Musha Incident

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Musha Incident
The scene of the Wushe Incident.JPG
A photo taken by the Japanese authorities in the aftermath of the Incident.
Date27 October – December 1930
Location
Result Japanese victory
Belligerents
Tkdaya [1] Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Toda
Truku [1] (Taroko)
Commanders and leaders
Mona Rudao   Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Eizo Ishizuka
Strength
~1,200 ~2,000
Casualties and losses
644 killed [1]

27 October:

  • ~134 killed
  • 215 wounded [1]
Military casualties unknown

The Musha Incident (Chinese and Japanese : 霧社事件; pinyin : Wùshè Shìjiàn; Wade–Giles : Wu4-she4 Shih4-chien4; rōmaji : Musha Jiken; Pe̍h-ōe-jī :Bū-siā Sū-kiāⁿ), also known as the Wushe Rebellion and several other similar names, began in October 1930 and was the last major uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Japanese Taiwan. In response to long-term oppression by Japanese authorities, the Seediq Indigenous group in Musha (Wushe) attacked the village, killing over 130 Japanese. In response, the Japanese led a relentless counter-attack, killing over 600 Seediq in retaliation. The handling of the incident by the Japanese authorities was strongly criticized, leading to many changes in Aboriginal policy.

Contents

Background

Previous armed resistance to Japanese imperial authority had been dealt with sternly, as evident in responses to previous uprisings such as the Tapani Incident, which resulted in a cycle of rebel attacks and strict Japanese retaliation. [2] However, by the 1930s, armed resistance had largely been replaced by organised political and social movements among the younger Taiwanese generation. Direct police involvement in local administration had been relaxed, many stern punishments were abolished, and some elements of self-government, albeit of questionable effectiveness, had been introduced to colonial Taiwan. [3]

However, a different approach was used in order to control Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples. Indigenous Peoples of Formosa Island were still designated as seiban (生蕃, "raw barbarians" or "wild tribespeople"), and treated as savages rather than equal subjects. Tribes were 'tamed' through assimilation, the process of disarming traditional hunting tribes and forcing them to relocate to the plains and lead an agrarian existence. Further resistance was then dealt with by military campaigns, isolation, and containment. [4] In order to access natural resources in mountainous and forested indigenous-controlled areas, Governor-General Sakuma Samata adopted a more aggressive terrain policy, attempting to pacify or eradicate Aboriginal groups in areas scheduled for logging within five years; by 1915, this policy had been largely successful, although resistance still existed in more remote areas. [5]

Proximal causes

The Seediq people in the vicinity of Musha had been considered by Japanese authorities to be one of the most successful examples of this "taming" approach, with Chief Mouna Rudao being one of 43 indigenous leaders selected for a tour of Japan a few years earlier. [6] However, resentment still lingered, due largely to police misconduct, the continuing practice of forced labor, and the lack of respect for Indigenous beliefs and customs. [5]

In the days immediately prior to the incident, chief Mona Rudao held a traditional wedding banquet for his son Daho Mona, during which animals were slaughtered and wine was prepared and drunk. A Japanese police officer named Katsuhiko Yoshimura was on patrol in the area and was offered a cup of wine by Daho Mona as a symbolic gesture. The officer refused, saying that Daho Mona's hands were soiled with blood from the slaughtered animals. Daho Mona attempted to take hold of the officer, insisting he participate, and the officer struck him with his stick. Fighting ensued, and the officer was injured. Chief Mona Rudao attempted to apologize by presenting a flagon of wine at the officer's house, but was rejected. [7] The simmering resentment among the Seediq in Musha was finally pushed to the limit.

Incident

Commander and staff of the Musha Punitive force. Commander and Staff of Musha Punitive force.JPG
Commander and staff of the Musha Punitive force.
Mikata-Ban, a force of pro-Japanese aborigines. Mikata-Ban2.JPG
Mikata-Ban, a force of pro-Japanese aborigines.
Beheaded Seediq at Second Musha Incident Er Ci Wu She Shi Jian .jpg
Beheaded Seediq at Second Musha Incident

On 27 October 1930, hundreds of Japanese converged on Musha for an athletics meet at the elementary school. Shortly before dawn, Mona Rudao led over 300 Seediq warriors in a raid of strategic police sub-stations to capture weapons and ammunition. They then moved on to the elementary school, concentrating their attack on the Japanese in attendance. A total of 134 Japanese, including women and children, were killed in the attack. Two Han Taiwanese dressed in Japanese clothing were also mistakenly killed, [8] one of whom was a girl wearing a Japanese kimono. [9] Most of the victims were beheaded. [10] The Aboriginals aimed to only kill Japanese specifically. [11]

Consequences

The Japanese authorities responded with unprecedentedly harsh military action. A press blackout was enforced, and Governor General Ishizuka Eizō ordered a counter-offensive of two thousand troops to be sent to Musha, forcing the Seediq to retreat into the mountains and carry out guerrilla attacks by night. Unable to root out the Seediq despite their superior numbers and firepower, the Japanese faced a political need for a faster solution. Consequently, Japan's army air corps in Taiwan ordered bombing runs over Musha to smoke out the rebels, dropping mustard gas bombs in violation of the Geneva Protocol in what was allegedly the first such use of chemical warfare in Asia. [12] [7] [14] The uprising was swiftly quelled, with any remaining resistance suppressed by the third week of December 1930; [7] Mona Rudao had committed suicide on November 28, but the uprising had continued under other leaders. [15] Of the 1,200 Seediq directly involved in the uprising, 644 died, 290 of whom committed suicide to avoid dishonor.

Due to internal and external criticism of their handling of the incident, Ishizuka and Hitomi Jirō, his chief civil administrator, was forced to resign in January 1931. However, Ishizuka's replacement, Ōta Masahiro, also took a harsh approach to control Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples: certain tribes were disarmed and left unprotected, giving their Aboriginal enemies an opportunity to annihilate them on behalf of the Japanese administration. [5] Around 500 of the Seediq involved in the Musha Incident surrendered and were subsequently confined to a village near Musha. However, on 25 April 1931, Indigenous groups working with the Japanese authorities attacked the village, beheading all remaining males over the age of 15. This came to be known as the "Second Musha Incident".

However, the uprising did affect a change in the authorities' attitudes and approaches towards Aboriginals in Taiwan. Musha had been regarded as the most "enlightened and compliant" of the Aboriginal territories, and the colonial power's inability to prevent the massacre provoked fear of similar nationalist movements starting in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan itself. [16] A change in policy was clearly needed. Ching suggests that the ideology of imperialisation (Dominika) became the dominant form of colonial control; Aboriginals became represented as imperial subjects on equal footing with other ethnic groups in Taiwan and were upgraded in status from "raw savages" to takasagozoku (高砂族, "tribal peoples of Taiwan"). Furthermore, Japanization education was intensified, promoting Japanese culture and loyalty to the emperor in the younger generation.

During the Musha Incident, the Seediq under Mona Rudao revolted against the Japanese while the Truku and Toda did not. The rivalry of the Seediq versus the Toda and Truku was aggravated by Musha Incident since the Japanese had long played them off against each other. Seediq land was given to the Truku (Taroko) and Toda by the Japanese after the incident.

In the media

The Musha Incident has been depicted three times in movies, in 1957 in the film Qing Shan bi xue (青山碧血), [17] in the 2003 TV drama Dana Sakura  [ zh ], and in the 2011 Taiwanese film Seediq Bale .

The Chinese novel Remains of Life (originally published in Chinese in 1999, published in English translation in 2017) is a fictionalized account of the aftermath of this incident. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Taiwan History of the island of Taiwan

The history of the island of Taiwan dates back tens of thousands of years to the earliest known evidence of human habitation. The sudden appearance of a culture based on agriculture around 3000 BC is believed to reflect the arrival of the ancestors of today's Taiwanese indigenous peoples. The island was colonized by the Dutch in the 17th century, followed by an influx of Hoklo people including Hakka immigrants from the Fujian and Guangdong areas of mainland China, across the Taiwan Strait. The Spanish built a settlement in the north for a brief period but were driven out by the Dutch in 1642.

Taiwanese indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples of Taiwan

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Taroko people

The Taroko people, also known as Truku people, are an Indigenous Taiwanese people. Taroko is also the name of the area of Taiwan where the Taroko reside. The Executive Yuan, Republic of China has officially recognized the Taroko since 15 January 2004. The Taroko are the 12th aboriginal group in Taiwan to receive this recognition.

Atayal people

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Seediq is an Atayalic language spoken in the mountains of Northern Taiwan by the Seediq and Taroko people.

Taiwan under Japanese rule Period of Taiwanese history

From 1895 to 1945, the islands of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands became a dependency of Japan in 1895 when the Qing dynasty ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after the Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War. The short-lived Republic of Formosa resistance movement was suppressed by Japanese troops and quickly defeated in the Capitulation of Tainan, ending organized resistance to Japanese occupation and inaugurated five decades of Taiwan under Japanese rule. Its administrative capital was in Taihoku (Taipei) led by the Governor-General of Taiwan.

Council of Indigenous Peoples ministry-level body of the Taiwanese government

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Taiwan under Qing rule 1683–1895 period in Taiwanese history

Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa from 1683 to 1895. The Qing court sent an army led by general Shi Lang and annexed Taiwan in 1683. It was governed as Taiwan Prefecture of Fokien Province (Fujian) until the declaration of Fokien-Taiwan Province in 1887. Qing rule over Taiwan ended when Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. There were more than a hundred rebellions during the Qing period. The frequency of rebellions, riots, and civil strife in Qing Taiwan led to this period being referred to by historians as "Every three years an uprising, every five years a rebellion."

Mona Rudao

Mona Rudao, or Mouna Rudao was the son of a chief of the Seediq tribe of Taiwanese aborigines. In 1911, he made a visit to Japan. He succeeded his father as a chief of the village of Mahebo and became one of the most influential chiefs of the area of Wushe. Mona Rudao was from the Tgdaya group of the Seediq.

Tapani incident

The Tapani incident or Tapani uprising in 1915 was one of the biggest armed uprisings by Taiwanese Han and Aboriginals, including Taivoan, against Japanese rule in Taiwan. Alternative names used to refer to the incident include the Xilai Temple Incident after the Xilai Temple in Tainan, where the revolt began, and the Yu Qingfang Incident after the leader Yu Qingfang.

Seediq people

The Seediq are a Taiwanese indigenous people who live primarily in Nantou County and Hualien County. Their language is also known as Seediq.

<i>Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale</i> 2011 Taiwanese film

Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale is a 2011 Taiwanese historical drama film directed by Wei Te-sheng and produced by John Woo, based on the 1930 Wushe Incident in central Taiwan.

Beipu uprising 1907 armed uprising against Japanese rule of Taiwan

The Beipu Incident, or the Beipu Uprising, in 1907 was the first instance of an armed local uprising against the Japanese rule of the island of Taiwan. In response to oppression of the local population by the Japanese authorities, a group of insurgents from the Hakka subgroup of Han Chinese and Saisiyat indigenous group in Hokuho, Shinchiku Chō, attacked Japanese officials and their families. In retaliation, Japanese military and police killed more than 100 Hakka people. The local uprising was the first of its kind in Taiwan under Japanese rule, and led to others over the following years.

Five-year plan for governing aborigines, or the Five Year Plan to Subdue the Savages, was a program aimed to use military force to suppress the aborigine populations in Taiwan during the early years of the Japanese Occupation. It was enacted by the fifth Taiwanese governor general, Sakuma Samata from 1910 to 1915.

Taichū Prefecture

Taichū Prefecture was one of the administrative divisions of Japanese Taiwan. The prefecture consisted of modern-day Taichung City, Changhua County and Nantou County. It is also the origin of the name of modern-day Taichung. The Taichū Prefecture was the scene of the 1930 Musha Incident, the last major uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Japanese Taiwan.

Events from the year 1930 in Taiwan, Empire of Japan.

Walis Perin

Walis Perin is a Seediq Taiwanese politician. He served four terms in the Legislative Yuan from 1993 to 2005, each time with a different political affiliation. He became a founding member of the Non-Partisan Solidarity Union in 2004, and after losing reelection, was appointed the minister for the Council of Indigenous Peoples in 2005. He stepped down in 2007, and since then has launched two unsuccessful legislative campaigns, in 2012 with the People First Party and 2016, representing the Democratic Progressive Party. In 2018, Walis Perin was appointed to the Control Yuan.

Wushe Incident Memorial Park Memorial park in Renai, Nantou County, Taiwan

The Wushe Incident Memorial Park is a memorial park in Ren'ai Township, Nantou County, Taiwan commemorating the Musha Incident in 1930.

The Truku War, is series of events happened between May and August 1914, involving the Truku indigenous group uprising against colonial Japanese forces in Japanese Taiwan.

The Xincheng Incident is an event that took place in 1896 in the city of Xincheng, Karenkō Prefecture, Taiwan, Empire of Japan. The chief of the Truku tribe, Holok Naowi, led 20 aboriginal warriors against the Japanese forces, killing 13 Japanese soldiers.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Wushe Incident - Encyclopedia of Taiwan". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  2. Roy, Denny (2003). "The Japanese Occupation" . Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p.  35. ISBN   9780801488054.
  3. Lamley, Harry J. (2007). "Taiwan Under Japanese Rule, 1895-1945: The Vicissitudes of Colonialism". In Rubinstein, Murry A. (ed.). Taiwan: A New History (expanded ed.). New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 224. ISBN   9780765614940.
  4. Roy (2003), p. 49.
  5. 1 2 3 Roy (2003), p. 51.
  6. Hung, Chien-Chao (2000). A history of Taiwan. Rimini: Il Cerchio. p. 222. ISBN   9788886583800.
  7. 1 2 3 "The Wushe Incident". The Takao Club. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  8. "Wushe Incident". Encyclopedia of Taiwan. 11 Mar 2014. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014.
  9. Hung (2000), p. 222.
  10. Yukio Ito (2002). Japanese political parties and the Emperor p.327. ISBN   978-4062689229
  11. Heé, Nadin (August 2014). "Taiwan under Japanese Rule. The showpiece of a Model Colony? Historiographical Tendencies in Narrating Colonialism". History Compass. 12 (8): 632–641. doi:10.1111/hic3.12180.
  12. Eric Croddy, "China's Role in the Chemical and Biological Disarmament Regimes", The Nonproliferation Review Spring 2002: 16, <http://cns.miis.edu/npr/pdfs/91crod.pdf>, accessed 24 September 2011, p. 17.
  13. Haruyama, Meitetsu (2002). 世界戦争犯罪事典. Bungeishunjū. p. 64. ISBN   4-16-358560-5.
  14. Meitetsu Haruyama says that instead of mustard gas, hundreds of rounds of tear gas and at least three rounds of a special gas (a combination of cyanide and tear gas) were used. However, it is unclear whether it had any effect or not. [13]
  15. Hung (2000), p. 223.
  16. Ching, L. (1 December 2000). "Savage Construction and Civility Making: The Musha Incident and Aboriginal Representations in Colonial Taiwan". Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique. 8 (3): 799. doi:10.1215/10679847-8-3-795.
  17. Lee, Daw-Ming (2013). Historical dictionary of Taiwan cinema. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 395. ISBN   9780810879225.
  18. Wu He (2017). Remains of Life: A Novel. Translated by Michael Berry. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231166010.

Further reading