Myitkyina

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Myitkyina

Myitkyina Muklum
City
Myitkyina-ayeyarwady-d01.jpg
Myanmar adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Myitkyina
Location in Myanmar (Burma)
Coordinates: 25°23′0″N97°24′0″E / 25.38333°N 97.40000°E / 25.38333; 97.40000
CountryFlag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar
Division Flag of Kachin State.svg  Kachin State
District Myitkyina District
Township Myitkyina Township
Population
 (2014)
   Urban
306,949
  Ethnicities
  Religions
Time zone UTC+6.30 (MMT)
Area code(s) 74
Climate Cwa
[1]

Myitkyina (Burmese : မြစ်ကြီးနားမြို့; MLCTS : mrac kri: na: mrui., pronounced  [mjɪʔtɕíná] ; (Eng; mitchinar) Kachin: Myitkyina, [mjìtkjí̠ná]) is the capital city of Kachin State in Myanmar (Burma), located 1,480 kilometers (920 mi) from Yangon, and 785 kilometers (488 mi) from Mandalay. In Burmese it means "near the big river", and Myitkyina is on the west bank of the Ayeyarwady River, just below 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Myit-son (Burmese for confluence) of its two headstreams (the Mali and N'mai rivers). [2] It is the northernmost river port and railway terminus in Myanmar. [3] The city is served by Myitkyina Airport.

Burmese language language spoken in Myanmar

The Burmese language is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group. Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognizes the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the older name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar and neighboring countries.

The Myanmar Language Commission Transcription System (1980), also known as the MLC Transcription System (MLCTS), is a transliteration system for rendering Burmese in the Latin alphabet. It is loosely based on the common system for romanization of Pali, has some similarities to the ALA-LC romanization and was devised by the Myanmar Language Commission. The system is used in many linguistic publications regarding Burmese and is used in MLC publications as the primary form of romanization of Burmese.

Jingpho or Kachin is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sal branch mainly spoken in Kachin State, Burma and Yunnan, China. There are a lot of meanings for Jinghpo. In the Jinghpo language, Jinghpo means people. The term "Kachin language" can refer either to the Jingpho language or to a group of languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the same region as Jingpo: Lisu, Lashi, Rawang, Zaiwa, Lhao Vo, Achang and Jingpho. These languages are from distinct branches of the highest level of the Tibeto-Burman family. The Jingpho alphabet is based on the Latin script.

Contents

History

Myitkyina has been an important trading town between China and Myanmar since ancient times.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

American Baptist missionary George J. Geis and his wife arrived in Myitkyina in the late 1890s and in 1900 they requested a permission to build a mansion there and the building was named Geis Memorial Church [4] It is one of the Kachin Baptist Convention(KBC)churches in Myitkyina.

George J. Geis American anthropologist and baptist minister

The Reverend George J. Geis was an American Baptist minister and anthropologist of German descent, best known for his missionary work in northeastern Burma. He promoted Christianity amongst the Kachin people, a group which he also studied, collecting general ethnographical data about them. He arrived in Burma with his wife in 1892, and spent most of the rest of his life there, establishing missions throughout Kachin State and Shan State. Geis is best known for his work in Myitkyina in Kachin State, but in the 1930s he established a mission in Kutkai in Shan State, and at the time of his death in 1936 was working there at the Kachin Bible Training School.

Japanese forces captured the town and nearby airbase during World War II in 1942. In August 1944, Myitkyina was recaptured by the Allied forces under General Joseph Stilwell after a prolonged siege and heavy fighting between Nationalist Chinese divisions, the Chindits, and Merrill's Marauders of the Northern Combat Area Command and the besieged elements of the 33rd Imperial Japanese Army under General Masaki Honda. The town was strategically important not only because of its rail and water links to the rest of Burma, but also because it was on the planned route of the Ledo Road. [2] [5]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Joseph Stilwell United States Army general

Joseph Warren Stilwell was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II. His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname "Vinegar Joe".

Transportation

Myitkyina Airport is the main airport serving the city. It connects the cities of Putao and Mandalay. And it also connects Lashio Airport every Monday.

Myitkyina Airport airport

Myitkyina Airport is an airport in Myitkyina, Burma.

Putao human settlement in Myanmar

Putao is the northernmost town of Kachin State, Myanmar. It is the principal town in Putao Township. It can only be reached by road during summer, but is accessible year round by air if there are sufficient tourist groups to justify a plane. The area around Putao is famous for the variety of endemic birds and rare orchids, which grow naturally. Many orchid lovers are especially attracted by the so-called "Black Orchid" that can be found in the mountains east and west of Putao. Hkakabo Razi and other snow-capped mountains are visible from Putao. Putao also attracts enthusiasts, hiking to Hkakabo Razi base camp, located close to Tahaundam.

Mandalay Cultural City in Mandalay Region, Myanmar

Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar (Burma). Located 716 km (445 mi) north of Yangon on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, the city has a population of 1,225,553.

It takes almost 24 hours Mandalay to Myitkyina by train. Railway has been used for 100 years. This railway is major transportation for most kinds of good for both farmers and traders. It also connects Laiza, Bhamo, China, and Sumprabum by car.

Laiza Town in Kachin State, Myanmar

Laiza is a remote mountainous town in the Kachin State, Myanmar, on the border with China.

Bhamo Place in Kachin State, Myanmar

Not to be confused with Banmauk

Sumprabum Place in Kachin State, Myanmar

Sumprabum is a town in the Kachin State of the northernmost part of the Myanmar.

The Myitkyina-Tanai-India road which is known as Ledo road, was constructed by the British rule during the British Colonial period. In the downtown, the main transportation are three wheel motor cycle also known as tone bain, three wheel bicycle, and motor bike.

Myitkyina Train Station Train Station, Myitkyina.jpg
Myitkyina Train Station

Population

The Kachin State Parliament building in Myitkyina Kachinstateparliament.jpg
The Kachin State Parliament building in Myitkyina

As the capital of the state, it has government offices, and a greater population than other cities in the state. The city has a population of approximately 150,000, with a mix of Kachin, Shan, Bamar peoples and some Chinese and Indians. [6]

The Kachin language is the common language among the Kachin. There are a lot of meaning for Jinghpo word. In Jinghpo language, Jinghpo means People. Some people can speak English and Nepali while the town's people mostly speak in Burmese which is the national language of Myanmar.

Foreigners are now free to visit Myitkyina without prior government permission.

Religion

Major religions are Theravada Buddhism, Christianity (Roman Catholic and Baptist are major denominations), and other religions such as animism, Hinduism and Islam.

Climate

Myitkyina has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) bordering on a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw). Temperatures are very warm throughout the year, although the winter months (December–February) are milder. There is a winter dry season (November–April) and a summer wet season (May–October).

Climate data for Myitkyina (1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
41.1
(106.0)
42.0
(107.6)
40.2
(104.4)
38.3
(100.9)
38.5
(101.3)
37.5
(99.5)
36.2
(97.2)
38.5
(101.3)
35.5
(95.9)
42.2
(108.0)
Average high °C (°F)25.3
(77.5)
27.5
(81.5)
30.4
(86.7)
32.6
(90.7)
33.3
(91.9)
31.6
(88.9)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
28.4
(83.1)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75.0)
26.6
(79.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
28.3
(82.9)
28.1
(82.6)
26.2
(79.2)
22.5
(72.5)
18.8
(65.8)
24.9
(76.8)
Average low °C (°F)10.4
(50.7)
12.9
(55.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.7
(67.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
23.9
(75.0)
21.5
(70.7)
16.2
(61.2)
11.9
(53.4)
19.0
(66.2)
Record low °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
7.5
(45.5)
10.0
(50.0)
10.0
(50.0)
16.1
(61.0)
18.1
(64.6)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
19.8
(67.6)
15.0
(59.0)
8.0
(46.4)
3.0
(37.4)
3.0
(37.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches)9.9
(0.39)
21.0
(0.83)
24.0
(0.94)
54.0
(2.13)
218.5
(8.60)
549.2
(21.62)
543.0
(21.38)
398.3
(15.68)
294.7
(11.60)
170.6
(6.72)
25.1
(0.99)
11.7
(0.46)
2,320
(91.34)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.3 mm)275815252728191132152
Average relative humidity (%)77686464728389878583797877
Source #1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute, [7] Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1991–2010, rainy days 1896–1940, humidity 1963–1988) [8]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [9]

Education

The city is home to Myitkyina University, a Christian theological seminary, a college for teachers, a training school for nurses, a college for the study of computers and other rare type of colleges affiliated with several seminaries in the United States and Asia, notably Kachin Theological College-Nawng Nang. It is also home to the branch I.L.B.C. (International Language Business Center) a chain of private schools for English learners in the Myanmar. It has also many non-government institutions such as Naushawng development institute, Pinnya Tagar, Ningshawng and Kachinland School of Arts & Sciences, [10] which has a University vision in 2024.

Kachinland School of Arts and Sciences from Myitkyina Kachinland School of Arts & Sciences.jpg
Kachinland School of Arts and Sciences from Myitkyina

Economy

Myitkyina is a business center of Kachin State. Resources are jade, gold, teak and forestry products, and agricultural products. Due to short term contract of jade, gold mines, teak, Kachin State was good in business field for Chinese. As per government data, almost US$2 billion in jade were exported yearly in 2010, 2011. Now, due to fighting between Kachin KIA rebels and government army, all business have gone down. Most of Kachin State business trades are done in Myitkyina.

Healthcare

Public Hospitals

Military

Notes

  1. "National Telephone Area Codes". Myanmar Yellow Pages. Archived from the original on 2009-07-19.
  2. 1 2 "Myitkyina, Myanmar". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  3. "Train travel in Myanmar (Burma)". seat61.com. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  4. Baptist missionary magazine, Volume 80. American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, American Baptist Missionary Union. 1900. p. 196.
  5. Gardner, Major John J. "Battle of Myitkyina" . Retrieved 2006-10-15.
  6. "MYITKYINA". my-myitkyina.com. Retrieved 2006-08-24.
  7. "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 26–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  8. "Klimatafel von Myitkyina / Myanmar (Birma)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  9. "Station Myitkyina" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  10. http://www.KachinlandSAS.org

Coordinates: 25°23′N97°24′E / 25.383°N 97.400°E / 25.383; 97.400

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