.pdf
  2. "Natural Sciences Museum". visit.brussels. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  3. 1 2 Norman, David B. (1985). "To Study a Dinosaur". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs: An Original and Compelling Insight into Life in the Dinosaur Kingdom. New York: Crescent Books. pp. 24–33. ISBN   0-517-46890-5.
  4. Palmer, D. ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 100. ISBN   1-84028-152-9.

Coordinates: 50°50′13.4″N4°22′34.2″E / 50.837056°N 4.376167°E / 50.837056; 4.376167