Nîmes

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Nîmes

Nimes  (Occitan)
Nimes 2012 (8579722371).jpg
Nimes-Fontaine Pradier VE-20121024.jpg
Arenes de Nimes en habit de noel.jpg
Nimes, Maison Carree (1. Jhdt.n.Chr.) (46785244294).jpg
From top to bottom, left to right: city view from Tour Magne, Fontaine Pradier, Arena of Nîmes and Maison Carrée at night
Blason ville fr Nimes (Gard).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Nîmes
Nimes
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Nîmes
Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrenees region location map.svg
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Nîmes
Coordinates: 43°50′17″N4°21′40″E / 43.838°N 4.361°E / 43.838; 4.361 Coordinates: 43°50′17″N4°21′40″E / 43.838°N 4.361°E / 43.838; 4.361
Country France
Region Occitanie
Department Gard
Arrondissement Nîmes
Canton Nîmes-1, 2, 3 and 4 and Saint-Gilles
Intercommunality CA Nîmes Métropole
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Jean-Paul Fournier [1] (LR)
Area
1
161.85 km2 (62.49 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2017) [2]
150,610
  Density930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
30189 /30000 and 30900
Elevation21–215 m (69–705 ft)
(avg. 39 m or 128 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Nîmes ( /nm/ NEEM, French:  [nim] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Nimes [ˈnimes] ; Latin: Nemausus) is the prefecture of the Gard department in the Occitanie region of Southern France. Located between the Mediterranean Sea and Cévennes, the commune of Nîmes has an estimated population of 150,610 (2017). [3]

Contents

Dubbed the most Roman city outside Italy, [4] Nîmes has a rich history dating back to the Roman Empire when the city was a regional capital, and home to 50,000–60,000 people. [5] [6] [7] [8] Several famous monuments are in Nîmes, such as the Arena of Nîmes and the Maison Carrée. Because of this, Nîmes is often referred to as the French Rome.

Origins

The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan; to the southwest, Montaury; to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.

Its name appears in inscriptions in Gaulish as dede matrebo Namausikabo = "he has given to the mothers of Nîmes" and "toutios Namausatis" = "citizen of Nîmes". [9]

Nemausus was the god of the local Volcae Arecomici tribe.

History

Roman Bastion, Tour Magne 281 Tour Magne NIM 1008.jpg
Roman Bastion, Tour Magne
Roman temple, the "Maison Carree" France-002419 - Square House (15707007177).jpg
Roman temple, the "Maison Carrée"

4000–2000 BC

The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the site of Nîmes.[ citation needed ]

The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and is considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.

1800–600 BC

The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches.[ citation needed ] The population of the site increased during the Bronze Age.

600–121 BC

The hill of Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built with a dry-stone tower at the summit which was later incorporated into the Tour Magne. The Volcae Arecomici people settled around the spring at the foot of Mount Cavalier and build a sanctuary to Nemausus there.

The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul.[ citation needed ]

In 123 BC the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus campaigned against Gallic tribes in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni, while the Volcae offered no resistance. The Roman province Gallia Transalpina was established in 121 BC [10] and from 118 BC the Via Domitia was built through the later site of the city.

Roman period

Amphitheatre used today for concerts and bullfights Arena de Nimes.jpg
Amphitheatre used today for concerts and bullfights
Amphiteatre Interior 2015-Arena-of-Nimes-Interior.JPG
Amphiteatre Interior
"Temple of Diana" Temple de Diane Nimes.JPG
"Temple of Diana"
Roman wall foundations Nimes, Roman wall foundations.jpg
Roman wall foundations
The Augustan Gate Nimes La porte Auguste.png
The Augustan Gate

The city arose on the important Via Domitia which connected Italy with Hispania.

Nîmes became a Roman colony as Colonia Nemausus sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". [11] Veterans of Julius Caesar's legions in his Nile campaigns were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes. [12]

Augustus started a major building program in the city, as elsewhere in the empire. He also gave the town a ring of ramparts 6 km (3.7 miles) long, reinforced by 14 towers; two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France.

The Maison Carrée dating from the late 1st c. BC is one of the best-preserved temples to be found anywhere in the former Roman Empire, and appears to be almost totally intact.

The great Nimes Aqueduct, many of whose remains can be seen today outside of the city, was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where it crossed the River Gard between Uzès and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 km (12 mi) north east of the city.

The museum contains many fine objects including mosaic floors, frescoes and sculpture from rich houses and buildings found in excavations in and near the city. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre is very well preserved, dates from the end of the 2nd century and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire. The so-called Temple of Diana dating from Augustus and rebuilt in the 2nd century was not a temple but was centred on a nymphaeum located within the Fontaine Sanctuary dedicated to Augustus and may have been a library.

The city was the birthplace of the family of emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161).

Emperor Constantine (306-337) endowed the city with baths.

It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar,[ citation needed ] the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.

The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century when successive barbarian invasions slowed its development. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles.[ citation needed ]

The Visigoths captured the city in 472.

Augustus colonia nemausus dupondius type 4 obverse.jpg
Augustus colonia nemausus dupondius type 4 reverse.jpg
Nîmes, dupondius of Augustus, 10 – 14 a. D., Commemorating the conquest of Egypt in 30 BC.

Obverse: Back to back head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown, and laureate head of Augustus right; on either side, inscription. Above and below, inscription. Border of dots. Lettering: "IMP P P DIVI F" ("IMPerator DIVI Filius Pater Patriæ", Emperor, Son of the Divine Father of the Nation).

Reverse: Crocodile to right, chained by neck to a palm-tree with tip bending left, two short palms on either side of trunk; on right, inscription; on left, inscription surmounted by a crown with two long tails to right. Border of dots. Lettering: "COL NEM" ("Colonia Nemausus", Colony of Nemausus)

Finds from Roman Nimes in the Musée de la Romanité

4th–13th centuries

After the Roman period the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD,[ citation needed ] appeared to be the last refuge of classical civilisation, as it was organised and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats.[ citation needed ] When the Visigoths were accepted into the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory in 472, even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.

By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nîmes. In 736–737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down, and count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the events connected with the war, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it had once been. The local authorities installed themselves in the remains of the amphitheatre. Islamic burials have been found in Nîmes. [13] [14] [15] [16]

Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house; meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.

Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.

After the last effort by Raymond VII of Toulouse, St. Louis managed to establish royal power in the region which became Languedoc. Nîmes thus finally came into the hands of the King of France.

Period of invasions

During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion ) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.

17th century to the French Revolution

Les Quais de la Fontaine, the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city, the first civic gardens of France, were laid out in 1738-55. Les Quais de la Fontaine.jpg
Les Quais de la Fontaine, the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city, the first civic gardens of France, were laid out in 1738–55.

In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. To this period also belong the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (hôtels). This renaissance strengthened the manufacturing and industrial potential of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

In this same period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.

From the French Revolution to the present

Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke the slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry into new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.

During the Second World War, the Maquis resistance fighters Jean Robert and Vinicio Faïta were executed at Nîmes on 22 April 1943. The Nîmes marshalling yards were bombed by American bombers in 1944.

The 2º Régiment Étranger d'Infanterie (2ºREI), the main motorised infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion, has been garrisoned in Nîmes since November 1983. [17]

Geography

Climate

Nîmes 1991-2020
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
64
 
 
11
3
 
 
40
 
 
13
3
 
 
45
 
 
17
6
 
 
67
 
 
20
9
 
 
55
 
 
24
13
 
 
42
 
 
28
16
 
 
30
 
 
32
19
 
 
44
 
 
31
19
 
 
94
 
 
26
15
 
 
94
 
 
21
12
 
 
97
 
 
15
7
 
 
53
 
 
12
4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm


Nîmes is one of the warmest cities in France. The city has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), being wetter than a typical Mediterranean climate, especially for its moderately rainy summers. It's slightly inland, southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months, temperatures above 34 °C are common in July and August, whereas winters are cool but not cold. Night temps under 0 °C are common from December to February, while snowfall occurs every year.

Climate data for Nîmes (Météo France Office-Courbessac), elevation: 59 m or 194 ft, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1922–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
27.3
(81.1)
30.7
(87.3)
34.7
(94.5)
44.4
(111.9)
38.8
(101.8)
41.6
(106.9)
35.4
(95.7)
31.9
(89.4)
26.1
(79.0)
20.6
(69.1)
44.4
(111.9)
Average high °C (°F)11.4
(52.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
23.6
(74.5)
28.3
(82.9)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
26.1
(79.0)
20.9
(69.6)
15.2
(59.4)
11.8
(53.2)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.3
(45.1)
8.1
(46.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
22.4
(72.3)
25.3
(77.5)
25.0
(77.0)
20.6
(69.1)
16.3
(61.3)
11.1
(52.0)
7.9
(46.2)
15.7
(60.3)
Average low °C (°F)3.2
(37.8)
3.3
(37.9)
6.2
(43.2)
8.8
(47.8)
12.5
(54.5)
16.3
(61.3)
19.0
(66.2)
18.7
(65.7)
14.9
(58.8)
11.7
(53.1)
6.9
(44.4)
3.8
(38.8)
10.5
(50.9)
Record low °C (°F)−12.2
(10.0)
−14.0
(6.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
10.0
(50.0)
9.2
(48.6)
5.4
(41.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.7
(14.5)
−14.0
(6.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)64.1
(2.52)
40.1
(1.58)
44.6
(1.76)
67.2
(2.65)
55.1
(2.17)
41.6
(1.64)
30.2
(1.19)
44.4
(1.75)
93.8
(3.69)
93.9
(3.70)
97.1
(3.82)
53.3
(2.10)
725.4
(28.56)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.84.95.06.86.04.33.03.65.26.47.95.764.6
Average snowy days0.80.60.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.30.52.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 141.4165.3219.8229.4268.2312.2345.8307.5244.6171.4141.4132.52,679.6
Source: Météo France [18] [19] [20]

Sights

Tour Magne. Nimes-TourMagne.JPG
Tour Magne.
The Jardins de la Fontaine. NimesJardins.jpg
The Jardins de la Fontaine.

Several important remains of the Roman Empire can still be seen in and around Nîmes:

Later monuments include:

There is modern architecture at Nîmes too: Norman Foster conceived the Carré d'art (1986), a museum of modern art and mediatheque, and Jean Nouvel designed the Nemausus, a post-modern residential ensemble.

Tree-shaded boulevards trace the foundations of its former city walls.

Economy and infrastructure

Nîmes is historically known for its textiles. Denim, the fabric of blue jeans, derives its name from this city ( Serge de Nîmes). The blue dye was imported via Genoa from Lahore the capital of the Great Mughal.

Population

The population of Roman Nîmes (50 AD) was estimated at 50-60,000. The population of Nîmes increased from 128,471 in 1990 to 146,709 in 2012, yet the biggest growth the city ever experienced happened in 1968, with a growth of +23.5% compared to 1962.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 40,000    
1800 39,594−0.15%
1806 41,195+0.66%
1821 37,908−0.55%
1831 41,266+0.85%
1836 43,036+0.84%
1841 44,697+0.76%
1846 53,497+3.66%
1851 53,619+0.05%
1856 54,293+0.25%
1861 57,129+1.02%
1866 60,151+1.04%
1872 62,394+0.61%
1876 63,001+0.24%
1881 63,552+0.17%
1886 69,898+1.92%
1891 71,623+0.49%
1896 74,601+0.82%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 80,605+1.56%
1906 80,184−0.10%
1911 80,437+0.06%
1921 82,774+0.29%
1926 84,667+0.45%
1931 89,213+1.05%
1936 93,758+1.00%
1946 91,667−0.23%
1954 89,130−0.35%
1962 99,802+1.42%
1968 123,292+3.59%
1975 127,933+0.53%
1982 124,220−0.42%
1990 128,471+0.42%
1999 133,424+0.42%
2007 143,468+0.91%
2012 146,709+0.45%
2017 150,610+0.53%
Source: EHESS [24] and INSEE (1968-2017) [25]

Culture

From 1810 to 1822, Joseph Gergonne published a scientific journal specializing in mathematics from Nîmes called Annales de Gergonne .

In the famous novel The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexander Dumas, in Nîmes, the procureur du roi Villefort kills the older brother of Bertuccio, a soldier in Napoleon's army, as he is en route to his home in Corsica in 1829. Bertuccio declares a vendetta on Villefort and stabs him; Villefort survives and asks for a transfer out of the city. Bertuccio later becomes a servant to the Count.

The asteroid 51 Nemausa was named after Nîmes, where it was discovered in 1858.

Two times per year, Nîmes hosts one of the main French bullfighting events, Feria de Nîmes (festival), and several hundreds of thousands gather in the streets.

In 2005 Rammstein filmed their #1 live Album Völkerball in Nîmes, and are returning in 2017.

Metallica's live DVD Français Pour une Nuit (English: French for One Night) was recorded in Nîmes, France, in the Arena of Nîmes on 7 July 2009, during the World Magnetic Tour.

Transportation

Nîmes-Alès-Camargue-Cévennes Airport serves the city. The Gare de Nîmes is the central railway station, offering connections to Paris (high-speed rail), Marseille, Montpellier, Narbonne, Toulouse, Perpignan, Figueras and Barcelona in Spain and several regional destinations. The motorway A9 connects Nîmes with Orange, Montpellier, Narbonne, and Perpignan, the A54 with Arles and Salon-de-Provence.

Work is almost complete on the construction of a high-speed TGV line, Contournement Nîmes – Montpellier bypassing Nîmes and Montpellier with the LGV Méditerranée. [26]

The new line opened to passenger service on 15 December 2019 together with a new TGV station at NIMES-PONT DU GARD, (a confusing name as it located some 12km from the city itself and 20km from the Pont du Gard). [27]

A new station is also to be opened at the same time on the existing route between Nìmes and Avignon, thus providing connections between the new line and local rail service.

Nîmes bus station is adjacent to the city centre railway station. Buses connect the city with nearby towns and villages not served by rail. https://www.laregion.fr/transports-gard-regulier

Sport

The association football club Nîmes Olympique who has recently achieved promotion to Ligue 1 is based in Nîmes. World Archery Indoor World Cup takes place in Nîmes each year in mid January The local rugby union team is RC Nîmes.

There is a professional volleyball team located here.

Olympic swimming champion Yannick Agnel was born in Nîmes.

The city hosted the opening stages of the 2017 Vuelta a España cycling race.

Mayors

Twin towns – sister cities

Nîmes is twinned with: [28] [29]

See also

Related Research Articles

Deus Nemausus is often said to have been the Celtic patron god of Nemausus (Nîmes). The god does not seem to have been worshipped outside this locality. The city certainly derives its name from Nemausus, which was perhaps the sacred wood in which the Celtic tribe of the Volcae Arecomici held their assemblies, or was perhaps the local Celtic spirit guardian of the spring that originally provided all water for the settlement, as many modern sources suggest. Or perhaps Stephanus of Byzantium was correct in stating in his geographical dictionary that Nemausos, the city of Gaul, took its name from the Heracleid Nemausios.

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Triumphal Arch of Orange UNESCO World Heritage Site commemorating veterans of Romes Gallic Wars

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Gallo-Roman culture

The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, language, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Nîmes, France.

Principal Monuments of France is a series of four paintings created by Hubert Robert in 1786. They depict the ruins of several Roman structures in Provence.

<i>The Ruins of Nîmes, Orange and Saint-Rémy-de-Provence</i> French painting

The Ruins of Nîmes, Orange and Saint-Rémy-de-Provence is a 1789 oil on canvas painting by Hubert Robert, now in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It combines the ruins shown in his Principal Monuments of France series, with the Maison Carrée to the left, the Triumphal Arch of Orange and Nîmes' Temple of Diana to the right and the Pont du Gard, the Triumphal Arch of Glanum and the Glanum Mausoleum in the far background.

The Arecomici or Volcae Arecomici were a Gallic tribe dwelling between the Rhône and the Hérault rivers, around Nemausus, during the Iron Age and the Roman period.

Temple of Augustus and Livia

The Temple of Augustus and Livia is a Roman peripteral sine postico hexastyle Corinthian temple built at the beginning of the 1st century, which was in the center of the ancient city of Vienne, also corresponding to the center of the modern city of Vienne in the French department of Isère and the region Rhône-Alpes.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  2. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  3. Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, INSEE
  4. "Nîmes, the most Roman city outside Italy, just got more Roman". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  5. Frank Sear (1983). Roman Architecture . Cornell University Press. p.  213. ISBN   0-8014-9245-9.
  6. Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 853. ISBN   978-1-136-63951-7.
  7. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  10. Maddison, Angus (2007), Contours of the World Economy 1–2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 41, ISBN   9780191647581
  11. Colin M. Kraay, "The Chronology of the coinage of Colonia Nemausus", Numismatic Chronicle15 (1955), pp. 75–87.
  12. Alain Veyrac, "Le symbolisme de l'as de Nîmes au crocodile" Archéologie et histoire romaine vol. 1 (1998) (on-line text).
  13. Netburn, Deborah (24 February 2016). "Earliest Known Medieval Muslim Graves are Discovered in France". Los Angeles Times.
  14. Newitz, Annalee (24 February 2016). "Medieval Muslim Graves in France Reveal a Previously Unseen History". Ars Technica.
  15. "France's Earliest 'Muslim Burials' Found". BBC News. 25 February 2016.
  16. Gleize, Yves; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves (24 February 2016). "Early Medieval Muslim Graves in France: First Archaeological, Anthropological and Palaeogenomic Evidence". PLOS ONE. 11 (2): e0148583. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148583. PMC   4765927 . PMID   26910855.
  17. Official Website of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, Historique du 2 REI, La Creation (Creation)
  18. "Données climatiques de la station de Nîmes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  19. "Climat Languedoc-Roussillon" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
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  21. "Nîmes (07645) – WMO Weather Station". NOAA . Retrieved 22 July 2019.
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  23. Giving rise to the example of rime richissime Gall, amant de la Reine, alla (tour magnanime)/ Gallament de l'Arène a la Tour Magne, à Nîmes, or "Gall, lover opf the Queen, passed (magnanimous gesture), gallantly from the Arena to the Tour Magne at Nîmes".
  24. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Nîmes, EHESS. (in French)
  25. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  26. "Railway Gazette: Southern LGV projects make progress" . Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  27. https://www.sncf.com/en/passenger-offer/nimes-pont-du-gard-new-station-benefits
  28. "Jumelages". nimes.fr (in French). Nîmes. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  29. "Official Nîmes Signing". fwsistercities.org. Fort Worth. Retrieved 15 November 2019.

Further reading